In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, creator deity, principal object of faith. The conceptions of God, as described by theologians include the attributes of omniscience, omnipresence, as having an eternal and necessary existence. Depending on one's kind of theism, these attributes are used either in way of analogy, or in a literal sense as distinct properties. God is most held to be incorporeal. Incorporeality and corporeality of God are related to conceptions of transcendence and immanence of God, with positions of synthesis such as the "immanent transcendence". Psychoanalyst Carl Jung equated religious ideas of God with transcendental aspects of consciousness in his interpretation; some religions describe God without reference to gender, while others or their translations use sex-specific terminology. Judaism attributes only a grammatical gender to God, using terms such as "Him" or "Father" for convenience. God has been conceived as either impersonal. In theism, God is the creator and sustainer of the universe, while in deism, God is the creator, but not the sustainer, of the universe.
In pantheism, God is the universe itself. In atheism, there is an absence of belief in God. In agnosticism, the existence of God is deemed unknowable. God has been conceived as the source of all moral obligation, the "greatest conceivable existent". Many notable philosophers have developed arguments against the existence of God. Monotheists refer to their gods using names prescribed by their respective religions, with some of these names referring to certain cultural ideas about their god's identity and attributes. In the ancient Egyptian era of Atenism the earliest recorded monotheistic religion, this deity was called Aten, premised on being the one "true" Supreme Being and creator of the universe. In the Hebrew Bible and Judaism, Adonai, YHWH and other names are used as the names of God. Yahweh and Jehovah, possible vocalizations of YHWH, are used in Christianity. In the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, coexisting in three "persons", is called the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit. In Islam, the name Allah is used, while Muslims have a multitude of titular names for God.
In Hinduism, Brahman is considered a monistic concept of God. In Chinese religion, Shangdi is conceived as the progenitor of the universe, intrinsic to it and bringing order to it. Other religions have names for the concept, for instance, Baha in the Bahá'í Faith, Waheguru in Sikhism, Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa in Balinese Hinduism, Ahura Mazda in Zoroastrianism; the many different conceptions of God, competing claims as to God's characteristics and actions, have led to the development of ideas of omnitheism, pandeism, or a perennial philosophy, which postulates that there is one underlying theological truth, of which all religions express a partial understanding, as to which "the devout in the various great world religions are in fact worshipping that one God, but through different, overlapping concepts". The earliest written form of the Germanic word God comes from the 6th-century Christian Codex Argenteus; the English word itself is derived from the Proto-Germanic * ǥuđan. The reconstructed Proto-Indo-European form * ǵhu-tó-m was based on the root * ǵhau-, which meant either "to call" or "to invoke".
The Germanic words for God were neuter—applying to both genders—but during the process of the Christianization of the Germanic peoples from their indigenous Germanic paganism, the words became a masculine syntactic form. In the English language, capitalization is used for names by which a god is known, including'God'; the capitalized form of god is not used for multiple gods or when used to refer to the generic idea of a deity. The English word God and its counterparts in other languages are used for any and all conceptions and, in spite of significant differences between religions, the term remains an English translation common to all; the same holds for Hebrew El, but in Judaism, God is given a proper name, the tetragrammaton YHWH, in origin the name of an Edomite or Midianite deity, Yahweh. In many translations of the Bible, when the word LORD is in all capitals, it signifies that the word represents the tetragrammaton. Allāh is the Arabic term with no plural used by Muslims and Arabic speaking Christians and Jews meaning "The God", while "ʾilāh" is the term used for a deity or a god in general.
God may be given a proper name in monotheistic currents of Hinduism which emphasize the personal nature of God, with early references to his name as Krishna-Vasudeva in Bhagavata or Vishnu and Hari. Ahura Mazda is the name for God used in Zoroastrianism. "Mazda", or rather the Avestan stem-form Mazdā-, nominative Mazdå, reflects Proto-Iranian *Mazdāh. It is taken to be the proper name of the spirit, like its Sanskrit cognate medhā, means "intelligence" or "wisdom". Both the Avestan and Sanskrit words reflect Proto-Indo-Iranian *mazdhā-, from Proto-Indo-European mn̩sdʰeh1 meaning "placing one's mind", hence "wise". Waheguru is a term most used in Sikhism to refer to God, it means "Wonderful Teacher" in the Punjabi language. Vāhi means "wonderful" and guru is a term denoting "teacher". Waheguru is described by some as an experience of ecstasy, beyond all descriptions; the most common usage of the word "Waheguru" is in the greeting Sikhs use with each other: Baha, the "greates
The Rio Grande is one of the principal rivers in the southwest United States and northern Mexico. The Rio Grande begins in south-central Colorado in the United States and flows to the Gulf of Mexico. Along the way, it forms part of the Mexico–United States border. According to the International Boundary and Water Commission, its total length was 1,896 miles in the late 1980s, though course shifts result in length changes. Depending on how it is measured, the Rio Grande is either the fourth- or fifth-longest river system in North America; the river serves as part of the natural border between the U. S. state of Texas and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas. A short stretch of the river serves as part of the boundary between the U. S. states of New Mexico. Since the mid–20th century, heavy water consumption by farms and cities along with many large diversion dams on the river has left only 20% of its natural discharge to flow to the Gulf. Near the river's mouth, the irrigated lower Rio Grande Valley is an important agricultural region.
The Rio Grande's watershed covers 182,200 square miles. Many endorheic basins are situated within, or adjacent to, the Rio Grande's basin, these are sometimes included in the river basin's total area, increasing its size to about 336,000 square miles; the Rio Grande rises in the western part of the Rio Grande National Forest in the U. S. state of Colorado. The river is formed by the joining of several streams at the base of Canby Mountain in the San Juan Mountains, just east of the Continental Divide. From there, it flows through the San Luis Valley south into the Middle Rio Grande Valley in New Mexico, passing through the Rio Grande Gorge near Taos toward Española, picking up additional water from the San Juan-Chama Diversion Project from the Rio Chama, it continues on a southerly route through the desert cities of Albuquerque and Las Cruces to El Paso and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua. In the Albuquerque area, the river flows past a number of historic Pueblo villages, including Sandia Pueblo and Isleta Pueblo.
Below El Paso, it serves as part of the border between the United States and Mexico. The official river border measurement ranges from 889 miles to 1,248 miles, depending on how the river is measured. A major tributary, the Rio Conchos, enters at Ojinaga, below El Paso, supplies most of the water in the border segment. Other tributaries include the Pecos and the smaller Devils, which join the Rio Grande on the site of Amistad Dam. Despite its name and length, the Rio Grande is not navigable by ocean-going ships, nor do smaller passenger boats or cargo barges use it as a route, it is navigable at all, except by small boats in a few places. The Rio Grande rises in high flows for much of its length at high elevation. In New Mexico, the river flows through the Rio Grande rift from one sediment-filled basin to another, cutting canyons between the basins and supporting a fragile bosque ecosystem on its flood plain. From El Paso eastward, the river flows through desert. Although irrigated agriculture exists throughout most of its stretch, it is extensive in the subtropical Lower Rio Grande Valley.
The river ends in a sandy delta at the Gulf of Mexico. During portions of 2001 and 2002, the mouth of the Rio Grande was blocked by a sandbar. In the fall of 2003, the sandbar was cleared by high river flows around 7,063 cubic feet per second. Navigation was active during much of the 19th century, with over 200 different steamboats operating between the river's mouth close to Brownsville and Rio Grande City, Texas. Many steamboats from the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers were requisitioned by the U. S. government and moved to the Rio Grande during the Mexican–American War in 1846. They provided transport for the U. S. Army, under General Zachary Taylor, to invade Monterrey, Nuevo León, via Camargo Municipality, Tamaulipas. Army engineers recommended that with small improvements, the river could be made navigable as far north as El Paso; those recommendations were never acted upon. The Brownsville & Matamoros International Bridge, a large swing bridge, dates back to 1910 and is still in use today by automobiles connecting Brownsville with Matamoros, Tamaulipas.
The swing mechanism has not been used since the early 1900s, when the last of the big steamboats disappeared. At one point, the bridge had rail traffic. Railroad trains no longer use this bridge. A new rail bridge connecting the U. S. and Mexico was built about 15 miles west of the Matamoros International Bridge. It was inaugurated in August 2015, it moved all rail operations out of downtown Matamoros. The West Rail International Crossing is the first new international rail crossing between the U. S. and Mexico in 105 years. The Brownsville & Matamoros International Bridge is now operated by the Brownsville and Matamoros Bridge Company, a joint venture between the Mexican government and the Union Pacific Railroad. At the mouth of the Rio Grande, on the Mexican side, was the large commercial port of Bagdad, Tamaulipas. During the American Civil War, this was the only legitimate port of the Confederacy. European warships anchored offshore to maintain the port's neutrality, managed to do so throughout that conflict, despite occasional stare-downs with blockading ships from the US Navy.
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French colonization of Texas
The French colonization of Texas began with the establishment of a fort in present-day southeastern Texas. It was established in 1685 near Arenosa Creek and Matagorda Bay by explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle, he intended to found the colony at the mouth of the Mississippi River, but inaccurate maps and navigational errors caused his ships to anchor instead 400 miles to the west, off the coast of Texas. The colony survived until 1688; the present-day town of Inez is near the fort's site. The colony faced numerous difficulties during its brief existence, including Native American raids and harsh conditions. From that base, La Salle led several expeditions to find the Mississippi River; these did not succeed. During one of his absences in 1686, the colony's last ship was wrecked, leaving the colonists unable to obtain resources from the French colonies of the Caribbean; as conditions deteriorated, La Salle realized the colony could survive only with help from the French settlements in Illinois Country to the north, along the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.
His last expedition ended along the Brazos River in early 1687, when La Salle and five of his men were murdered during a mutiny. Although a handful of men reached Illinois Country, help never made it to the fort. Most of the remaining members of the colony were killed during a Karankawa raid in late 1688, four children survived after being adopted as captives. Although the colony lasted only three years, it established France's claim to possession of the region, now Texas; the United States claimed, this region as part of the Louisiana Purchase because of the early French colony. Spain learned of La Salle's mission in 1686. Concerned that the French colony could threaten Spain's control over the Viceroyalty of New Spain and the unsettled southeastern region of North America, the Crown funded multiple expeditions to locate and eliminate the settlement; the unsuccessful expeditions helped Spain to better understand the geography of the Gulf Coast region. When the Spanish discovered the remains of the French colony at the fort in 1689, they buried the cannons and burned the buildings.
Years Spanish authorities built a presidio at the same location. When the presidio was abandoned, the site of the French settlement was lost to history; the fort was rediscovered by historians and excavated in 1996, the area is now an archaeological site. In 1995, researchers located the ship La Belle in Matagorda Bay, with several sections of the hull remaining intact, they constructed a cofferdam, the first to be used in North America to excavate the ship as if in dry conditions. In 2000, excavations revealed three of the original structures of the fort, as well as three graves of Frenchmen. By the late 17th century, much of North America had been claimed by European countries. Spain had claimed Florida as well as modern-day Mexico and much of the southwestern part of the continent; the northern and central Atlantic coast was claimed by Britain, New France comprised much of what is now eastern Canada as well as the central Illinois Country. The French feared. In 1681, French nobleman Robert Cavelier de La Salle launched an expedition down the Mississippi River from New France, at first believing he would find a path to the Pacific Ocean.
Instead, La Salle found a route to the Gulf of Mexico. Although Hernando De Soto had explored and claimed this area for Spain 140 years before, on April 9, 1682, La Salle claimed the Mississippi River valley for French king Louis XIV, naming the territory Louisiana in his honor. Unless France established a base at the mouth of the Mississippi, Spain would have an opportunity to control the entire Gulf of Mexico and pose a threat to New France's southern borders. La Salle believed. On his return to France in 1684, he proposed to the Crown the establishment of a colony at the mouth of the river; the colony could provide a base for promoting Christianity among the native peoples as well as a convenient location for attacking the Spanish province of Nueva Vizcaya and gaining control of its lucrative silver mines. He argued that a small number of Frenchmen could invade New Spain by allying themselves with some of the more than 15,000 Native Americans who were angry over Spanish enslavement. After Spain declared war on France in October 1667, King Louis agreed to support La Salle's plan.
He was to return to North America and confirm "the Indians' allegiance to the crown, leading them to the true faith, maintaining intertribal peace". La Salle planned to sail to New France, journey overland to the south and Illinois Country, travel down the Mississippi River to its mouth. To spite Spain, Louis XIV insisted that La Salle sail through the Gulf of Mexico, which Spain considered its exclusive property. Although La Salle had requested only one ship, on July 24, 1684, he left La Rochelle, France with four: the 36-gun man of war Le Joly, the 300-ton storeship L'Aimable, the barque La Belle, the ketch St. François. Although Louis XIV had provided both Le Joly and La Belle, La Salle desired more cargo space and leased L'Aimable and St. François from French merchants. Louis provided 100 soldiers and full crews for the ships, as well as funds to hire skilled workers to join the expedition. La Salle was forced to purchase trade goods himself for expected encounters with Native Americans..
The ships carried a total of nearly 300 people, including soldiers and craftsmen, six Catholic missionaries, eight merchants, over a dozen women and children. Shortly after their departure, F
Monclova, is a city and seat of the surrounding municipality of the same name in the northern Mexican state of Coahuila. According to the 2015 census there were 231,107 inhabitants in the city, its metropolitan area has 381,432 inhabitants and has a population density of 29.88 inhabitants per square kilometers. Monclova is the third largest city and metropolitan area in the state in terms of population, after Torreón and Saltillo; the city accounts for the highest production of steel of Mexico and Latin America, hence its nickname "The Steel Capital". Today Monclova has one of the highest commercial and financial developments, it is one of the cities with the lowest poverty rates in Mexico, its metropolitan area is among the 10 most competitive urban areas in the country, it has the highest labor productivity. Established on July 25, 1577, Monclova became the first city in the region known as Coahuila and as the State of Coahuila. During the colonial period and the early 19th century, Monclova served as the capital of Nueva Extremadura.
It remained the capital for a few years after Mexico's independence. Haciendas near Monclova were the headquarters before 1840 of the Sánchez Navarro latifundio, the largest private land holding in the Americas. During the initial battle for independence from Spain, fleeing rebel leaders, captured at the Wells of Baján were first taken to Monclova before the long trip to the city of Chihuahua; the captured leaders were Juan Aldama, Ignacio Allende, Miguel Hidalgo, Jose Mariano Jimenez. With the adoption of the 1824 Constitution, which created the state of Coahuila y Tejas, the capital was transferred to Saltillo. In 1828, the decision was overturned when Monclova was declared the capital of the new state, but the state legislature continued to convene in Saltillo. On March 9, 1833, the state legislature settled the dispute in Monclova's favour, the decision was ratified by President Antonio López de Santa Anna on December 2, 1834. With the enactment of the 1836 Constitutional Laws by which the federal republic was converted into a centralised one, the state of Coahuila y Tejas was divided into two departments and Tejas, Saltillo was finalized as Coahuila's capital.
However, 1835-36 was the period of the Texas Revolution, Texas became an independent republic. Monclova sits at an altitude of 620 m above sea level, it is located at 26°54′37″N 101°25′20″W, in the state's central region, in the east-central part of the state. Monclova experiences a warm semi-arid climate, with a median yearly temperature of 22.0 °C. The median temperature of the coolest month, January, is 13.6 °C, although the temperature can climb as high as 30 °C during some days and it can drop to 0 °C some nights. The coldest snap in recent history took place on December 25, 1983 when the temperature plunged to −9.5 °C. On the other hand, temperatures during late spring and summer can have bouts of extreme heat, with evenings above 40 °C for many consecutive days. In recent decades the hottest records have climbed as high as 43 °C on July 13, 2005 and 45 °C on May 4, 1984; however nighttime low temperatures are 15 degrees cooler than daytime highs, due to the arid conditions. In July, the warmest month, temperatures have gotten as low as 10.6 °C in 1975.
The median temperature July is 28.6 °C. A typical summer day has a low around 21 °C and a high near 35 °C. In 1976 the wettest month on record took place in July, with 287.3 mm of rain, more than half the median yearly value of 376.7 mm. The warmer months of the year are wetter than the cooler ones. Cold fronts in winter have the possibility of drastically reducing temperatures in the area, are responsible for the little rainfall of such period. Snowfall has occurred in Monclova some winters, although most years it is a phenomenon reserved only to the nearby mountains. Precipitation occurs an average of 47 days, out of which 6 will be thunderstorms and at least one day with hail; the city accounts for the highest production of steel of Mexico and Latin America, hence its nickname "The Steel Capital". In 1942 the steel factory Altos Hornos de Mexico was founded, accelerating the industrial development of Monclova. Today Monclova has one of the highest commercial and financial developments, it is one of the cities with the lowest poverty rates in Mexico.
Its metropolitan area is among the 10 most competitive urban areas in the country, it has the highest labor productivity. The Santiago Apostol Parish Church - Construction of this building began in the second half of the eighteenth century, its façade consists of carved cantera stone. The San Francisco de Asis Parish Church - St. Francis of Assisi Church, seventeenth century. Ermita de Zapopan Church - Due to damage caused during the revolution and to conserve original details like its bells and walls, restoration was carried out at the beginning of the nineteenth century. El Polvorin - Museum with collections of anthropology, sociology, watercolor art, mathematics, archery, other weapons, Mexican sexual culture. Pape Museum Library - For 28 years, this cultural and recreational center, promoted by the Pape Foundation, has given seasonal expositions of artistic works, its permanent exhibit chronologically illustrates the life and work of the couple Harold and Lou Pape. It has an auditorium for 300 people where plays and musical concerts are performed.
Next to the muse
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Early modern France
The Kingdom of France in the early modern period, from the Renaissance to the Revolution, was a monarchy ruled by the House of Bourbon. This corresponds to the so-called Ancien Régime; the territory of France during this period increased until it included the extent of the modern country, it included the territories of the first French colonial empire overseas. The period is dominated by the figure of the "Sun King", Louis XIV, who managed to eliminate the remnants of medieval feudalism and established a centralized state under an absolute monarch, a system that would endure until the French Revolution and beyond. In the mid 15th century, France was smaller than it is today, numerous border provinces were autonomous or foreign-held. In addition, certain provinces within France were ostensibly personal fiefdoms of noble families; the late 15th, 16th and 17th centuries would see France undergo a massive territorial expansion and an attempt to better integrate its provinces into an administrative whole.
During this period, France expanded to nearly its modern territorial extent through the acquisition of Picardy, Anjou, Provence, Franche-Comté, French Flanders, Roussillon, the Duchy of Lorraine and Corsica. French acquisitions from 1461–1789: under Louis XI – Provence, Dauphiné under Henry II – Calais, Trois-Évêchés under Henry IV – County of Foix under Louis XIII – Béarn and Navarre under Louis XIV Treaty of Westphalia – Alsace Treaty of the Pyrenees – Artois, Northern Catalonia Treaty of Nijmegen – Franche-Comté, Flanders under Louis XV – Lorraine, Corsica Only the Duchy of Savoy, the city of Nice and some other small papal and foreign possessions would be acquired later.. France embarked on exploration and mercantile exchanges with the Americas, the Indian Ocean, the Far East, a few African trading posts. Although Paris was the capital of France, the Valois kings abandoned the city as their primary residence, preferring instead various châteaux of the Loire Valley and Parisian countryside.
Henry IV made Paris his primary residence, but Louis XIV once again withdrew from the city in the last decades of his reign and Versailles became the primary seat of the French monarchy for much of the following century. The administrative and legal system in France in this period is called the Ancien Régime; the Black Death had killed an estimated one-third of the population of France from its appearance in 1348. The concurrent Hundred Years' War slowed recovery, it would be the early 16th century. With an estimated population of 11 million in 1400, 20 million in the 17th century, 28 million in 1789, until 1795 France was the most populated country in Europe and the third most populous country in the world, behind only China and India; these demographic changes led to a massive increase in urban populations, although on the whole France remained a profoundly rural country. Paris was one of the most populated cities in Europe. Other major French cities include Lyon, Bordeaux and Marseille; these centuries saw several periods of epidemics and crop failures due to climatic change.
Between 1693 and 1694, France lost 6% of its population. In the harsh winter of 1709, France lost 3.5% of its population. In the past 300 years, no period has been so proportionally deadly for the French, both World Wars included. Linguistically, the differences in France were extreme. Before the Renaissance, the language spoken in the north of France was a collection of different dialects called Oïl languages whereas the written and administrative language remained Latin. By the 16th century, there had developed a standardised form of French which would be the basis of the standardised "modern" French of the 17th and 18th century which in turn became the lingua franca of the European continent. In 1790, only half of the population spoke or understood standard French; the southern half of the country continued to speak Occitan languages, other inhabitants spoke Breton, Basque and Franco-Provençal. In the north of France, regional dialects of the various langues d'oïl continued to be spoken in rural communities.
During the French revolution, the teaching of French was promoted in all the schools. Th