Saumur is a commune in the Maine-et-Loire department in western France. The historic town is located between the Loire and Thouet rivers, is surrounded by the vineyards of Saumur itself, Bourgueil, Coteaux du Layon, etc. which produce some of France's finest wines. Early settlement of the region goes back many thousands of years; the Dolmen de Bagneux on the south of the town, is 23 meters long and is built from 15 large slabs of the local stone, weighing over 500 tons. It is the largest in France; the Château de Saumur was constructed in the 10th century to protect the Loire river crossing from Norman attacks after the settlement of Saumur was sacked in 845. The castle, destroyed in 1067 and inherited by the House of Plantagenet, was rebuilt by Henry II of England in the 12th century, it changed hands several times between Anjou and France until 1589. Houses in Saumur are constructed exclusively of the Tuffeau stone; the caves dug to excavate the stone have become tunnels and have been used by the local vineyards as locations to store their wines.
Amyraldism, or the School of Saumur, is the name used to denote a distinctive form of Reformed theology taught by Moses Amyraut at the University of Saumur in the 17th century. Saumur is the scene for Balzac's novel Eugénie Grandet, written by the French author in 1833. Prior to the French Revolution Saumur was the capital of the Sénéchaussée de Saumur, a bailiwick, which existed until 1793. Saumur was the location of the Battle of Saumur during the Revolt in the Vendée, becoming a state prison under Napoleon Bonaparte; the town was an equestrian centre with both the military cavalry school from 1783 and the Cadre Noir based there. During the Battle of France, in World War II, Saumur was the site of the Battle of Saumur where the town and south bank of the Loire was defended by the teenage cadets of the cavalry school, to their great credit and for the Honour of France. In 1944 it was the target of Azon bombing raids by Allied planes; the first raid, on 8/9 June 1944, was against a railway tunnel near Saumur, seeing the first use of the 12,000 lb Tallboy "earthquake" bombs.
The hastily organized night raid was to stop a planned German Panzer Division, travelling to engage the newly landed allied forces in Normandy. The panzers were expected to use the railway to cross the Loire. No. 83 Squadron RAF illuminated the area with flares by four Avro Lancasters and marked the target at low level by three de Havilland Mosquitos. 25 Lancasters of No. 617 Squadron RAF, the "Dambusters" dropped their Tallboys from 18,000 ft with great accuracy. They hit the approaches to the bridge, blocked the railway cutting and one pierced the roof of the tunnel, bringing down a huge quantity of rock and soil which blocked the tunnel, badly delaying the German reinforcements moving towards Normandy 2nd SS Panzer Division Das Reich; the damaged tunnel was dug out to make a deeper cutting, resulting in the need for a second attack. On 22 June, nine Consolidated B-24 Liberators of the United States Army Air Forces used the new Azon 1,000 lb glide bombs against the Saumur rail bridge, they failed to destroy the bridge.
During the morning of 24 June, 38 American Boeing B-17 Flying Fortresses with conventional bombs attacked the bridge. The bridge was damaged; the town of Saumur was awarded the Croix de Guerre with palm for its resistance and display of French patriotism during the war. Saumur is home to the Cadre Noir, the École Nationale d'Équitation, known for its annual horse shows, as well as the Armoured Branch and Cavalry Training School, the officer school for armored forces. There is the national tank museum, the Musée des Blindés, with more than 850 armored vehicles, wheeled or tracked. Most of them are from France, though some come from other countries such as Brazil and the Soviet Union, as well as axis and allied vehicles of World War Two; the annual military Carrousel takes place in July each year, as it has done for over 160 years, with displays of horse cavalry skills and modern military vehicles. Amongst the most important monuments of Saumur are the great Château de Saumur itself which stands high above the town, the nearby Château de Beaulieu which stands just 200 metres from the south bank of the Loire river and, designed by the architect Jean Drapeau.
A giant sequoia tree stands in the grounds of Château de Beaulieu. The Dolmen de Bagneux is on the old road going south; the architectural character of the town owes much to the fact that it is constructed exclusively of the beautiful, but fragile, Tuffeau stone. The wine industry surrounds Saumur, many utilising the tunnels as cellars with the hundreds of domaines producing white, rosé and sparkling wines. Visits to producers and the annual Grandes Tablées du Saumur-Champigny is a popular annual event held in early August with over 1 km of tables set up in Saumur so people can sample the local foods and wine. Saumur has a famous weekly market; every Saturday morning with hundreds of stalls open for business in the streets and squares of the old town, from before 8am. Its skyline has been compared with that of the capital of Slovakia. Saumur was the birthplace of: Anne Le Fèvre Dacier and translator of classics Jeanne Delanoue, made a Roman Catholic Saint in 1982 François Bontemps, General of the French Revolutionary Wars.
Charles Ernest Beulé, archeologist Coco Chanel, fashion designer Yves Robert, composer, writer, producer Jack le Goff, equestrian Fanny Ardant, actr
James Aitken Wylie
Rev Dr James Aitken Wylie LLD was a Scottish historian of religion and Presbyterian minister. He is most famous for writing The History of Protestantism. Wylie was born on 9 August 1808 in Kirriemuir, where his father, Rev James Aitken, was an Auld Licht Anti-burgher minister in the Secession Church. Wylie was educated at Marischal College, University of Aberdeen, where he studied for three years before transferring to St Andrews University to study under Rev Dr Thomas Chalmers, he followed his father's example, entering the Original Secession Divinity Hall, Edinburgh in 1827. He was ordained at the Secessionist Church in Dollar, Clackmannanshire in 1831. In 1846 he left the church to become sub-editor of the Edinburgh religious newspaper the Witness, under Hugh Miller. In 1852, after joining the Free Church of Scotland, Wylie edited their Free Church Record, a role which he continued until 1860, he published his book The Papacy: its History, Dogmas and Prospects in 1851, winning a prize of a hundred guineas from the Evangelical Alliance.
The Protestant Institute appointed him Lecturer on Popery in 1860. He continued in this role until his death in 1890, publishing in 1888 his work The Papacy is the Antichrist, he died with his History of the Scottish Nation taken forward to 1286. Aberdeen University awarded him an honorary doctorate in 1856. Wylie's classic work, The History of Protestantism, went out of print in the 1920s, although it was reprinted in Northern Ireland in a two-volume reproduction in the late 20th century, it has received praise including Ian Paisley. The History of Protestantism was reprinted by Hartland Publications, Virginia, USA in 2002 in four-volumes. ISBN 0-923309-80-2, it has now been re-published, as a 4-volume hardback set, by Reformation Heritage Books. He died at 12 Archibald Place (next to the old Edinburgh Royal Infirmary on 1 May 1890, he is buried with his wife, Euphemia Gray and their children, in East Preston Street Burial Ground in Edinburgh. The grave lies in the eastern part of the south-east section.
The Seventh Vial, online ebook History of the Waldenses, ISBN 1-57258-185-9, online ebook Rome and civil liberty: or, The papal aggression in its relation to the sovereignty of the Queen and the independence of the nation, online ebook The Awakening of Italy and the Crisis of Rome. Religious Tract Society: London, Octavo. A Popish University for Ireland; the Irish Chief Secretary and the working classes.. Pp. 8. 22 cm. Character-its paramount influence on the happiness of individuals, the destinies of society. In: Course. A Course of Lectures to young men... delivered in Glasgow... Second Series. Lect. 4. 1842. 12º. The Papacy: Its History, Dogmas and Prospects —, awarded a prize by the Evangelical Alliance in 1851; the rise and insidious workings of Jesuitism, online ebook The History of Protestantism. 3 vol. Cassell & Co.: London, 1899. Physical description: 8º. Shelfmark at British Library: 4650.g.2. Online ebook The History of Protestantism. 3 vol Inheritance Publications, Neerlandia AB Canada / Pella IA USA newly typeset Hard Cover edition http://www.inhpubl.net/ip/refo500.htm The History Of The Scottish Nation in 3 volumes online pdf The Papacy is the Antichrist - A Demonstration online pdf Works by James Aitken Wylie at Project Gutenberg Works by or about James Aitken Wylie at Internet Archive James A. Wylie: bio and books Additional titles are listed at the British Library catalogue at http://catalogue.bl.uk
Henry Martyn Baird
Henry Martyn Baird was an American historian and educator. He is best known as a historian of the Huguenots. A son of Robert Baird, the Presbyterian preacher and author who worked both in the United States and in Europe for the cause of temperance, Henry Martyn Baird was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on January 17, 1832; the younger Baird spent eight years of his early youth with his father in Paris and Geneva, in 1850 graduated from New York University. He lived for two years in Italy and Greece, was a student in the Union Theological Seminary in New York City from 1853 to 1855 and, in 1856, graduated from the Princeton Theological Seminary. Employed for four years as a tutor at the College of New Jersey, Henry Martyn Baird was employed as a professor of Greek language and literature at New York University from 1859 until his death. Henry Martyn Baird's research and writing regarding the Huguenots appeared in three parts, entitled History of the Rise of the Huguenots of France, The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre, The Huguenots and the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, was described by the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica as being "characterized by painstaking thoroughness, by a judicial temper, by scholarship of a high order".
He published Modern Greece, A Narrative of a Residence and Travels in that Country. D.. Baird died in New York City in November 1906. Works by Henry Martyn Baird at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Henry Martyn Baird at Internet Archive Works by Henry Martyn Baird at LibriVox
The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church were ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers. There is no definitive list; the era of these scholars who set the theological and scholarly foundations of Christianity ended by AD 700. In the past, the Church Fathers were regarded as authoritative and more restrictive definitions were used which sought to limit the list to authors treated as such. However, the definition has widened as scholars of patristics, the study of the Church Fathers, have expanded their scope. In both the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church traditions there are four Fathers who are called the "Great Church Fathers": In the Catholic Church, they are collectively called the "Eight Doctors of the Church", in the Eastern Orthodox Church, three of them are honored as the "Three Holy Hierarchs"; the Apostolic Fathers were Christian theologians who lived in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, who are believed to have known some of the Twelve Apostles, or to have been influenced by them.
Their writings, though popular in Early Christianity, were not included in the canon of the New Testament once it reached its final form. Many of the writings derive from the same time period and geographical location as other works of early Christian literature that did come to be part of the New Testament, some of the writings found among the Apostolic Fathers' seem to have been just as regarded as some of the writings that became the New Testament, his epistle, 1 Clement, was copied and read in the Early Church. Clement calls on the Christians of Corinth to maintain order, it is the earliest Christian epistle aside from the New Testament. Ignatius of Antioch was a student of the Apostle John. En route to his martyrdom in Rome, Ignatius wrote a series of letters. Important topics addressed in these letters include ecclesiology, the sacraments, the role of bishops, the Incarnation of Christ, he is the second after Clement to mention Paul's epistles. Polycarp of Smyrna was a Christian bishop of Smyrna.
It is recorded that he had been a disciple of "John." The options/possibilities for this John are John, the son of Zebedee, traditionally viewed as the author of the Gospel of John, or John the Presbyter. Traditional advocates follow Eusebius of Caesarea in insisting that the apostolic connection of Polycarp was with John the Evangelist, that he was the author of the Gospel of John, thus the Apostle John. Polycarp tried and failed to persuade Pope Anicetus to have the West celebrate Passover on the 14th of Nisan, as in the Eastern calendar. Around A. D. 155, the Smyrnans of his town demanded Polycarp's execution as a Christian, he died a martyr. The story of his martyrdom describes how the fire built around him would not burn him, that when he was stabbed to death, so much blood issued from his body that it quenched the flames around him. Polycarp is recognized as a saint in both the Roman Eastern Orthodox churches. Little is known of Papias apart from what can be inferred from his own writings.
He is described as "an ancient man, a hearer of John and a companion of Polycarp" by Polycarp's disciple Irenaeus. Eusebius adds. In this office Papias was succeeded by Abercius of Hierapolis; the name Papias was common in the region, suggesting that he was a native of the area. The work of Papias is dated by most modern scholars to about A. D. 95–120. Despite indications that the work of Papias was still extant in the Late Middle Ages, the full text is now lost. Extracts, appear in a number of other writings, some of which cite a book number; those who wrote in Greek are called the Greek Fathers. In addition to the Apostolic Fathers, famous Greek Fathers include: Justin Martyr, Irenaeus of Lyons, Clement of Alexandria, Athanasius of Alexandria, John Chrysostom, Cyril of Alexandria, the Cappadocian Fathers, Peter of Sebaste, Maximus the Confessor, John of Damascus. Justin Martyr was an early Christian apologist, is regarded as the foremost interpreter of the theory of the Logos in the 2nd century.
He was martyred, alongside some of his students, is considered a saint by the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches. Irenaeus was bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, now Lyon, France, his writings were formative in the early development of Christian theology, he is recognized as a saint by both the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church. He was a notable early Christian apologist, he was a disciple of Polycarp. His best-known book, Against Heresies attacked them. Irenaeus wrote that the only way for Christians to retain unity was to humbly accept one doctrinal authority—episcopal councils. Irenaeus proposed that the Gospels of Matthew, Mark and John all be accepted as canonical. Clement of Alexandria was the first member of the church of Alexandria to be more than a name, one of its most distinguished teachers, he united Greek philosophical traditions with Christian doctrine and valued gnosis that with communion for all people could be held by common Christians.
He developed a Christian Platonism. Like Origen, he arose from Catechetical School of Alexandria and was well versed in pagan literature. Origen, or Origen Adamantius was a theologian. A
Charenton-le-Pont is a commune in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 6.2 km from the centre of Paris. It is one of the most densely populated municipalities in Europe; the Charenton Psychiatric Hospital is located in the neighbouring commune Charenton-Saint-Maurice, which changed its name in 1842 to Saint Maurice. A Bronze Age hoard of weapons was found in the river Seine at Charenton in the late nineteenth century. Comprising swords, spear heads and other miscellaneous objects, it is now in the British Museum. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighbouring communes. On that occasion, half of the commune of Bercy was annexed to the city of the Paris, the remaining half was annexed to Charenton-le-Pont. In 1929, the commune of Charenton-le-Pont lost about a third of its territory when the city of Paris annexed the Bois de Vincennes, a small part of which belonged to Charenton-le-Pont. Charenton-le-Pont is served by two stations on Paris Métro Line 8: Charenton -- Écoles.
As of 2015 the commune has 14 private schools. Public preschools: 4 vents, Champ des Alouettes, Port au Lions, Valmy Public elementary schools: Briand A, Briand B, Desnos and Valmy Collège la Cerisaie Lycée Robert Schuman Notre dame des Missions Charenton-le-Pont is twinned with: Trowbridge, United Kingdom Essilor, headquarters Natixis, the bank has three sites with around 5,000 people Crédit Foncier de France, headquarters at 4 quai de Bercy Porto Cruz and distribution platform Communes of the Val-de-Marne department INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association "Charenton-le-Pont". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5. 1911. Charenton-le-Pont city council website Historical notes
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated on a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by over 400 bridges; the islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave rivers. In 2018, 260,897 people resided in the Comune di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historical city of Venice. Together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area, considered a statistical metropolitan area, with a total population of 2.6 million. The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BC; the city was the capital of the Republic of Venice. The 697–1797 Republic of Venice was a major financial and maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as an important center of commerce and art in the 13th century up to the end of the 17th century.
The city-state of Venice is considered to have been the first real international financial center, emerging in the 9th century and reaching its greatest prominence in the 14th century. This made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. After the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire, until it became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1866, following a referendum held as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence. Venice has been known as "La Dominante", "La Serenissima", "Queen of the Adriatic", "City of Water", "City of Masks", "City of Bridges", "The Floating City", "City of Canals"; the lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, artwork. Venice is known for several important artistic movements—especially during the Renaissance period—has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi.
Although the city is facing some major challenges, Venice remains a popular tourist destination, an iconic Italian city, has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world. The name of the city, deriving from Latin forms Venetia and Venetiae, is most taken from "Venetia et Histria", the Roman name of Regio X of Roman Italy, but applied to the coastal part of the region that remained under Roman Empire outside of Gothic and Frankish control; the name Venetia, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, called by the Greeks Enetoi. The meaning of the word is uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti and the Slavic Vistula Veneti. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root *wen, so that *wenetoi would mean "beloved", "lovable", or "friendly". A connection with the Latin word venetus, meaning the color'sea-blue', is possible. Supposed connections of Venetia with the Latin verb venire, such as Marin Sanudo's veni etiam, the supposed cry of the first refugees to the Venetian lagoon from the mainland, or with venia are fanciful.
The alternative obsolete form is Vinegia. Although no surviving historical records deal directly with the founding of Venice and the available evidence have led several historians to agree that the original population of Venice consisted of refugees—from nearby Roman cities such as Padua, Treviso and Concordia, as well as from the undefended countryside—who were fleeing successive waves of Germanic and Hun invasions; this is further supported by the documentation on the so-called "apostolic families", the twelve founding families of Venice who elected the first doge, who in most cases trace their lineage back to Roman families. Some late Roman sources reveal the existence of fishermen, on the islands in the original marshy lagoons, who were referred to as incolae lacunae; the traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of Rialto —said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March 421. Beginning as early as AD 166–168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the main Roman town in the area, present-day Oderzo.
This part of Roman Italy was again overrun in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years by the Huns led by Attila. The last and most enduring immigration into the north of the Italian peninsula, that of the Lombards in 568, left the Eastern Roman Empire only a small strip of coastline in the current Veneto, including Venice; the Roman/Byzantine territory was organized as the Exarchate of Ravenna, administered from that ancient port and overseen by a viceroy appointed by the Emperor in Constantinople. Ravenna and Venice were connected only by sea routes, with the Venetians' isolated position came increasing autonomy. New ports were built, including those at Torcello in the Venetian lagoon; the tribuni maiores formed the earliest central standing governing committee of the islands in the lagoon, dating from c. 568. The traditional first doge of Venice, Paolo Lucio A