House of Orléans
The 4th House of Orléans, sometimes called the House of Bourbon-Orléans to distinguish it, is the fourth holder of a surname used by several branches of the Royal House of France, all descended in the legitimate male line from the dynasty's founder, Hugh Capet. The house was founded by Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, younger son of king Louis XIII and younger brother of king Louis XIV, the "Sun King". From 1709 until the French Revolution, the Orléans dukes were next in the order of succession to the French throne after members of the senior branch of the House of Bourbon, descended from king Louis XIV. Although Louis XIV's direct descendants retained the throne, his brother Philippe's descendants flourished until the end of the French monarchy; the Orleanists held the French throne from 1830 to 1848 and are still pretenders to the French throne today. It became a tradition during France's ancien régime for the duchy of Orléans to be granted as an appanage to a younger son of the king. While each of the Orléans branches thus descended from a junior prince, they were always among the king's nearest relations in the male line, sometimes aspiring to the throne itself, sometimes succeeding.
Since they had contemporaneous living descendants, there were two Bourbon-Orléans branches at court during the reign of Louis XIV. The elder of these branches consisted of Prince Gaston, Duke of Anjou, younger son of king Henry IV, the four daughters of his two marriages. Prince Gaston became the Duke of Orléans in 1626, held that title until his death in 1660. Upon the death of Gaston, the appanage of the Duchy of Orléans reverted to the Crown, his nephew, Louis XIV gave Gaston's appanages to his younger brother Prince Philippe, who became Duke of Orléans. At court, Gaston was known as Le Grand Monsieur, Philippe was called Le Petit Monsieur while both princes were alive. Philippe and his second wife, the famous court writer Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, founded the modern House of Bourbon-Orléans. Before Philippe had been styled as the Duke of Anjou, like Prince Gaston. Besides receiving the appanage of Orléans, he received the duchies of Valois and Chartres: Duke of Chartres became the courtesy title by which the heirs apparent of the Dukes of Orléans were known during their fathers' lifetimes.
Until the birth of the king's son, the Dauphin Louis, the Duke of Orléans was the heir presumptive to the crown. He was to maintain a high position at court till his death in 1701, their surviving son, Philippe II served as the regent of France for the young Louis XV. As a fils de France, Philippe's surname was de France. Upon his death, his son as a petit-fils de France, his surname d'Orléans was taken from his father's main title. The first two dukes, as son and patrilineal grandson of a French king, were entitled to be addressed as Royal Highness, but Philippe I was known as Monsieur, the style reserved at the French court for the king's eldest brother. Philippe II was succeeded as duke by his only legitimate son, Louis d'Orléans, entitled to the style of Serene Highness as a prince du sang. After 1709, the heads of the Orléans branch of the House of Bourbon ranked as the premier princes du sang – this meant that the dukes could be addressed as Monsieur le Prince. More should there be no heir to the Crown of France in the king's immediate family the Orléans family would ascend by right the throne.
In 1709, the 5th prince de Condé died. He was the premier prince du sang and head of the House of Bourbon-Condé; as a result of this death, the title of premier prince passed to the House of Orléans, as they were closer in blood to the throne of France. But since the two senior males of that line held higher rank as fils de France and petit-fils de France, they did not make use of the title and had no need of its attached prerogative; the Orléans household was large, as it held the staff of Philippe II d'Orléans and of his wife, as well as the staff of his widowed mother, the dowager Duchess. This combined household, though not functional until 1723, contained 250 members including officers, footmen and barbers. On the death of Louis XIV in September 1715, the new king, Louis XV, was but five years old; the country was governed by the new king's older relative Philippe II d'Orléans as the regent of France. This period in French history is known as the Regency, gave the House of Orléans the pre-eminent position and political role in France during the king's minority.
The regent ruled France from his family residence in the Palais-Royal. He installed the young Louis XV in the Palais du Louvre, opposite the Palais-Royal. In January 1723 Louis XV began to govern the country on his own; the young king moved the court back to Versailles and in December, Philippe II died and his son, Louis d'Orléans succeeded him as 3rd duke and, more as France's heir presumptive. Nonetheless, since his rank by birth was prince du sang, that of premier prince du sang constituted a higher style, of which he and his descendants henceforth made use. Louis d'Orléans was in several ways his father's opposite, being retiring by nature and devout. Although still in his twenties when widowed, he did not remarry after his wife's death, is not known to have taken a mistress, he died in the Monastery of St. Geneviève in Paris, his son, Louis Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, was the fourth
Palace of Versailles
The Palace of Versailles was the principal royal residence of France from 1682, under Louis XIV, until the start of the French Revolution in 1789, under Louis XVI. It is located in the department of Yvelines, in the region of Île-de-France, about 20 kilometres southwest of the centre of Paris; the palace is now a Monument historique and UNESCO World Heritage site, notable for the ceremonial Hall of Mirrors, the jewel-like Royal Opera, the royal apartments. The Palace was stripped of all its furnishings after the French Revolution, but many pieces have been returned and many of the palace rooms have been restored. In 2017 the Palace of Versailles received 7,700,000 visitors, making it the second-most visited monument in the Île-de-France region, just behind the Louvre and ahead of the Eiffel Tower; the site of the Palace was first occupied by a small village and church, surrounded by forests filled with abundant game. It was owned by the priory of Saint Julian. King Henry IV went hunting there in 1589, returned in 1604 and 1609, staying in the village inn.
His son, the future Louis XIII, came on his own hunting trip there in 1607. After he became King in 1610, Louis XIII returned to the village, bought some land, in 1623-24 built a modest two-story hunting lodge on the site of the current marble courtyard, he was staying there in November 1630 during the event known as the Day of the Dupes, when the enemies of the King's chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu, aided by the King's mother, Marie de' Medici, tried to take over the government. The King sent his mother into exile. After this event, Louis XIII decided to make his hunting lodge at Versailles into a château; the King purchased the surrounding territory from the Gondi family, in 1631–1634 had the architect Philibert Le Roy replace the hunting lodge with a château of brick and stone with classical pilasters in the doric style and high slate-covered roofs, surrounding the courtyard of the original hunting lodge. The gardens and park were enlarged, laid out by Jacques Boyceau and his nephew, Jacques de Menours, reached the size they have today.
Louis XIV first visited the château on a hunting trip in 1651 at the age of twelve, but returned only until his marriage to Maria Theresa of Spain in 1660 and the death of Cardinal Mazarin in 1661, after which he acquired a passion for the site. He decided to rebuild and enlarge the château and to transform it into a setting for both rest and for elaborate entertainments on a grand scale; the first phase of the expansion was supervised by the architect Louis Le Vau. He added two wings to the forecourt, one for servants quarters and kitchens, the other for stables. In 1668 he added three new wings built of stone, known as the envelope, to the north and west of the original château; these buildings had nearly-flat roofs covered with lead. The king commissioned the landscape designer André Le Nôtre to create the most magnificent gardens in Europe, embellished with fountains, basins, geometric flower beds and groves of trees, he added two grottos in the Italian style and an immense orangerie to house fruit trees, as well as a zoo with a central pavilion for exotic animals.
After Le Vau's death in 1670, the work was taken over and completed by his assistant François d'Orbay. The main floor of the new palace contained two symmetrical sets of apartments, one for the king and the other for the queen, looking over the gardens; the two apartments were separated by a marble terrace, overlooking the garden, with a fountain in the center. Each set of apartments was connected to the ground floor with a ceremonial stairway, each had seven rooms, aligned in a row. On the ground floor under the King's apartment was another apartment, the same size, designed for his private life, decorated on the theme of Apollo, the Sun god, his personal emblem. Under the Queen's apartment was the apartment of the Grand Dauphin, the heir to the throne; the interior decoration was assigned to Charles Le Brun. Le Brun supervised the work of a large group of sculptors and painters, called the Petite Academie, who crafted and painted the ornate walls and ceilings. Le Brun supervised the design and installation of countless statues in the gardens.
The grand stairway to the King's apartment was soon redecorated as soon as it was completed with plaques of colored marble and trophies of arms and balconies, so the members of the court could observe the processions of the King. In 1670, Le Vau added a new pavilion northwest of the chateau, called the Trianon, for the King's relaxation in the hot summers, it was surrounded by flowerbeds and decorated with blue and white porcelain, in imitation of the Chinese style. The King spent his days in Versailles, the government and courtiers, numbering six to seven thousand persons, crowded into the buildings; the King ordered a further enlargement, which he entrusted to the young architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart. Hadouin-Mansart added two large new wings on either side of the original Cour Royale, he replaced Le Vau's large terrace, facing the garden on the west, with what bec
Anne of Austria
Anne of Austria, a Spanish princess of the House of Habsburg, was queen of France as the wife of Louis XIII, regent of France during the minority of her son, Louis XIV, from 1643 to 1651. During her regency, Cardinal Mazarin served as France's chief minister. Accounts of French court life of her era emphasize her difficult marital relations with her husband, her closeness to her son Louis XIV, her disapproval of her son's marital infidelity to her niece and daughter-in-law Maria Theresa. Born at the Palace of the Counts of Benavente in Valladolid and baptised Ana María Mauricia, she was the eldest daughter of King Philip III of Spain and his wife Margaret of Austria, she held the titles of of Portugal and Archduchess of Austria. Despite her Spanish birth, she was referred to as Anne of Austria because the rulers of Spain belonged to the senior branch of the House of Austria, known as the House of Habsburg; this designation was uncommon before the 19th century. Anne was raised at the Royal Alcazar of Madrid.
Unusual for a royal princess, Anne grew up close to her parents, who were religious. She was raised to be religious too, was taken to visit monasteries during her childhood. In 1611, she lost her mother. Despite her grief, Anne did her best to take care of her younger siblings, who referred to her with affection as their mother. At age eleven, Anne was betrothed to King Louis XIII of France, her father gave her a dowry of many beautiful jewels. For fear that Louis XIII would die early, the Spanish court stipulated that she would return to Spain with her dowry and wardrobe if he did die. Prior to the marriage, Anne renounced all succession rights she had for herself and her descendants by Louis, with a provision that she would resume her rights should she be left a childless widow. On 24 November 1615, Louis and Anne were married by proxy in Burgos while Louis's sister, Elisabeth of France, Anne's brother, Philip IV of Spain, were married by proxy in Bordeaux; these marriages followed the tradition of cementing military and political alliances between France and Spain that began with the marriage of Philip II of Spain to Elisabeth of Valois in 1559 as part of the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis.
Anne and Elisabeth were exchanged on the Isle of Pheasants between Fuenterrabía. She was beautiful during her youth, she was a noted equestrian, a taste her son, would inherit. At the time, Anne had many admirers, including the handsome Duke of Buckingham, although her intimates believed their flirtations remained chaste. Anne and Louis, both fourteen years old, were pressured to consummate their marriage in order to forestall any possibility of future annulment, but Louis ignored his bride. Louis's mother, Marie de' Medici, continued to conduct herself as queen of France, without showing any deference to her daughter-in-law. Anne, surrounded by her entourage of high-born Spanish ladies-in-waiting headed by Inés de la Torre, continued to live according to Spanish etiquette and failed to improve her French. In 1617, Louis conspired with Charles d'Albert, Duke of Luynes, to dispense with the influence of his mother in a palace coup d'état and had her favorite Concino Concini assassinated on 26 April of that year.
During the years he was in the ascendancy, the Duke of Luynes attempted to remedy the formal distance between Louis and his queen. He sent away Inés de la Torre and the other Spanish ladies and replaced them with French ones, notably the Princesse of Conti and his wife Marie de Rohan-Montbazon, with whom he organized court events that would bring the couple together under amiable circumstances. Anne began to dress in the French manner, in 1619 Luynes pressed the king to bed his queen; some affection developed, to the point where it was noted that Louis was distracted during a serious illness of the queen. A series of stillbirths served to chill their relations. On 14 March 1622, while playing with her ladies, Anne fell on a staircase and suffered her second stillbirth. Louis blamed her for the incident and was angry with the Duchess of Luynes for having encouraged the queen in what was seen as negligence. Henceforth, the king had less tolerance for the influence that the duchess had over Anne, the situation deteriorated after the death of her husband Luynes in December 1621.
The king's attention was monopolized by his war against the Protestants, while the queen defended the remarriage of her inseparable companion Marie de Rohan-Montbazon, center of all court intrigue, to her lover Claude, Duke of Chevreuse, in 1622. Louis turned now to Cardinal Richelieu as his advisor, who served as his first minister from 1624 until his death in 1642. Richelieu's foreign policy of struggle against the Habsburgs, who surrounded France on two fronts created tension between Louis and Anne, who remained childless for another sixteen years. Under the influence of Marie de Rohan-Montbazon, the queen let herself be drawn into political opposition to Richelieu and became embroiled in several intrigues against his policies. Vague rumors of betrayal circulated in the court, notably her supposed involvement, with the conspiracies of the Count of Chalais that Marie organized in 1626, those of the king's treacherous favorite, Cinq-Mars, introduced to him by Richelieu. In 1626, the Cardinal placed Madeleine du Fargis as Dame d'atour in the household of the queen to act as a spy, but she was instead to become a trusted confidant and favorite of the queen.
In December 1630, Louis XIII reduced Anne's court and purged a great amount of
Duchess Charlotte of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Charlotte of Brunswick-Lüneburg was a German noblewoman. She was born into the House of Hanover and married into the House of Este, she was thus the Duchess of Modena by marriage. She died in childbirth; some sources refer to her as Charlotte. Born at Schloss Herrenhausen in Hanover, a palace destroyed in World War II, she was the eldest surviving daughter of John Frederick, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and his wife, Benedicta Henrietta of the Palatinate, her father had been the ruler of Brunswick-Lüneburg since 1665 and her parents had been married since 1668. Charlotte had two younger sisters: Princess Henrietta and Princess Wilhelmina Amalia, who made a prestigious marriage in 1699 to the Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph I. Charlotte married Rinaldo d'Este in Modena on 11 February 1696; the youngest child of Francesco I d'Este, Duke of Modena and his third wife Lucrezia Barberini, Rinaldo had been created a cardinal in 1685, but he left the church in 1694 to succeed his nephew Francesco II as Duke of Modena.
Rinaldo wanted to encourage relations between Modena and Brunswick, whose ruling house was the House of Hanover. The marriage was celebrated splendidly despite financial problems in Modena. Charlotte fled Modena for Bologna in 1702 along with the rest of the Modenese royal family in order to avoid French troops in Italy due to the War of the Spanish Succession, her husband was sixteen years older than Charlotte. After her death, her son Francesco, the ducal heir, married in 1721 Charlotte Aglaé d'Orléans, the daughter of Philippe d'Orléans, the Régent of France during the childhood of King Louis XV, her second daughter, went on to marry first in 1727 Antonio Farnese, Duke of Parma and, after his death in 1731, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. Charlotte died at the Ducal Palace of Modena after giving birth to a daughter in September 1710; the child died. She was buried at the Church of San Vincenzo in Modena, her son succeeded as Duke of Modena in 1737. Benedetta Maria Ernesta d'Este died unmarried.
Maria Teresa Felicitas d'Este
Maria Teresa Felicitas d'Este was born a princess of Modena and was by marriage the Duchess of Penthièvre. She was the mother-in-law of Philippe Égalité and thus grandmother to the future Louis-Philippe of France. Born in Emilia-Romagna in Modena, she was the daughter of Francesco III, Duke of Modena and his wife, the French princess Charlotte Aglaé d'Orléans. One of nine children, she was the first daughter of the family but her mother returned to France to live. Penthièvre was Maria Teresa's mother's first cousin. Charlotte Aglaé's mother was the sister of Louis-Alexandre Count of Toulouse. According to some contemporaries, the marriage between the duke and his wife was a happy one, to which numerous children were born. Louis Marie de Bourbon. Marie Thérèse died at the Château de Rambouillet after giving birth to Louis Marie Félicité de Bourbon, who died soon afterwards. Only two of the Penthièvre children survived into adulthood: Louis-Alexandre de Bourbon, her second but only surviving son, married Princess Marie Louise of Savoy, who after his death became the favourite of the future Queen Marie Antoinette.
Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon-Penthièvre, her youngest and only surviving daughter, wed Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, while he was still known as the Duke of Chartres. Media related to Maria Teresa Felicitas d'Este at Wikimedia Commons
Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans
Louis Philippe Joseph d'Orléans, most known as Philippe, was born at the Château de Saint-Cloud. He received the title of Duke of Montpensier at birth that of Duke of Chartres at the death of his grandfather, Louis d'Orléans, in 1752. At the death of his father, Louis Philippe d'Orléans, in 1785, he inherited the title of Duke of Orléans and became the Premier prince du sang, title attributed to the Prince of the Blood closest to the throne after the Sons and Grandsons of France, he was addressed as Son Altesse Sérénissime. In 1792, during the French Revolution, he changed his name to Philippe Égalité. Louis Philippe d'Orléans was one of the wealthiest men in France, he supported the Revolution of 1789, was a strong advocate for the elimination of the present absolute monarchy in favor of a constitutional monarchy. He voted for the death of king Louis XVI, his son Louis Philippe d'Orléans became King of the French after the July Revolution of 1830. After him, the term Orléanist came to be attached to the movement in France that favored a constitutional monarchy.
Louis Philippe Joseph d'Orléans was the son of Louis Philippe d'Orléans, Duke of Chartres, Louise Henriette de Bourbon. Philippe was a member of the House of a cadet branch of the French royal family, his mother came from the House of Bourbon-Condé. Philippe was born at the Château de Saint Cloud, one of the residences of the Duke of Orléans, five kilometers west of Paris, his older sister, born in 1745, died. His younger sister, Bathilde d'Orléans, was born in 1750. Philippe's first title, given to him at birth, was that of the Duke of Montpensier. After his grandfather's death in 1752, Philippe inherited the title of Duke of Chartres. After his father's death in 1785, Philippe became the Duke of Orléans, head of the House of Orléans, one of the wealthiest noble families in France. At his father's death, Philippe became the Premier Prince du Sang, First Prince of the Blood, which put him in line for the succession to the throne after the comte d'Artois, the youngest brother of Louis XVI. On 6 June 1769, Louis Philippe married Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon at the chapel of the Palace of Versailles.
She was the daughter of his cousin, Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon, Duke of Penthièvre, one of the richest men in France. Since it was certain that his wife would become the richest woman in France upon the death of her father, Louis Philippe was able to play a political role in court equal to that of his great-grandfather Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, the Regent of France during the minority of Louis XV. Louise Marie Adélaïde brought to the wealthy House of Orléans a considerable dowry of six million livres, an annual income of 240,000 livres, as well as lands, titles and furniture. Unlike her husband, the Duchess of Orléans did not support the Revolution, she was a devout Catholic who supported keeping the monarchy in France, as well as following the orders of Pope Pius VI. This was the causes of one of the rifts of the couple, as their first son, the future "King of the French", followed his father's footsteps and joined the Jacobin faction; the Duke and Duchess of Orléans had six children: A daughter.
During the first few months of their marriage, the couple appeared devoted to each other, but the Duke went back to the life of libertinage he had led before his marriage. The Duke was a well-known womanizer and, like several of his ancestors, such as Louis XIV and Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, had several illegitimate children. During the summer of 1772, the Duke began his secret liaison with one of his wife's ladies-in-waiting, Stéphanie Félicité Ducrest de St-Albin, comtesse de Genlis, the niece of Madame de Montesson, the morganatic wife of Philippe's father. Passionate at first, the liaison cooled within a few months and, by the spring of 1773, was reported to be "dead". After the romantic affair was over, Madame de Genlis remained in the service of Marie-Adélaïde at the Palais-Royal, a trusted friend to both the Duke and the Duchess, they both appreciated her intelligence and, in July 1779, she became the governess of the couple's twin daughters. One of his most known lovers was Grace Elliot.
It was alleged that Lady Edward FitzGerald, born Stephanie Caroline Anne Syms known as Pamela, was a natural daughter of the Duke and the Countess of Genlis. He recognized a son he had with Marguerite Françoise Bouvier de la Mothe de Cépoy, comtesse de Buffon, Victor Leclerc de Buffon, known as the chevalier de Saint-Paul and chevalier d'Orléans. In 18th century France, it was common for royal princes to receive high positions in the military. From a young age, Philippe d'Orléans displayed his interest in the Marine royale, from which he received three years of training. Due to his great relationship with Marine royale officials, the French army entrusted him with the command of a French fleet squadron called the Saint-Esprit in a battle against Great Britain at Ouessant during the American Revolutionary War in 1778; when he did not obey the comte d'Orvilliers's orders to close in on the rear Brit
Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
Philippe, Duke of Orléans was the younger son of Louis XIII of France and his wife, Anne of Austria. His older brother was the famous "Sun King", Louis XIV. Styled Duke of Anjou from birth, Philippe became Duke of Orléans upon the death of his uncle Gaston in 1660. In 1661, Philippe received the dukedoms of Valois and Chartres. Following Philippe's victory in battle in 1671, Louis XIV added the dukedom of Nemours, the marquisates of Coucy and Folembray, the countships of Dourdan and Romorantin. During the reign of his brother he was known as Monsieur, the traditional style at the court of France for the younger brother of the king. Although he was open about his homosexual behaviour and acted effeminately, he fulfilled his royal duty and married twice fathering several children. In fact, he was the founder of the House of Orléans, a cadet branch of the ruling House of Bourbon, thus the direct ancestor of Louis Philippe I, who ruled France from 1830 until 1848 in the July Monarchy. Through the children of his two marriages, Philippe became an ancestor of most modern-day Roman Catholic royalty, giving him the nickname of "the grandfather of Europe".
Philippe's other achievements include his decisive victory as military commander at the Battle of Cassel in 1677. Through careful personal administration, Philippe augmented the fortunes of the House of Orléans. Philippe was born on 21 September 1640 at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye in the town of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the day before his mother Anne’s 39th birthday; as the son of a ruling king, the infant Philippe held the rank of a Fils de France. As such, he ranked behind his older brother Louis, Dauphin of France, who inherited the French throne before Philippe reached the age of three. From birth, Philippe was second in line to the throne of France and was entitled to the style of Royal Highness, he was born in the presence of his father Louis XIII, the Princess of Condé, the Duchess of Vendôme, prominent members of the Bourbon dynasty. An hour after his birth, he was baptised in a private ceremony by Dominique Séguier, Bishop of Meaux, given the name Philippe. Louis XIII had wanted to give the infant the title Count of Artois in honour of a recent French victory in Arras within the county of Artois.
However, Louis respected tradition and gave him the title of Duke of Anjou instead, a title granted to the younger sons of French kings since the fourteenth century. After his baptism, Philippe was put in the care of Françoise de Souvré, marquise de Lansac, who looked after his older brother, in 1643 succeeded by Marie-Catherine de Senecey. At the death of their father Louis XIII in May 1643, Philippe's older brother ascended to the throne of France as Louis XIV, their mother Queen Anne revoked the late king's will to arrange for a power-sharing agreement with Cardinal Mazarin, serving as Louis XIII's chief minister. Anne was now in full control of her children, something she had been vying for since their birth; as the younger brother of the king, Philippe was addressed as le Petit Monsieur, since his uncle Gaston, the younger brother of a French king, was still alive. Gaston was known as le Grand Monsieur, it was not until 1660 at the death of Gaston that Philippe would be known as Monsieur or as the Duke of Orléans.
The child Philippe was acknowledged to be intelligent. The Duchess of Montpensier dubbed him the "prettiest child in the world", while his mother's friend and confidant, Madame de Motteville said of Philippe that he displayed a "lively intelligence" early on. From 1646 on Philippe spend some of his childhood at the Hôtel de Villeroy / Cremerie de Paris, house of Nicolas V de Villeroy tutor of his brother Louis XIV; the children played there with Catherine de Villeroy and François de Villeroy In the autumn of 1647, at age seven, Philippe caught smallpox, but recovered and convalesced at the Palais-Royal. A year he was taken from the care of women and, on 11 May 1648 carried out his first official ceremony when he was baptised publicly at the Palais Royal, his godparents were his uncle Gaston and aunt Queen Henrietta Maria of England. He was placed in the care of François de La Mothe Le Vayer and the Abbé de Choisy, he was educated by the maréchal du Plessis-Praslin. His tutors were chosen by Mazarin, created the superintendent of the prince's education by his mother.
His education emphasized languages, literature and dancing. Despite having a household of his own, his behaviour was watched by his mother and Mazarin, who made sure that Philippe had no meaningful financial freedom from the crown; when Philippe was eight, the civil war known as the Fronde began in France. It lasted until 1653 in its two main phases: the Fronde Parlementaire and the Fronde des nobles. During the conflict, the royal family was obliged to flee Paris on the night of 9 February 1651 for the safety of Saint-Germain-en-Laye in order to avoid a revolt by the nobility against Mazarin; when peace returned, the decision was made for Philippe to move his household to the Palais des Tuileries the residence of the duchess of Montpensier opposite the Palais Royal. At the coronation of Louis XIV on 7 June 1654, Philippe acted as dean, placing the crown of France on his brother's head. All his life, Philippe would be a noted lover of etiquette and panoply, ensuring that all ceremonial details were adhered to.
In late June 1658, Louis became gravely ill. Presumed to have typhoid, Louis was pronounced dead when, in mid-July, he began to recover; the illness made heir presumptive to the throne, the centre of attention. For fear of infection, Philippe could not see h