Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Bourges is a city in central France on the Yèvre river. It is the capital of the department of Cher, was the capital of the former province of Berry; the name of the city derives either from the Bituriges, the name of the original inhabitants, or from the Germanic Burg, for "hill/village". The Celts called it Avaricon. In 52 BC, the sixth year of the Gallic Wars the Gauls were practicing a scorched earth policy to try to deny Caesar's forces supplies, but the inhabitants of Avaricum begged not to have their city burned, it was temporarily spared due to its good defences provided by the surrounding marshes, a river that nearly encircled it, a strong southern wall. Julius Caesar's forces captured and destroyed the city, killing all but 800 of its inhabitants. Rome reconstructed Avaricum as a Roman city, with a monumental gate, thermae and an amphitheatre, reaching a greater size than it would attain during the Middle Ages; the massive walls surrounding the late Roman city, enclosing 40 hectares, were built in part with stone re-used from earlier public buildings.
The third-century AD Saint Ursinus known as Saint Ursin, is considered the first bishop of the city. Bourges is the seat of an archbishopric. During the 8th century Bourges lay on the northern fringes of the Duchy of Aquitaine and was therefore the first town to come under Frankish attacks when the Franks crossed the Loire; the Frankish Charles Martel captured the town in 731, but Duke Odo the Great of Aquitaine re-took it. It remained under the rule of counts who pledged allegiance to the Aquitanian dukes up to the destructive siege by Frankish King Pepin the Short on independent Aquitaine in 762, when Basque troops are found defending the town along with its count. During the Middle Ages, Bourges served as the capital of the Viscounty of Bourges until 1101. In the fourteenth century it became the capital of the Duchy of Berry; the future king of France, Charles VII, sought refuge there in the 1420s during the Hundred Years' War. His son, Louis XI, was born there in 1423. In 1438, Charles VII decreed the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges.
During this period, Bourges was a major capital of alchemy. The Gothic Cathedral of Saint Etienne, begun at the end of the twelfth century, ranks as a World Heritage Site, it is considered as one of the earliest examples of the High Gothic style of the thirteenth century. The city has a long tradition of history. Apart from the cathedral, other sites of importance include the 15th-century Palace of Jacques Cœur and a sixty-five-hectare district of half-timbered houses and fine town-houses. Bourges sits at the river junction; the disused Canal de Berry follows alongside the course of the Auron through Bourges. The climate is oceanic with a regular precipitation. However, its location in the center of France, makes the city has a better experience in the distinctions of the seasons, for example: its cold record is lower than that of Lille in the far north of the country at the same time that its heat record is higher than that of Marseille in the Mediterranean, its summers are quite hot for a marine climate of the west coast, but its winters are still mild to qualify in a continental climate due to the latitude and influence of the Atlantic Ocean and not only of seas like East Germany.
The temperatures can be compared to the valleys of the interior of western Washington like East Renton Highlands, although Val de Loire has less humidity of the air due to the greater distance of the ocean and less precipitation. The wettest month is May on average and April, the driest previous month although precipitation differences are small. July tends to be the hottest month and unlike coastal cities, January is the coldest month, its Gothic cathedral was added to the list of the World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 1992 Jacques Cœur's palace Lallemant's hotel, from the early French Renaissance The Berry museum, located in the Cujas' hotel The Estève museum, located in the so-called aldermen's hotel The marshes of the Yèvre and Voiselle rivers were listed in 2003 as a French Natural Monument or Site The ruins of the Gallo-Roman walls The Conservatoire national du Pélargonium The railway station Gare de Bourges offers direct connections to Paris, Orléans, Tours and several regional destinations.
The A71 motorway connects Bourges with Clermont-Ferrand. Bourges Airport is a small regional airport. Bourges' principal football team are Bourges Football 18, it is home to the women's basketball club CJM Bourges Basket, which has won multiple titles in domestic and European basketball. Bourges XV is the premier rugby team in the region playing in French National Division, Federal 3. University of Bourges École des Beaux Arts Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Ingénieurs ENSI Bourges is twinned with: Augsburg, Germany Aveiro, Portugal Forlì, Italy Koszalin, Poland Palencia, Spain Peterborough, United Kingdom Yoshkar-Ola, Russia The Printemps de Bourges music festival takes place in Bourges every year; every summer, since 2002, « les milles univers » hosts a writing workshop in collaboration with Oulipo. 17th-century composer and singer François Bourgoing was born in Bourges. The merchant Jacques Cœur was born in Bourges; the manuscript illuminator. John Calvin was a student in the University of Bourges.
The legal expert Jacques Cujas lived in Bourges during 1555-1557 and 1575-1590. The Impressionist painter Berthe Morisot was born in Bourges on
The Limbourg brothers were famous Dutch miniature painters from the city of Nijmegen. They were active in the early 15th century in France and Burgundy, working in the style known as International Gothic, they created what is the best-known late medieval illuminated manuscript, the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. Around 1398, after their father's death, the brothers were sent for by their uncle Jean Malouel, the most important painter for the French and Burgundian courts of the time. Herman and Johan learned the craft of goldsmithing in Paris. At the end of 1399 they were travelling to visit Nijmegen but, owing to a war, they were captured in Brussels. Since their mother could not pay the ransom of 55 gold escuz, the local goldsmiths' guild started to collect the money. Philip the Bold paid the ransom for the sake of their uncle Malouel, his painter; the two boys were released in May 1400. From surviving documents it is known that in February 1402 Paul and Johan were contracted by Philip to work for four years on illuminating a bible.
This may or may not have been the Bible Moralisée, indisputably an early work by the Limbourg brothers. Philip II died in 1404. After Philip's death, Herman and Johan in 1405 came to work for his brother John, Duke of Berry, an extravagant collector of arts and books, their first assignment was to illuminate a Book of Hours, now known as the Belles Heures du Duc de Berry. This work was finished in 1409 much to the satisfaction of the duke, he assigned them to an more ambitious project for a book of hours; this became the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, regarded as the peak of late medieval book illumination, the most valuable book in the world. It is kept as Ms. 65 in the Musée Condé in France. Paul was on good terms with the duke, received a court position as valet de chambre, or personal attendant; the duke gave him a large house in Bourges. Paul was attracted to a young girl, Gillette la Mercière; the duke had the girl confined, released her only on the king's command. In 1411 Paul and Gillette married anyway.
In the first half of 1416, Jean de Berry and the three Limbourg brothers – all less than 30 years old – died of the plague, leaving the Très Riches Heures unfinished. An unidentified artist worked on the famous calendar miniatures in the 1440s when the book was in the possession of René d'Anjou, in 1485 Jean Colombe finished the work for the House of Savoy; the work of the Limbourg brothers, being inaccessible, became forgotten until the 19th century. They set an example for the next generations of painters, which extended beyond miniature painting, they display influences from Italian models. Website of the 2005 exhibition in Nijmegen Website of the annual medieval festival dedicated to the Limbourg brothers in Nijmegen Limbourg brothers last Illuminators of the Medieval Art
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Michel Colombe was a French sculptor whose work bridged the late Gothic and Renaissance styles. Born in Bourges into a family of artisans, he was active in Tours. Colombe's surviving works all date from his old age, he created the gisant figures of the two deceased children of Charles VIII of France on their monument in Tours Cathedral. However, his most important surviving works were for the magnificent tomb of Francis II, Duke of Brittany, in Nantes Cathedral, for the mausoleum of Philibert II of Savoy, at Notre-Dame de Brou, his masterwork; the Francis II monument was designed by Jean Perréal. An Entombment at the Abbey of Solesmes is attributed to him. A bas-relief commissioned in 1508 by Georges d'Amboise for the Château de Gaillon is conserved in the Musée du Louvre, his brother Jean Colombe was an important miniature painter and illuminator who worked on the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. His nephew Guillaume Regnault appears to have trained in his atelier. Bazin, Germain; the History of World Sculpture.
N.p.: Lamplight. OCLC 1474245 Le tombeau de François II Jean Colombe Michel Colombe in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website