Université de Montréal
The Université de Montréal is a French-language public research university in Montreal, Canada. The university's main campus is located on the northern slope of Mount Royal in the Outremont and Côte-des-Neiges boroughs; the institution comprises thirteen faculties, more than sixty departments and two affiliated schools: the Polytechnique Montréal and HEC Montréal. It offers more than 650 undergraduate programmes and graduate programmes, including 71 doctoral programmes; the university was founded as a satellite campus of the Université Laval in 1878. It became a independent institution after it was issued a papal charter in 1919, a provincial charter in 1920. Université de Montréal moved from Montreal's Quartier Latin to its present location at Mount Royal in 1942, it was made a secular institution with the passing of another provincial charter in 1967. The school is co-educational, has over 34,335 undergraduate and over 11,925 post-graduate students. Alumni and former students reside across Canada and around the world, with notable alumni serving as government officials and business leaders.
The Université de Montréal was founded in 1878 as a new branch of Université Laval in Quebec City. It was known as the Université de Laval à Montréal; the move went against the wishes of Montréal's prelate, who advocated an independent university in his city. Certain parts of the institution's educational facilities, such as those of the Séminaire de Québec and the Faculty of Medicine, founded as the Montreal School of Medicine and Surgery, had been established in Montréal in 1876 and 1843, respectively; the Vatican granted the university some administrative autonomy in 1889, thus allowing it to choose its own professors and license its own diplomas. However, it was not until 8 May 1919 that a papal charter from Pope Benedict XV granted full autonomy to the university, it thus adopted Université de Montréal as its name. Université de Montréal was granted its first provincial charter on 14 February 1920. At the time of its creation, less than a hundred students were admitted to the university's three faculties, which at that time were located in Old Montreal.
These were the Faculty of Theology, the Faculty of Law, the Faculty of Medicine. Graduate training based on German-inspired American models of specialized coursework and completion of a research thesis was introduced and adopted. Most of Québec's secondary education establishments employed classic course methods of varying quality; this forced the university to open a preparatory school in 1887 to harmonize the education level of its students. Named the "Faculty of Arts", this school would remain in use until 1972 and was the predecessor of Québec's current CEGEP system. Two distinct schools became affiliated to the university; the first was the École Polytechnique, a school of engineering, founded in 1873 and became affiliated in 1887. The second was the École des Hautes Études Commerciales, or HEC, founded in 1907 and became part of the university in 1915. In 1907, Université de Montréal opened the first francophone school of architecture in Canada at the École Polytechnique. Between 1920 and 1925, seven new faculties were added: Philosophy, Sciences, Veterinary Medicine, Dental Surgery and Social Sciences.
Notably, the Faculty of Social Sciences was founded in 1920 by Édouard Montpetit, the first laic to lead a faculty. He thereafter was named secretary-general, a role he fulfilled until 1950. From 1876 to 1895, most classes took place in the Grand séminaire de Montréal. From 1895 to 1942, the school was housed in a building at the intersection of Saint-Denis and Sainte-Catherine streets in Montreal's eastern downtown Quartier Latin. Unlike English-language universities in Montréal, such as McGill University, Université de Montréal suffered a lack of funding for two major reasons: the relative poverty of the French Canadian population and the complications ensuing from its being managed remotely, from Quebec City; the downtown campus was hit by three different fires between 1919 and 1921, further complicating the university's precarious finances and forcing it to spend much of its resources on repairing its own infrastructure. By 1930, enough funds had been accumulated to start the construction of a new campus on the northwest slope of Mount Royal, adopting new plans designed by Ernest Cormier.
However, the financial crisis of the 1930s suspended all ongoing construction. Many speculated that the university would have to sell off its unfinished building projects in order to ensure its own survival. Not until 1939 did the provincial government directly intervene by injecting public funds; the campus's construction subsequently resumed and the mountain campus was inaugurated on 3 June 1943. The Cote-des-Neiges site includes property expropriated from a residential development along Decelles Avenue, known as Northmount Heights; the university's former downtown facilities would serve Montreal's second francophone university, the Université du Québec à Montréal. In 1943, the university assisted the Western Allies by providing laboratory accommodations on its campus. Scientists there worked to develop a nuclear reactor, notably by conducting various heavy water experiments; the research was part of the larger Manhattan Project. Scientists working on the school's campus produced the first atomic batte
Winger (ice hockey)
Winger, in the game of ice hockey, is a forward position of a player whose primary zone of play on the ice is along the outer playing area. They work by flanking the centre forward; the name was given to forward players who went up and down the sides of the rink. Nowadays, there are different types of wingers in the game — out-and-out goal scorers, checkers who disrupt the opponents, forwards who work along the boards and in the corners, they tend to be smaller than defenseman. This position is referred to by the side of the rink that the winger takes, i.e. "left wing" or "right wing." The wingers' responsibilities in the defensive zone include the following: getting open for a pass from their teammates intercepting a pass to the opposing defenceman attacking the opposing defencemen when they have the puckWingers should not: play deep in their defensive zone help out their teammates along the boards Wingers should be playing high in the zone, always be vigilant for a breakout pass or a chance to chip the puck past the blue line.
When wingers receive a pass along the boards, they can exercise a number of options: Bank the puck off the boards or glass to get it out of the zone Redirect or pass the puck to a rushing forward Shoot the puck out to the centre line to another forward who can either set up an attack, or dump the puck into the offensive zone to summon a line change Carry the puck themselves into the offensive zone to attempt a breakaway or an odd man rush Wingers are the last players to backcheck out of the offensive zone. On the backcheck, it is essential. Once the puck is controlled by the opposing team in the defensive zone, wingers are responsible for covering the defenceman on their side of the ice. Prior to the puck being dropped for a face-off, players other than those taking the face-off must not make any physical contact with players on the opposite team, nor enter the face-off circle. After the puck is dropped, it is essential for wingers to engage the opposing players to prevent them from obtaining possession of the puck.
Once a team has established control of the puck, wingers can set themselves up into an appropriate position. Some wingers are employed to handle faceoffs. Rover Centre Defenceman Forward Goaltender Power forward List of NHL players
The Genève-Servette HC is a professional ice hockey club based in Geneva and competing in the National League, the top tier of the Swiss hockey league system. The team plays their home games at the Patinoire des Vernets, which has a seating capacity of 7,135. During the 2015–16 regular season, the GSHC was the fourth most attended team in Switzerland, averaging 6,556 spectators. 1905: Foundation of Servette FC's ice hockey section. 1954: The club plays on artificial ice for the first time, in the "Pavillon des Sports". Until Servette had to host its opponents in Lausanne or au Pont; the first match on the new artificial ice sees Servette play Urania Genève Sport. 1956: First promotion in Swiss National League B. 1958: Inauguration of the new ice rink called "Les Vernets". 1959: Servette wins the "Swiss Cup" after beating Neuchâtel-Sports Young Sprinters HC 7–3 in the final, in front of 11,820 fans, it is a crowd record for a hockey game in Les Vernets. 1963: Creation of Genève-Servette HC after the fusion of the ice hockey sections of Servette & UGS. 1964: Genève-Servette is champion of the Swiss National League B, after beating the EHC Biel in the final, is promoted to the top league in Switzerland, the National League A. 1975: Relegated to the Swiss National League B. 1980: Relegated to 1.
Liga. 1995: Promoted to National League B again, after a victory over Luzern. 2001: Promoted to National League A, after a successful series over Chur in the final. 2008: On March 24, the GSHC reaches the Swiss National League A final for the first time in its history, after a clear win over HC Fribourg-Gottéron in the semi-finals. 2010: After a good season, the GSHC defeated HC Fribourg-Gottéron in quarter-finals after being led 3–1 and EV Zug in semi-finals. Against SC Bern in Finals, the GSHC came back from 3–1 to 3–3 before losing the seventh game in Bern. 2011: Were third-most attended team in Switzerland for the 2010–11 season with 6,971 spectators per game. 2013: Winner of the Spengler Cup. 2014: Second consecutive Spengler Cup win. 2017: Fell to EHC Kloten in the Swiss Cup final. The Patinoire des Vernets was built in 1959 and is located in the Geneva neighborhood of the same name, it serves as the main arena for the GSHC. It was renovated in 2009 in order to increase the spectator capacity from 6400 to 7140.
On January 24, 2012, local authorities and the club reached an agreement to build a new arena, in another part of town, with a seating capacity of 10,000. In 2012, it was scheduled to open by 2015, or 2016; as of 2019, construction has yet to start. The official mascots of Genève-Servette are Calvin and Calvina, two anthropomorphic eagles that first appeared at the beginning of the 2006-2007 season, they are Switzerland's only mascot duet. Their names are derived from famous theologian of the Protestant reformation in Geneva. In addition, Sherkan, a bald eagle, opens every home game by flying throughout the arena, reaching for his master standing in the center of ice. Sherkan is popular amongst fans and players alike. Sherkan is Europe’s first living animal to partake in an ice-hockey game opening ceremony. Sherkan first appeared during the NLB playoffs of 2001 and has been present to every home game since, only missing two. Chris McSorley served as head coach and general manager between 2001 and 2017 and was co-owner until 2014, alongside Hugh Quennec.
Chris McSorley is the brother of Marty McSorley, two times winner of the Stanley Cup with the Edmonton Oilers. On March 22, 2017, Chris McSorley stepped down as head coach to focus on his job as general manager. A position he assumed for the entire 2017–18 season. At the end of this season, it was announced that McSorley would return as head coach of Geneva for the 2018/19 season, while keeping his position as general manager. McSorley had signed a 15-year contract with the team in September 2016 worth CHF 10 million, while the club was still under Quennec ownership; the contract runs through the 2030/31 season. On June 26, 2017, it was announced that Craig Woodcroft would replace McSorley at the helm of the team for the next three seasons. At the end of the 2017/18 season, Woodcroft was relieved of his duties as head coach after only one season. Geneva will still pay him the remaining CHF 2 million on his contract. Louis Matte and Jason O'Leary are the assistant coaches and Sebastien Beaulieu is the official goalie coach.
SL Championship: 2001 Swiss Cup: 1959, 1972 Spengler Cup: 2013, 2014 NL Championship: 2008, 2010 NDA Championship: 1917, 1920, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1971 Swiss Cup: 2017 Updated January 13, 2019. Richard Park Logan Couture Nick Spaling Yannick Weber Tom Pyatt Reto Pavoni Philippe Bozon Oleg Petrov Igor Fedulov Official site of Genève-Servette Hockey Club Site officiel du Genève-Servette Hockey Club Official Fan-club webpage Fan-page
Ice Hockey World Championships
The Ice Hockey World Championships are an annual international men's ice hockey tournament organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation. First held at the 1920 Summer Olympics, it is the sport's highest profile annual international tournament; the IIHF was created in 1908 while the European Championships, the precursor to the World Championships, were first held in 1910. The tournament held at the 1920 Summer Olympics is recognized as the first Ice Hockey World Championship. Between 1920 and 1968, the Olympic hockey tournament was considered the World Championship for that year; the first World Championship, held as an individual event was in 1930 in which twelve nations participated. In 1931, ten teams played a series of round-robin format qualifying rounds to determine which nations participated in the medal round. Medals were awarded based on the final standings of the teams in the medal round. In 1951, thirteen nations were split into two groups; the top seven teams played for the World Championship.
The other six played for ranking purposes. This basic format would be used until 1992. During a congress in 1990, the IIHF introduced a playoff system; as the IIHF grew, more teams began to participate at the World Championships, so more pools were introduced. The modern format for the World Championship features 16 teams in the championship group, 12 teams in Division I and 12 teams in Division II. If there are more than 40 teams, the rest compete in Division III; the teams in the championship play a preliminary round the top eight teams play in the playoff medal round and the winning team is crowned World Champion. Over the years, the tournament has gone through several rule changes. In 1969 body-checking in all three zones in a rink was allowed and goaltender masks became mandatory in the early 1970s and in 1992 the IIHF began using the shootout; the current IIHF rules differ from the rules used in the NHL. From the 1920 Olympics until the 1976 World Championships, only athletes designated as "amateur" were allowed to compete in the tournament.
Because of this, players from the National Hockey League and its senior minor-league teams were not allowed to compete, while the Soviet Union was allowed to use permanent full-time players who were positioned as regular workers of an aircraft industry or tractor industry employer that sponsored what would be presented as an after-hours amateur social sports society team for their workers. In 1970, after an agreement to allow just a small number of its professionals to participate was rescinded by the IIHF, Canada withdrew from the tournament. Starting in 1977, professional athletes were allowed to compete in the tournament and Canada re-entered; the IIHF requires that players are citizens of the country they represent and allow players to switch national teams provided that they play in their new nation for a certain period of time. Canada was the tournament's first dominant team, winning the tournament 12 times between 1930 and 1952; the United States, Sweden, Great Britain and Switzerland were competitive during this period.
The Soviet Union first soon became rivals with Canada. From 1963 until the nation's breakup in 1991, the Soviet Union was the dominant team, winning 20 championships. During that period, only three other nations won medals: Canada and Sweden. Russia first participated in 1992 and the Czech Republic and Slovakia began competing in 1993. In the 2000s, the competition became more open as the "Big Six" teams – Canada, the Czech Republic, Russia and the United States – as well as Slovakia and Switzerland have become more evenly matched; as this tournament takes place during the same period as the stages of the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs, many of that league's top players are not available to participate for their national teams or have only become available after their NHL teams have been eliminated, after playing 90+ games. North American teams, the United States, have been criticized for not taking this tournament seriously. For example, USA Hockey sent teams made up of younger NHL players alongside college players, not using top level stars when they are available.
The 2015 World Championship, held in Prague and Ostrava, Czech Republic, was the most successful to date in terms of overall attendance. The International Ice Hockey Federation, the sport's governing body, was created on 15 May 1908 under the name Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace. In 1908, organized ice hockey was still new. In 1887, four clubs from Montreal formed the Amateur Hockey Association of Canada and developed a structured schedule. Lord Stanley donated the Stanley Cup and the trustees decided to award it to either the best team in the AHAC, or to any pre-approved team that won it in a challenge; the Eastern Canada Amateur Hockey Association was formed in 1905, which mixed paid and amateur players in its rosters. The ECAHA folded and as a result of the dissolution, the National Hockey Association formed; the Ice Hockey European Championships, first held in Les Avants, Switzerland in January 1910, were the precursor to the World Championships. It was the first official tournament meant for national teams, the participating nations were Great Britain, Germany and Switzerland.
In North America, professional hockey was continuing to grow, the National Hockey League, the largest professional hockey league in the world, was formed in 1917. T
OHA Senior A League (1890–1979)
The Ontario Hockey Association Senior A League was a top tier Canadian Senior ice hockey league in Ontario from 1890 until 1979. The league was sanctioned by the Ontario Hockey Association and the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association and its clubs competed for the Allan Cup; the league was founded in 1890 by the Ontario Hockey Association. At the top tier of Canadian Senior hockey, the league was eligible and competed for the Allan Cup. In 1975, the OHA allowed Hockey Northwestern Ontario's Thunder Bay Twins, the defending Allan Cup champions to enter the league. In 1978, the league changed its name to the Canadian International League to compete with Semi-Pro leagues which were gaining popularity; the league folded in 1979, when most of its teams vacated to the Continental Senior A Hockey League and Major Intermediate A Hockey League. Over the course of the last fifty seasons, the OHA Senior A Hockey League captured 16 Allan Cups in 26 appearances in the National final. If dated back to the beginning of the Allan Cup in 1908, the OHA had 24 champions in 38 appearances over the course of the league's history.
The league's tradition was followed by the Continental Senior A Hockey League in 1979, which became the OHA Senior A Hockey League in 1980 and lasted until 1987. The torch was passed to the Southwestern Senior A Hockey League in 1990, which today is known as Major League Hockey; the OHA Senior A Hockey League set the groundwork for much of the current Semi-Professional hockey market. The famous International Hockey League that lasted from 1945 until it merged with the American Hockey League in 2001, was founded in part by both the Windsor Bulldogs and Chatham Maroons. Both teams played at least two different stretches in the league; the Sarnia Sailors spent a few seasons in the International Hockey League. As well, the Thunder Bay Twins jumped between Manitoba leagues and the different Ontario Hockey Association leagues until 1991 when the team changed their name to the Thunder Bay Thunder Hawks and joined the Colonial Hockey League as a founding member; the team has since became the Rockford IceHogs of the United Hockey League.
The Thunder Bay franchise won 3 Colonial Cups as CoHL champions and in Rockton they won 1 Colonial Cup as United Hockey League champions. In 2007, the UHL has changed its name and the ownership of the Rockford IceHogs has bought the old Cincinnati Mighty Ducks franchise, making the IceHogs a member of the American Hockey League for the 2007-08 season. Champions 1910: St. Michael's Majors defeated Queen's University and Sherbrooke in two games 1917: Toronto Dentals defeated Winnipeg Victorias 13-goals-to-12 1918: Kitchener Greenshirts defeated Winnipeg Ypres 6-goals-to-4 1919: Hamilton Tigers defeated Winnipeg Selkirk 7-goals-to-6 1921: University of Toronto defeated Brandon 8-goals-to-3 1922: Toronto Granites defeated Regina Victorias 13-goals-to-2 1923: Toronto Granites defeated University of Saskatchewan 11-goals-to-2 1927: University of Toronto defeated Fort William Thundering Herd 2-games-to-1 with 1 tie 1932: Toronto National Sea Fleas defeated Fort William Blues 2-games-to-none 1950: Toronto Marlboros defeated Calgary Stampeders 4-games-to-1 1951: Owen Sound Mercurys defeated Fort Frances Canadians 4-games-to-3 1953: Kitchener-Waterloo Dutchmen defeated Penticton Vees 4-games-to-1 1955: Kitchener-Waterloo Dutchmen defeated Fort William Beavers 4-games-to-1 1957: Whitby Dunlops defeated Spokane Flyers 4-games-to-none 1958: Belleville McFarlands defeated Kelowna Packers 4-games-to-3 1959: Whitby Dunlops defeated Vernon Canadians 4-games-to-1 1960: Chatham Maroons defeated Trail Smoke Eaters 4-games-to-none with 1 tie 1961: Galt Terriers defeated Winnipeg Maroons 4-games-to-1 1963: Windsor Bulldogs defeated Winnipeg Maroons 4-games-to-1 1969: Galt Hornets defeated Calgary Stampeders 4-games-to-none 1971: Galt Hornets defeated Calgary Stampeders 4-games-to-none 1973: Orillia Terriers defeated St. Boniface Mohawks 4-games-to-1 1974: Barrie Flyers defeated Cranbrook Royals 4-games-to-2 1977: Brantford Alexanders defeated Spokane Flyers 4-games-to-1Finalists 1912: Winnipeg Victorias defeated Toronto Eatons 2-games-to-none 1920: Winnipeg Falcons defeated Toronto Granites 11-goals-to-5 1925: Port Arthur Bearcats defeated University of Toronto 2-games-to-none 1926: Port Arthur Bearcats defeated University of Toronto 2-games-to-1 with 1 tie 1931: Winnipeg'pegs defeated Hamilton Tigers 2-games-to-none 1946: Calgary Stampeders defeated Hamilton Tigers 4-games-to-1 1952: Fort Frances Canadians defeated Stratford Indians 4-games-to-2 1956: Vernon Canadians defeated Chatham Maroons 4-games-to-1 1964: Winnipeg Maroons defeated Woodstock Athletics 4-games-to-none 1970: Spokane Jets defeated Orillia Terriers 4-games-to-2 1972: Spokane Jets defeated Barrie Flyers 4-games-to-2 1975: Thunder Bay Twins defeated Barrie Flyers 4-games-to-2 1976: Spokane Flyers defeated Barrie Flyers 4-games-to-none 1978: Kimberley Dynamiters defeated Brantford Alexanders 4-games-to-1 The winner of the Allan Cup was named the top "amateur" team in Canada, this made them eligible to compete in the Olympic Winter Games.
The list below includes all Ontario Hockey Association representatives from 1924 until 1960. 1924: Toronto Granites Won Gold 1928: University of Toronto Won Gold 1956: Kitchener-Waterloo Dutchmen Won Bronze 1960: Kitchener-Waterloo Dutchmen Won Silver The winner of the Allan Cup was named the top "amateur" team in Canada, this made them eligible to compete in the Ice Hockey World Championships. The list below includes all Ontario Hockey Association representatives from 1930 until 1962. 1933: Toronto National Sea Fleas Won Silver 1958: Whitby Dunlops Won Gold 1959: Belleville McFarlands Won Gold 1962: Galt Terriers Won Silver Teams listed ONLY in last decade pl
California Golden Seals
The California Golden Seals were a professional ice hockey club that competed in the National Hockey League from 1967 to 1976. Named California Seals, the team was renamed Oakland Seals partway through the 1967–68 season, to California Golden Seals in 1970, after two games as the Bay Area Seals; the Seals were one of six teams added to the league as part of the 1967 NHL expansion. Based in Oakland, they played their home games at the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum Arena; the Seals were never successful at the gate, moved to Cleveland to become the Cleveland Barons in 1976. In 1966, the NHL announced that six expansion teams would be added as a new division for the 1967–68 season because of a general desire to expand the league to new markets, but to squelch the Western Hockey League's threat to turn into a major league; the San Francisco Seals were one such team from the WHL. The NHL awarded an expansion team to Barry Van Gerbig for the San Francisco Bay area. Van Gerbig decided to purchase the WHL club with the intent of bringing them into the NHL as an expansion team the following season.
Van Gerbig had planned to have the team play in a new arena in San Francisco, but the new arena was never built. He decided to move the team across the Bay from the Cow Palace in Daly City to Oakland to play in the new Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum Arena, he renamed the club the California Seals. This was done in an attempt to appeal to fans from San Francisco, to address complaints from the other NHL teams that Oakland was not considered a major league city and would not be a draw for fans. A year Van Gerbig, brought the Seals into the NHL as an expansion team and retained a portion of the club's WHL roster such as Charlie Burns, George Swarbrick, Gerry Odrowski, Tom Thurlby, Ron Harris. While the Bay Area was not considered a lucrative hockey market, the terms of a new television agreement with CBS called for two of the expansion teams to be located in California. While the WHL Seals had drawn well at the Cow Palace, the team drew poorly in Oakland once they entered the NHL; the plan to bring fans in from San Francisco failed, on November 6, 1967, Van Gerbig announced that the team's name would be changed to the Oakland Seals to focus more on the East Bay.
The Seals were never successful at the gate after the name change, because of this poor attendance Van Gerbig threatened on numerous occasions to move the team elsewhere. First-year coach and general manager Bert Olmstead publicly advocated a move to Vancouver, but an offer from Labatt's brewery to purchase and relocate the team was rejected by the league, as was a proposal to move the team to Buffalo from the Knox brothers, shut out of the 1967 expansion; as it turned out, the league's 1970 expansion would include Buffalo. The Knoxes bought a minority share of the Seals in 1969, only to sell it a year to fund the Sabres. This, as well as the team's mediocre on-ice performance, led to major changes to both the Seals' front office and the roster – only seven of the 20 Seals players remained after the first season; the new-look Seals were somewhat more successful, making the playoffs for two years, although with sub-.500 records. Those were the only two years; the league's rejection of a proposed move to Vancouver prompted a lawsuit, not settled until 1974.
The Seals organization filed suit against the NHL claiming that the prohibition violated the Sherman Act. The Seals asserted that the league's constitution was in violation by prohibiting clubs from relocating their operations, that the relocation request was denied in an attempt to keep the San Francisco market in the NHL and thereby discourage the formation of a rival team or league in that location; the court ruled that the NHL was a single entity, that the teams were not competitors in an economic sense, so the league restrictions on relocation were not a restraint of trade. For the 1969–70 season the team was sold to Trans National Communications, whose investors included Pat Summerall and Whitey Ford. However, the group filed for bankruptcy after missing a payment and relinquished the team to Van Gerbig, who put the team back on the market. Prior to the 1970–71 season, Charles O. Finley, the flamboyant owner of baseball's Oakland Athletics, purchased the Seals. Finley and Roller Derby boss Jerry Seltzer had both put in a bid on the team.
Although Seltzer's offer was better and included a more detailed plan for revival, a majority of NHL owners from the "old establishment" voted in favor of Finley. General manager Bill Torrey left by mid-season due to clashes with Finley. Finley renamed the team the Bay Area Seals to begin the 1970–71 season, but after just two games into the season on October 16, 1970, he changed the team name to the California Golden Seals, following a number of other marketing gimmicks intended to sell the team to the fans, among them changing the Seals' colors to green and gold to match those of the popular A's; the team's uniform crest was now the word "Seals" in a unique typeface, but an alternate logo using a sketch based on a photo of star player Carol Vadnais was used on marketing materials such as pennants and team programs. The original 1967 California Seals logo recolored in green and gold was seen on trading cards and other unofficial material, but was never adopted by the team; the Seals are remembered for wearing white skates, but Torrey convinced Finley to use green and gold painted skates instead, as team colored skates were a trend of the period.
However, this was all for naught, as the Seals
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams consisting of six players each: one goaltender, five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Ice hockey is most popular in Canada and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world; the Kontinental Hockey League is much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking.
Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, some other European countries the sport is known as hockey. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere; these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875; some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, professional ice hockey originated around 1900; the Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since 1953; the World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries.
The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series. In England, field hockey has been called "hockey" and what was referenced by first appearances in print; the first known mention spelled as "hockey" occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves". A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage; the belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam". The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. "... The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck." Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age, it was played with a wooden curved bat, a wooden or leather ball and two poles, with t