Thomas Humphrey Marshall
Thomas Humphrey Marshall was a British sociologist, most noted for his essays, such as the essay collection Citizenship and Social Class. He was born in 1893 and educated at Rugby School, Trinity College, Cambridge, he was a civilian prisoner in Germany during World War I. From 1914 to 1918 he was a Fellow of Trinity College and joined the London School of Economics, the LSE, as a lecturer between 1919 and 1925, he went on to become the Head of the Social Science Department at LSE from 1939 to 1944, worked for UNESCO as the head of the Social Science Department from 1956 to 1960 contributing to the United Nations International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights, drafted in 1954, but not ratified until 1966. Modern political science pioneer Seymour Martin Lipset argues that Marshall proposes a model of social science based on the middle range analysis of social structures and institutions, as opposed to grand theories of the purposes of development and modernisation, which were criticised by modern sociologists such as Robert K. Merton for being too speculative to provide valid results.
By using such a middle range approach and his mentor L. T. Hobhouse believed that rigid class distinctions could be dissolved and middle class citizenship generalised through a careful understanding of social mechanisms, he believed this would allow sociology to become an international discipline, helping "to increase mutual understanding between cultures" and further international co-operation. While employing some concepts from Marxist conflict theory, such as social class and revolution, Marshall's analyses are based on functionalist concerns with phenomena such as "consensus, the normal, anomie. Rather than studying "society," which may include non-systemic elements, Marshall argues that the task of sociology is: the analytical and explanatory study of social systems....a set of interrelated and reciprocal activities having the following characteristics. The activities are repetitive and predictable to the degree necessary, first, to permit of purposeful and orderly behaviour of the members of the society, secondly to enable the pattern of action to continue in being, to say to preserve its identity while changing its shape.
Whereas Marxists point to the internal contradictions of capital accumulation and class inequality, Marshall sees phenomena that are anti-systemic as "alien" to the social system. T. H. Marshall wrote a seminal essay on citizenship, titled "Citizenship and Social Class"; this was published based on a lecture given the previous year. He analysed the development of citizenship as a development of civil political social rights; these were broadly assigned to the eighteenth and twentieth centuries respectively. His distinctive contribution was to introduce the concept of social rights understood as the welfare rights. Social Rights are awarded not on the basis of class or need, but rather on the status of citizenship, he claimed that the extension of social rights does not entail the destruction of social classes and inequality. T. H. Marshall was a close friend and admirer of L. T. Hobhouse, his conception of citizenship emerged from a series of lectures given by Hobhouse at the LSE. Hobhouse is more philosophical, whereas Marshall is under the influence of measures taken by Lord Beveridge after World War II.
All of these people were involved in a turn in liberal thought, called "new liberalism", a liberalism with a social conscience. T. H. Marshall talks about industrial citizenship and its relationship with citizenship, he said that social rights are a precursor for civil rights. Marshall's analysis of citizenship has been criticised on the basis that it only applies to males in England. Marxist critics point out that Marshall's analysis is superficial as it does not discuss the right of the citizen to control economic production, which they argue is necessary for sustained shared prosperity. From a feminist perspective, the work of Marshall is constricted in being focused on men and ignoring the social rights of women and impediments to their realisation. There is a debate among scholars about whether Marshall intended his historical analysis to be interpreted as a general theory of citizenship or whether the essay was just a commentary on developments within England; the essay has been used by editors to promote more equality in society, including the "Black" vote in the USA, against Mrs. Thatcher in a 1992 edition prefaced by Tom Bottomore.
It is an Anglo-Saxon interpretation of the evolution of rights in a "peaceful reform" mode, unlike the revolutionary interpretations of Charles Tilly, the other great theoretician of citizenship in the twentieth century, who bases his readings in the developments of the French Revolution. Marshall, T. H.. "Citizenship and social class and other essays." Cambridge: CUP. Bryan S. Turner. "Citizenship and Social Theory." SAGE Publications Ltd. Catalogue of the Marshall papers held at LSE Archives Thomas Humphrey Marshall at the National Portrait Gallery, London
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Westcliff-on-Sea is a suburb of Southend-on-Sea, a seaside resort and unitary authority in Essex in south-east England. It is on the north shore of the lower Thames Estuary, about 34 miles east of London; the cliffs formed by erosion of the local quaternary geology give views over the Thames Estuary towards the Kent coastline to the south. The coastline has been transformed into sandy beaches through the use of imported sand; the estuary at this point has extensive mud flats. At low tide, the water retreats some 600 m from the beach, leaving the mud flats exposed; the London and Southend Railway line arrived in the 1880s, connecting the town with London and shortening travel time to and from that city. Westcliff railway station in Station Road is now managed by c2c. An area of Westcliff bordering Southend town centre has been classified as a conservation area, including Prittlewell Square gardens and the Grade II listed building, Our Lady Help of Christians and St Helen's Church; the main shopping area in Westcliff-on-Sea is Hamlet Court Road, where the department store Havens, established in 1901, remained the anchor store until its closure in 2017.
Hamlet Court Road took its name from a manor house called the Hamlet Court, which stood on land now occupied by Pavarotti's restaurant and adjoining shops, facing towards the sea with sweeping gardens down to the rail line. The road developed into a strong independent retail area and became famous outside the area as the Bond Street of Essex. There were many haberdashers and specialist shops, it was not too unusual to see chauffeurs waiting for their employers to emerge from the shops; the economic recessions of the 1980s and 1990s saw the area decline. The road underwent a £1 million regeneration in the early 2000s and a further regeneration in 2010; the street is now known for a large number of restaurants. The two main theatres in Westcliff are the Cliffs Pavilion, which overlooks the seafront, the Palace Theatre. Westcliff-on-Sea is home to the Thames Estuary Yacht Club and the Westcliff Casino. Hugh Sells, first-class cricketer and Royal Air Force officer
David Glass (sociologist)
David Victor Glass FRS, FBA was an eminent English sociologist and was one of the few sociologists elected to the Royal Society. He is one of the few people to be elected both Fellow of the British Academy and Fellow of the Royal Society, he was professor of sociology at the London School of Economics, 1948–1978. Glass was born in the East End of London, the son of a tailor, ande attended a state elementary school and Raine's Grammar School, he took a degree from the LSE in 1931. From 1932 -- 1940 he was statistician, Arthur Bowley. In 1935 he was a research assistant with Lancelot Hogben in the department of Social Biology at the LSE. At this time he came into contact with R. R. Kuczynski. After Hogben's departure and the closing of the department in 1937, he was involved in founding the Population Investigation Committee. In 1948 he became professor, and from 1961-1978 he was Martin White professor of sociology at the London School of Economics. He died in 1978 from a coronary thrombosis and was survived by his wife Ruth Glass, the urban sociologist.
Chairman, Population Investigation Committee President, British Society for Population Studies Honorary President, International Union for Scientific Study of Population Member, International Statistical Institute FBA, 1964 FRS, 1971 Foreign Honorary Member, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1971 Foreign Associate, National Academy of Sciences, 1973 The Town in a Changing World, 1935 The Struggle for Population, 1936 Population Policies and Movements in Europe, 1940 Introduction to Malthus, 1953 Social Mobility in Britain, 1954 The Trend and Pattern of Fertility in Great Britain, 1954 The University Teaching of Social Sciences: Demography, 1957 Latin American Seminar on Population: Report, 1958 Society: Approaches and Problems for Study, 1962 Differential Fertility and Educational Objectives, 1962, Population in History, 1965 Population and Social Change, 1972 Numbering the People, 1973 Population and Emigration, 1976He was an editor of the journals Population Studies and British Journal of Sociology.
The eleven-plus is an examination administered to some students in England and Northern Ireland in their last year of primary education, which governs admission to grammar schools and other secondary schools which use academic selection. The name derives from the age group for secondary entry: 11–12 years; the eleven-plus was once used throughout England and Wales, but is now only used in counties and boroughs in England that offer selective schools instead of comprehensive schools. Known as the transfer test, it is associated with the Tripartite System, in use from 1944 until it had been phased out across most of the UK by 1976; the examination tests a student's ability to solve problems using a test of verbal reasoning and non-verbal reasoning, with most tests now offering papers in mathematics and English. The intention was that the eleven-plus should be a general test for intelligence similar to an IQ test, but with the addition of testing for taught curriculum skills; the test now measures aptitude for school work.
Introduced in 1944, the examination was used to determine which type of school the student should attend after primary education: a grammar school, a secondary modern school, or a technical school. The base of the Tripartite System was the idea that skills were more important than financial resources in determining what kind of schooling a child should receive: different skills required different schooling; the Tripartite System of education, with an academic, a technical and a functional strand, was established in the 1940s. Prevailing educational thought at the time was that testing was an effective way to discover to which strand a child was most suited; the results of the exam would be used to match children's secondary schools to their abilities and future career needs. When the system was implemented, technical schools were not available on the scale envisaged. Instead, the Tripartite System came to be characterised by fierce competition for places at the prestigious grammar schools; as such, the eleven-plus took on a particular significance.
Rather than allocating according to need or ability, it became seen as a question of passing or failing. This led to the exam becoming resented by some although supported by others; the structure of the eleven-plus varied over time, among the different counties which used it. It consisted of three papers: Arithmetic – A mental arithmetic test. Writing – An essay question on a general subject. General Problem Solving – A test of general knowledge, assessing the ability to apply logic to simple problems; some exams have: Non-Verbal VerbalMost children took the eleven-plus in their final year of primary school: at age 10 or 11. In Berkshire and Buckinghamshire it was possible to sit the test a year early – a process named the ten-plus; the test was voluntary. In Northern Ireland, pupils were awarded grades in the following ratios to pupils sitting the exam: A, B1, B2, C1, C2, D and there was no official distinction between pass grades and fail grades. There are 164 remaining grammar schools in various parts of England, 69 in Northern Ireland.
In counties in which vestiges of the Tripartite System still survive, the eleven-plus continues to exist. Today it is used as an entrance test to a specific group of schools, rather than a blanket exam for all pupils, is taken voluntarily. For more information on these, see the main article on grammar schools. Eleven-plus and similar exams vary around the country but will use some or all of the following components: Verbal Reasoning Non-Verbal reasoning Mathematics English Eleven-plus tests take place in September of children's final primary school year with results provided to parents in October to allow application for secondary schools. In Lincolnshire children will sit the Verbal Non-Verbal Reasoning. In Buckinghamshire children sit tests in Verbal Reasoning and Non-Verbal reasoning. In Kent, where the eleven-plus test is more known as the Kent Test, children sit all four of the above disciplines. In the London Borough of Bexley from September 2008, following a public consultation, pupils sitting the Eleven-Plus exam are only required to do a Mathematics and Verbal Reasoning paper.
In Essex, where the examination is optional, children sit Verbal Reasoning and English. Other areas use different combinations; some authorities/areas operate an opt-in system, while others operate an opt-out system where all pupils are entered unless parents decide to opt out. In the North Yorkshire, Harrogate/York area, children are only required to sit two tests: Verbal and Non-Verbal Reasoning. Independent schools in England select children at the age of 13, using a common set of papers known as the Common Entrance Examination About ten do select at eleven; these have the Common entrance exam name. England has 164 grammar schools, 85% of which are academies at liberty to set their own individual admissions criteria including the type of entrance tests they set and what weighting is given to each one. Schools form consortia to set a common test or get the local authority to administer it but despite this there might be about 70 different 11+ tests set each year across the country meaning it is no longer possible to talk about the eleven plus test as a single entity.
The actual marks from these tests, referred to as raw marks, are never disclosed, instead parents ar
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Karl Mannheim was a influential German sociologist during the first half of the 20th century. He was a founding father of classical sociology, as well as idea of sociology of knowledge. Mannheim is known for Ideology and Utopia wherein he argues that ideologies are representative of the true nature of a society, that, in trying to achieve a utopia, the dogmas of ideology affect the intellectual integrity of theories of philosophy and theories of history. Karl Mannheim was born March 27, 1893 to Jewish parents, he studied philosophy and comparative literature at the University of Budapest. During the brief period of the Hungarian Soviet, in 1919, he taught in a teacher training school thanks to the patronage of his friend and mentor György Lukács, whose political conversion to communism he did not share. Despite the fact that Mannheim didn't share the communist beliefs, he was forced into exile after the rise of Horthy as Regent of Hungary. Mannheim chose exile in Germany and was there from 1920-1933.
In 1921, he married psychologist Juliska Károlyné Lang, better known as Julia Lang. Though she is unacknowledged, Lang collaborated with Mannheim on many of his works, along with a number of Mannheim's students, put together many of his works to be published posthumously. After an unsuccessful attempt to gain a sponsor to teach philosophy in Heidelberg, Mannheim began work in 1924 under the German sociologist Alfred Weber, the brother of well-known sociologist Max Weber. In 1926, Mannheim had his habilitation accepted by the faculty of social sciences, thus satisfying the requirements to teach classes in sociology at Heidelberg. Mannheim was chosen over other competitors for the post. From 1929-1933, he served as a professor of sociology and political economy at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt am Main. Norbert Elias and Hans Gerth worked as his assistants from spring 1930 until spring 1933, with Elias as the senior partner. Greta Kuckhoff, who became a prominent figure in the DDR, was his administrative assistant in Frankfurt, leaving early in 1933 to study at the London School of Economics and prepare for Mannheim's emigration there.
In 1933, Mannheim was ousted from his professorship under the terms of the anti-Semitic law to purge the civil service and was forced into exile. After fleeing the Nazi regime and settling in Britain, Mannheim became a lecturer in Sociology at the London School of Economics, under a program to assist academic exiles, until his death. In 1941, Sir Fred Clarke, Director of the Institute of Education at the University of London, invited him to teach sociology on a part-time basis in conjunction with his declining role at LSE under wartime conditions. In January 1946 he was appointed as the first sociology professor at the Institute of Education, a position he held until his death in London a year later. During his time in England, Mannheim played a prominent role in'The Moot', a Christian discussion group of which T. S. Eliot was a member, concerned with the role of religion and culture in society, convened by J. H. Oldham, he gained a position of influence through his editorship of the extensive Routledge series on social sciences.
Mannheim’s life, one of intellectual and geographical migration, falls into three main phases: Hungarian, British. Among his valued interlocutors were György Lukács, Oszkár Jászi, Georg Simmel, Martin Heidegger, Edmund Husserl, Karl Marx and Max Weber, Max Scheler, Wilhelm Dilthey. In his work, he sought variously to synthesize elements derived from German historicism, phenomenology and Anglo-American pragmatism. Mannheim died on January 1947 at the age of 53 due to a congenitally weak heart in London. Shortly before his death, he was invited to be the head of the European UNESCO, an offer he was not able to accept, he was cremated at Golder's Green Crematorium and his ashes were placed in the columbarium there in an urn, which were mixed with those of his wife. He was placed opposite Sigmund Freud as a planned pairing, but Freud was relocated. Mannheim was a precocious scholar and an accepted member of two influential intellectual circles in Budapest. In the autumn of 1915, he was the youngest founding member of the Sonntagskreis alongside Béla Balázs, Lajos Fülep, György Lukács, where a wide range of literary and philosophical topics where discussed.
Some discussion focused on the enthusiasms of German diagnosticians of cultural crisis, notably the novels of Fyodor Dostoyevsky and the writings of the German mystics. The Social Science Association, on the other hand, was founded by Oszkár Jászi in 1919 and was interested above all in French and English sociological writings. Mannheim's Hungarian writings, notably his doctoral dissertation "Structural Analysis of Epistemology," anticipate his lifelong search for "synthesis" between these currents. According to the sociologist Longhurst, the Sonntagskreis "rejected any'positivist' or'mechanist' understanding of society and was dissatisfied with the existing political arrangements in Hungary; the way forward was seen to be through the spiritual renewal entailed in a revolution in culture". The group members were discontent with the political and intellectual composition of Hungary, however, "they rejected a materialist Marxist critique of this society. Hungary was to be changed by a spiritual renewal led by those who had reached a significant level of cultural awareness".
Yet they did not exclude Marxist themes and Mannheim's work was influenced by Lukacs' Marxist interests, as he credits Marx as the forerunner to the sociology of knowledge. This was Mannheim's most productive peri