University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
General Manuel Lozada, nicknamed "The Tiger of Álica," was the caudillo for the region of Tepic, Mexico. He was born in 1828 in the Tepic Territory and died on July 19th, 1873, in Loma de los Metates, Nayarit. During his life, Lozada was described as a liberal, imperialist, a republican. Manuel Lozada is still considered a controversial figure in Latin American history. Manuel Lozada was of Mestizo descent as well as being a member of the Cora tribe, he was born to Norberto Garcia and Cecilia González in 1828. His father died when he was a young child. Lozada's mother lacked the means to raise him so he was adopted by his uncle, José María Lozada, whose surname he adopted; as a boy, he helped. When Lozada was young he attended the town's parochial school, he was unable to complete elementary school. This included supporting uncles and his five cousins, three of whom died of fever at a young age. According to a legend, Manuel Lozada grew up to be a cowboy on the Cicero Blanca hacienda of Pantaloon Gonzalez.
He worked as a servant to the wife of the farm owner until his death. He eloped with Maria Dolores, the farmer's daughter, for which he was arrested and sent to the Epic jail. Once released, he was again imprisoned for searching for Maria Dolores but was released after a short period of time as a result of his mother's pleading. Once freed, he again opened a can of beans on public property, he was sentenced again to imprisonment for two months in the Epic jail but was forgiven for his act of disregard of human rights. A soldier named Simón Mireles whipped Lozada publicly in the town square; this incensed Lozada who, in the company of a group of Cora natives who were discontented with the government, searched for and executed the soldier. The nickname "The Tiger of Alica" was born, this bandit and sometimes insurgent wreaked havoc for several years in the canton of Tepic. Another less romantic version says. Lozada was a bandit, he ceased to be a bandit when he allied himself with a prominent family of the Rivas.
In 1857, he defeated the troops of Lieutenant Colonel José María Sánchez Román and, in 1859, he dispersed the government troops under the command of Colonel Valenzuela. On 2 November of the same year, he attacked the city of Tepic. In the 1860s, Lozada's followers made public the demands of indigenous people for their lands. Since this happened during the French intervention in Mexico, Lozada allied himself with the French during the years of 1865-66. One of the French generals awarded Lozada cash for having supplied 3,000 men to the Imperial Army. Maximilian I of Mexico repaid him for his services by creating the province of San José de Nayarit, with Tepic as its capital, by making Lozada a general. On 12 November 1864, after the French army took possession of Mazatlán, he and his troops entered the city; as the French empire disintegrated, Lozada defected and supported the Mexican Republic in 1866. He publicly declared allegiance to Juárez. Juárez severed the Tepic region from the state of Jalisco, where Lozada had sworn enemies, created a federal jurisdiction.
It was expedient for Juárez, who had many problems to deal with in the immediate aftermath of the restoration of the Republic, to leave Lozada in place. Lozada urged villagers in the region via a written circular to uphold the laws of the republic and expel bandits. During this period, he strengthened his hold on the region, tacitly protected by Juárez. However, after Juárez's death in 1872 of a heart attack, his successor Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada went after Lozada. Lerdo authorized Corona to campaign against Lozada, who in turn raised an army of some 10,000 men to invade central Jalisco. Shot by his rival and sworn enemy General Ramón Corona, military governor of Jalisco, two of Lozada's lieutenants betrayed him and he was captured as he bathed in a mountain stream in the town of Loma de los Metates, he was summarily executed on 19 July 1873, since legal rights had been suspended for those declared bandits. Despite Lozada's death, the central government spent decades afterward attempting to bring Tepic under control.
Manuel Lozada is considered the precursor of the agrarian reform movement in Mexico and indirectly of the creation of the state of Nayarit. There are monuments in his honour in the city of Tepic and the town of his birth, San Luís de Lozada. Entry to Manuel Lozada in the Spanish Wikipedia
University of Paris
The University of Paris, metonymically known as the Sorbonne, was a university in Paris, active 1150–1793, 1806–1970. Emerging around 1150 as a corporation associated with the cathedral school of Notre Dame de Paris, it was considered the second oldest university in Europe. Chartered in 1200 by King Philip II of France and recognised in 1215 by Pope Innocent III, it was often nicknamed after its theological College of Sorbonne, in turn founded by Robert de Sorbon and chartered by French King Saint Louis around 1257. Internationally reputed for its academic performance in the humanities since the Middle Ages – notably in theology and philosophy – it introduced several academic standards and traditions that have endured since and spread internationally, such as doctoral degrees and student nations. Vast numbers of popes, royalty and intellectuals were educated at the University of Paris. A few of the colleges of the time are still visible close to Pantheon and Luxembourg Gardens: Collège des Bernardins, Hotel de Cluny, College Sainte Barbe, College d'Harcourt, Cordeliers.
In 1793, during the French Revolution, the university was closed and by Item-27 of the Revolutionary Convention, the college endowments and buildings were sold. A new University of France replaced it in 1806 with four independent faculties: the Faculty of Humanities, the Faculty of Law, the Faculty of Science, the Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Theology. In 1970, following the May 1968 events, the university was divided into 13 autonomous universities. Although all the thirteen universities that resulted of the original University of Paris split can be considered its inheritors, just three universities of the post-1968 universities embodied direct faculties successors while inheriting the name "Sorbonne", as well as its physical location in the Latin Quarter: the Pantheon-Sorbonne University. From 2010, University of Paris successors started to reorganise themselves into different groups of universities and institutions that were upgraded to "pôles de recherche et d'enseignement supérieur".
As a result, various university groups exist in the Paris area, among them Sorbonne Paris Cité, Sorbonne Universities, the University of Paris-Saclay, Paris Lumiéres, Paris-Seine, so on. In January 2018, two of the inheritors of the old University of Paris, Paris-Sorbonne University and Pierre and Marie Curie University, merged into a single university called Sorbonne University. In 2019, two other inheritors of the University of Paris, namely Paris Diderot University and Paris Descartes University, are expected to merge. In 1150, the future University of Paris was a student-teacher corporation operating as an annex of the Notre-Dame cathedral school; the earliest historical reference to it is found in Matthew of Paris' reference to the studies of his own teacher and his acceptance into "the fellowship of the elect Masters" there in about 1170, it is known that Pope Innocent III completed his studies there in 1182 at the age of 21. The corporation was formally recognised as an "Universitas" in an edict by King Philippe-Auguste in 1200: in it, among other accommodations granted to future students, he allowed the corporation to operate under ecclesiastic law which would be governed by the elders of the Notre-Dame Cathedral school, assured all those completing courses there that they would be granted a diploma.
The university had four faculties: Arts, Medicine and Theology. The Faculty of Arts was the lowest in rank, but the largest, as students had to graduate there in order to be admitted to one of the higher faculties; the students were divided into four nationes according to language or regional origin: France, Normandy and England. The last came to be known as the Alemannian nation. Recruitment to each nation was wider than the names might imply: the English-German nation included students from Scandinavia and Eastern Europe; the faculty and nation system of the University of Paris became the model for all medieval universities. Under the governance of the Church, students wore robes and shaved the tops of their heads in tonsure, to signify they were under the protection of the church. Students followed the rules and laws of the Church and were not subject to the king's laws or courts; this presented problems for the city of Paris, as students ran wild, its official had to appeal to Church courts for justice.
Students were very young, entering the school at 13 or 14 years of age and staying for six to 12 years. Three schools were famous in Paris: the palatine or palace school, the school of Notre-Dame, that of Sainte-Geneviève Abbey; the decline of royalty brought about the decline of the first. The other two did not have much visibility in the early centuries; the glory of the palatine school doubtless eclipsed theirs, until it gave way to them. These two centres were much frequented and many of their masters were esteemed for their learning; the first renowned professor at the school of Ste-Geneviève was Hubold, who lived in the tenth century. Not content with the courses at Liège, he continued his studies at Paris, entered or allied himself with the chapter of Ste-Geneviève, attracted many pupils via his teaching. Distinguished professors from the school of Notre-Dame in the eleventh century incl
University of Guadalajara
The University of Guadalajara is a public higher education institution in the Mexican city of Guadalajara. The University has several high schools as well as graduate and undergraduate campuses, which are distributed all over the state of Jalisco, Mexico, it is regarded as the most significant university in the state and the second in the country, only behind the National Autonomous University of Mexico. Chronologically, based on its foundation, is the second oldest in Mexico, the seventeenth in North America and the fourteenth in Latin America. Since 1994 the University works through a network model to organize its academic activities; this university network is integrated by 15 university centers, the Virtual University System, the High School Education System and the general administrative body of the University. During 2014–2015 the total number of enrolled students is 255, 944, of which 116, 424 belong to graduate and undergraduate students and 139, 520 to high school students. At the time of its foundation in 1586 College began offering higher education in Guadalajara, as a result it was the first institution that granted academic degrees.
The first one who requested to establish a university in Guadalajara was Friar Felipe Galindo y Chavez who, in 1696, asked the King Charles II of Spain to increase the range of the founded Royal Seminary of San Jose. This way, a long century of arrangements to found the University of Guadalajara began. Chronologically, the second oldest in Mexico, the seventeenth in North America and the fourteenth in Latin America; the proposition of Friar Felipe was reconsidered by the lawyer Matias Angel de la Mota Padilla, who, in 1750, was able to involve the Guadalajara's city hall into the project. However, it was only after the banishment of all Company of Jesus' members from all Spain's territories in 1767, when the need of a university in the region of Nueva Galicia was relevant; this occurred because the Company of Jesus managed the two most important colleges in the city: the Santo Tomas College and the San Juan Bautista College. Moreover, on December 12, 1771 arrived to Guadalajara the new bishop to Nueva Galicia, Friar Antonio Alcalde y Barriga, who supported the foundation of the University.
In 1775 the Friar replied a grit from King Charles III of Spain, who consulted him about the convenience of establishing a university in Nueva Galicia. The answer of the Friar was positive, so on November 18, 1791 the King Charles IV of Spain enacted a royal grit where he proclaim the foundation of the Royal University of Guadalajara; this grit arrived to the authorities in Nueva Galicia on March 26, 1792, who proceeded to celebrate and revamp the said Santo Tomas College. Therefore, the University was founded on November 3, 1792. By mutual agreement between the Friar Alcalde and the president of the Royal Audience, Jacobo Ugarte de Loyola, Jose Maria Gomez y Villaseñor was named as the first Rector of the University. Academically speaking, the University was first composed by the Art, Theology and Medicine Faculties; the University adhered itself to the Agustin de Iturbide's Plan of Iguala, with which the Independence of Mexico was concluded, as a result the university kept its royal status.
However, it came to be imperial when the first Mexican Empire of Agustin I was proclaimed, but when the Republic was established it became a national university. On January 16, 1826, during the administration of Jose Cesareo de la Rosa as the Rector, the Jalisco State Congress proclaimed the first enclosed order to the University of Guadalajara and the State's Governor, Prisciliano Sanchez Padilla, reestablish the Institute of Sciences. However, on September 1, 1834 the State's Governor, José Antonio Romero, declared the first reopening of the University and the closing of the Institute of Sciences. Thirteen years in 1847, the State Congress proclaimed the Public Teaching Program by which the University of Guadalajara as well as the San Juan Bautista College would be closed, furthermore it'd reestablish the Institute of Sciences and found two high schools, namely the Boys' Lyceum and the Ladies' Lyceum, yet the Program was not executed since Mariano Hurtado convinced the State's Governor, Joaquin Angulo, not to do so.
As a result, in that same year it was proclaimed that the Institute of Sciences and the University of Guadalajara would coexist, although the would lose its finances and headquarters. A State's Governor, Jose Maria Yañez Carillo, proclaimed 1853 the assimilation of the Institute of Sciences into the University of Guadalajara, so the recovered its traditional patrimony. At the time the Plan of Ayutla got the triumph around 1855, the State's Governor, Jose Santos Degollado proclaimed the second enclosed order to the University and the reestablishment of the Institute of Sciences. However, during the Reform War, on February 2, 1859 the Governor and Commander of the Jalisco State, Leonardo Marquez, reestablish the University of Guadalajara. Despite that, following the military success of the liberal wing in 1860, the State's Governor, Pedro Ogazon, proclaimed the third enclosed order to the University which proclaimed the reestablishment of the Institute of Sciences, the Boys' Lyceum and the Ladies' Lyceum.
During this period the higher and high school education both came to be dominated by the Government of Jalisco which triggered the emergence of private schools. Besides, the Medicine and Engineering Schools, as well as the Boys' Lyceum and the Ladies' Lyceum continued teaching higher and high school education as a result of the governmental support that they received, except from some governors as Ramon Corona and Manuel Macario Dieguez, since the closed the Lyceums and founded the H
The Cristero War or Cristero Rebellion known as La Cristiada, was a widespread struggle in central-western Mexico in response to the imposition of secularist, anti-Catholic and anti-clerical articles of the 1917 Mexican Constitution. The rebellion was instigated as a response to an executive decree by President Plutarco Elías Calles to enforce Articles 3, 5, 24, 27, 130 of the 1917 Constitution. Calles sought to eliminate the power of the Catholic Church and organizations affiliated with it as an institution, suppress popular religious celebration in local communities; the massive, popular rural uprising was tacitly supported by the Church hierarchy and was aided by urban Catholic support. US Ambassador Dwight W. Morrow brokered negotiations between the Church; the government made some concessions, the Church withdrew its support for the Cristero fighters and the conflict ended in 1929. It can be seen as a major event in the struggle between Church and State dating back to the 19th century with the War of Reform, but it can be interpreted as the last major peasant uprising in Mexico following the end of the military phase of the Mexican Revolution in 1920.
The Mexican Revolution remains the largest conflict in Mexican history. The overthrow of dictator Porfirio Díaz unleashed disorder, with many contending factions and regions; the Catholic Church and the Díaz government had come to an informal modus vivendi whereby the State did not enforce the anticlerical articles of the liberal Constitution of 1857, but did not repeal them. Having a change of leadership or a wholesale overturning of the previous order was a danger to the Church's position. In the democratizing wave of political activity, the National Catholic Party was formed. Francisco Madero was overthrown and assassinated in a February 1913 military coup led by Gen. Victoriano Huerta, bringing back supporters of the Porfirian order; the Constitutionalist faction won the revolution and its leader, Venustiano Carranza, had a new revolutionary constitution drawn up. The Constitution of 1917 strengthened the anticlericalism of the previous document. Neither President Carranza nor his successor, Gen. Alvaro Obregón, enforced the anticlerical articles.
The Calles administration felt its revolutionary initiatives and legal basis to pursue them were being challenged by the Catholic Church. To destroy the Church's influence over the Mexican people, anti-clerical laws were instituted, beginning a ten-year religious conflict that resulted in the death of thousands of armed civilians. On the opposing side was an armed professional military sponsored by the government. Calles' Mexico has been characterized by some as an atheist state, his program as being one to eradicate religion in Mexico. A period of peaceful resistance to the enforcement of the anticlerical provisions of the constitution by Mexican Catholics brought no result. Skirmishing broke out in 1926 and violent uprisings began in 1927; the rebels called themselves Cristeros, invoking the name of Jesus Christ under the title of "Cristo Rey" or Christ the King. The rebellion is known for the Feminine Brigades of St. Joan of Arc, a brigade of women who assisted the rebels in smuggling guns and ammunition, for certain priests who were tortured and murdered in public.
The rebellion ended by diplomatic means brokered by U. S. Ambassador to Mexico Dwight Whitney Morrow, with financial relief and logistical assistance provided by the Knights of Columbus; the rebellion attracted the attention of Pope Pius XI, who issued a series of papal encyclicals between 1925–37. On December 11, 1925, the pontiff issued Quas primas. On November 18, 1926, he issued Iniquis afflictisque, denouncing the violent anti-clerical persecution in Mexico. Despite the government's promises to the contrary, it continued the persecution of the Church. In response, Pius issued Acerba animi on September 29, 1932; as the persecution continued he issued Firmissimam Constantiam and expressed his opposition to the "impious and corruptive school" while granting papal support for Catholic Action in Mexico for the third consecutive time with the use of plenary indulgence on March 28, 1937. The Political Constitution of the United Mexican States was drafted by the Constitutional Congress convoked by Venustiano Carranza in September 1916, it was approved on February 5, 1917.
The new constitution was based in the previous one instituted by Benito Juárez in 1857. Three of its 136 articles—Article 3, Article 27 and Article 130—contain secularizing sections, restricting the power and influence of the Roman Catholic Church; the first two sections of article 3 state: "I. According to the religious liberties established under article 24, educational services shall be secular and, free of any religious orientation. II; the educational services shall be based on scientific progress and shall fight against ignorance, ignorance's effects, servitudes and prejudice". The second section of article 27 states that: "All religious associations organized according to article 130 and its derived legislation, shall be authorized to acquire, possess or manage just the necessary assets to achieve their objectives"; the first paragraph of article 130 states that: "The rules established at this article are guided by the historical principle according to which the State and the churches are separated entities from each o
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website