Université Savoie-Mont Blanc
The University Savoie Mont Blanc is a university in the region of Savoy, with one campus in Annecy and two around Chambéry. The university was founded in 1979 from several colleges founded in the 1960s and 1970s. To avoid a straight choice between the two biggest towns of the Savoie/Haute-Savoie region, the authorities decided to set up a campus in each city for different areas of study; the university has three campuses: The Annecy-le-Vieux campus is the university's "technology institute", teaches engineering-related subjects and business and administration related subjects. There is either the faculty of economics and management. Jacob-Bellecombette is the campus for students of languages, social sciences and economics, it has a library, sports one cafeteria. Chambéry is the home of the university's administrative buildings; the Technolac campus at Bourget-du-Lac teaches science. Between 1295 and 1563, Chambéry was the capital of Savoy; the University of Turin was founded in 1404, Chambéry was the home of an école préparatoire, a school preparing students to go there.
But there was no university in Chambéry in this period, Turin took over from Chambéry as Savoy's capital in 1563. The annexation of Savoy by France after the unification of Italy meant that Chambéry had an académie between 1860 and 1920, but not a university. During the movement creating new universities in the 1960s, a Savoy Collège Scientifique Universitaire was created a Collège Littéraire Universitaire in 1963; these colleges were merged, creating the Centre Universitaire de Savoie, at Chambéry, on 9 May 1969. In 1973, Annecy's technical and business college, the Institut Universitaire Technologique, was founded, from 27 June 1979, the CUS was classed as a university, it was renamed the Université de Savoie and in May 2014 Université Savoie Mont Blanc After Paris I, Pantheon-Assas University and Strasbourg III, Savoy has the fourth-highest number of Erasmus exchange students in France. The school of international relations has signed 228 conventions with universities in 82 countries, the university takes more than 1,000 foreign students per year overall.
Europe: 71% United Kingdom 17% Italy 10.5% Germany 10% Spain 8% Sweden 5% North America: 7% PECO-NEI: 5% Asia: 6% North Africa/Middle-East: 5% Latin America: 2,5% Africa: 2,5% Australia/New Zealand: 1% All in French unless stated. Official homepage of the University of Savoy Mont Blanc IUT d'Annecy Département Techniques de Commercialisation Département Mesures Physiques Département Génie Mécanique et Productique Département Génie Électrique et Informatique Industrielle Département Réseaux et Télécoms IAE Savoie Mont Blanc Polytech Annecy-Chambéry School of literature and human sciences School of law and business IAE Savoie Mont Blanc School of applied sciences IUT de Chambéry Polytech Annecy-Chambéry
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère. Located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, Grenoble is the capital of the department of Isère and is an important European scientific centre; the city advertises itself as the "Capital of the Alps", due to its size and its proximity to the mountains. Grenoble's history goes back to a time when it was a small Gallic village, it gained somewhat in stature by becoming the capital of the Dauphiné in the 11th century, but Grenoble remained for most of its history a modest parliamentary and garrison city on the borders of the kingdom of France. Industrial development increased the prominence of Grenoble through several periods of economic expansion over the last three centuries; this started with a booming glove industry in the 18th and 19th centuries, continued with the development of a strong hydropower industry in the late 19th to early 20th centuries, ended with a post-World War II economic boom symbolized by the holding of the X Olympic Winter Games in 1968.
The city has grown to be one of Europe's most important research and innovation centers, with each fifth inhabitant working directly in these domains. The population of the city of Grenoble was 160,215 at the 2013 census, while the population of the Grenoble metropolitan area was 664,832; the residents of the city are called "Grenoblois". The many suburb communes that make up the rest of the metropolitan area include three with populations exceeding 20,000: Saint-Martin-d'Hères, Échirolles, Fontaine. For the ecclesiastical history, see Bishopric of Grenoble; the first references to what is now Grenoble date back to 43 BC. Cularo was at that time a small Gallic village of the Allobroges tribe, near a bridge across the Isère. Three centuries and with insecurity rising in the late Roman empire, a strong wall was built around the small town in 286 AD; the Emperor Gratian visited Cularo and, touched by the people's welcome, made the village a Roman city. In honour of this, Cularo was renamed Gratianopolis in 381.
Christianity spread to the region during the 4th century, the diocese of Grenoble was founded in 377 AD. From that time on, the bishops exercised significant political power over the city; until the French Revolution, they styled themselves the "bishops and princes of Grenoble". After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the city was part of the first Burgundian kingdom in the 5th century and the second Burgundian Kingdom of Arles until 1032, when it was integrated into the Holy Roman Empire. Arletian rule was interrupted between 970 due to Arab rule based in Fraxinet. Grenoble grew in the 11th century when the Counts of Albon chose the city as the capital of their territories. At the time, their possessions were a patchwork of several territories sprawled across the region; the central position of Grenoble allowed the Counts to strengthen their authority. When they took the title of "Dauphins", Grenoble became the capital of the State of Dauphiné. Despite their status, the Counts had to share authority over the city with the Bishop of Grenoble.
One of the most famous of those was Saint Hugh. Under his rule, the city's bridge was rebuilt, a regular and leper hospital were built; the inhabitants of Grenoble took advantage of the conflicts between the Counts and the bishops and obtained the recognition of a Charter of Customs that guaranteed their rights. That charter was confirmed by Kings Louis XI in 1447 and Francis I in 1541. In 1336 the last Dauphin Humbert II founded a court of justice, the Conseil delphinal, which settled at Grenoble in 1340, he established the University of Grenoble in 1339. Without an heir, Humbert sold his state to France in 1349, on the condition that the heir to the French crown used the title of Dauphin; the first one, the future Charles V, spent nine months in Grenoble. The city remained the capital of the Dauphiné, henceforth a province of France, the Estates of Dauphiné were created; the only Dauphin who governed his province was the future Louis XI, whose "reign" lasted from 1447 to 1456. It was only under his rule.
The Old Conseil Delphinal became a Parlement, strengthening the status of Grenoble as a Provincial capital. He ordered the construction of the Palais du Parlement and ensured that the Bishop pledged allegiance, thus forging the political union of the city. At that time, Grenoble was a crossroads between Vienne, Geneva and Savoy, it was the industrial centre of the Dauphiné and the biggest city of the province, but nonetheless a rather small one. Owing to Grenoble's geographical situation, French troops were garrisoned in the city and its region during the Italian Wars. Charles VIII, Louis XII, Francis I went several times to Grenoble, its people had to suffer from the exactions of the soldiers. The nobility of the region took part in doing so gained significant prestige; the best-known of its members was Bayard, "the knight without fear and beyond reproach". Grenoble suffered as a result of the French Wars of Religion; the Dauphiné was indeed an important settlement for Protestants and therefore experienced several conflicts.
The baron des Adrets, the leader of the Huguenots, pillaged the Cathedral of Grenoble and destroyed the tombs of the former Dauphins. In August 1575, Lesdiguières became the new leader of the Protestants and, thanks to the accession of Henry
Claude Bernard University Lyon 1
The Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, is one of the three public universities of Lyon, France. The dominant areas of study covered by the university are medicine; the main administrative and research facilities are located in Villeurbanne. Other campus are the domains of Gerland and Laennec. Attached to the University are the Hospices civils de Lyon including the "Centre hospitalier Lyon Sud", the largest teaching hospital in the Rhône-Alpes region and second largest in France; the university is named after the French physiologist Claude Bernard. It is the heritage of the "faculté des sciences de Lyon", founded in 1833 and the "faculté de médecine", founded in 1874. Out of the 2630 faculty 700 are medical practitioners at local teaching hospitals; the university is independent since January 2009. Its yearly budget is 421 Mio Euros. Biology Chemistry and Biochemistry Mathematics Physics Earth science Electrical engineering Computer science Mechanical engineering Medicine Pharmacy Odontology Audiology Occupational therapy Physiotherapy Speech therapy Ophthalmology Psychomotricity Sport Observatory of Lyon ISFA, Graduate School of Actuarial Studies Engineering school École polytechnique universitaire de l'université Lyon-I List of colleges and universities List of modern universities in Europe Nataly Mermet, Équation: 40 ans d'innovation à l'Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Glénat, 2011.
Université Claude Bernard Website
University of Maine (France)
The University of Le Mans is a French university, based in Le Mans. It is under the Academy of Nantes; the university opened in 1977. In 1965, the decision was taken to open a literary college on the edge of the city of Le Mans; this college will be only an annex of the University of Caen, where decisions will be taken jointly by the leaders of the university with the leaders of the city of Le Mans. The hill of Vaurouzé is chosen to host the new study center; the proximity of a few kilometers with the hospital suggests the possibility of opening a hospital one day. In 1966, the buildings of the CLOUS were built. Accommodation and a restaurant are the only services available. A year it is the IUTs of business management, business administration and chemistry that open. In 1968, the IUT was reinforced by two sections: mechanical production engineering. Cities continue to be created. Le Mans becomes the smallest university annex in France with its 1,600 students. A year in 1969, the city of Le Mans obtained its total independence from the University of Caen.
The University of Le Mans is no longer an annex. In 1975, two new UFRs were opened: Letters; the city tries to palliate "the leak of gray matter". The young Manceaux thus tend to turn to the universities of Rennes, Tours or Nantes, in view of the few higher studies achievable at Le Mans; the city wants to urbanize its site, on a project that could take 20 to 30 years, bringing it closer to the western end of the city, symbolized by the hospital. The University of Le Mans was recognized by the Minister of Higher Education in 1977. A final science department is created, bringing the number of students to 3,000; the leaders are aware. We begin to see what many generations of students will call "turbo-profs" who come directly from the capital every day to teach at the university, they are astonished to see a Faculty, having a privileged natural setting, far from the stereotype of the French faculties disposed in the heart of the city center. In 1985, there was a large increase in enrollment. However, all the faculties have a major disadvantage: the campus is far too far from the city center, in the evening there is a desolate campus, rather distressing.
In 1987, the capacity of reception is overwhelmed by 6 000 students and amphitheatres are not enough to welcome all this world. The state does nothing. A nursing school has been opened, but since 1966 and the opening of the CHU of Angers, the utility is no longer obvious. With two CHUs in the region, the construction of a third is no longer envisaged; the urban community of Le Mans takes matters into its own hands. Faced with the refusal of the state to provide additional means, the CUM uses its caisses to enlarge the campus West; the amphitheater Robert Garnier of the UFR Rights and Letters is entirely subsidized by the city itself. But this is not enough to solve the problems of places in the amphis. While waiting to find the necessary funds, the city requisitioned the Palais des congrès to dispense the most important and most requested courses. In 1989, the technopole opened next to the West campus. In 1990, resources were given to the university to build three new buildings. Rather than sprawl, the leaders choose the expansion of premises built.
This restructuring campaign will cost a total of 9 million francs at the time. The CUEP opens its new premises while the city plans an investment of 63 million francs by 2000. In 1992, the European institute of music professions decides to settle in the center of the technopole, close to the university; the institute welcomes students from all over France and European students for a rare and recognized training. In the same year, the CTTM: Le Mans Technology Transfer Center opens its doors; the link between technopole and university is thus realized. In 1993, ISMANS, the Higher Institute of Materials of Le Mans, settled on the campus. Two amphitheatres, eight laboratories and twelve classrooms are dedicated to him. New student housing is created. In 1994, the professional university opened its doors. Partnerships with neighboring companies are in place. Two new buildings are still needed in rights; the University House is landed. It allows for better coordination on campus; the development of the streets is revised, the science department is enlarged with 21 million francs taken over by the CUM.
In the same year, the IUP micro-informatics-electronics diversified the cultural offer. In 1995, cars were considered to be too numerous on the campus: lanes reserved for buses were fitted, with a device preventing light vehicles from using these lanes. Three lines serve the university; this allows the buses not to be bothered by the many cars parked in places that are not intended for them. In 1997, for the twenty years of the campus, the Higher School of Geometers and topographers comes to settle in Le Mans. In 1998, the ENSIM, the National School of Engineers of Le Mans, settled down; the years 1997 to 1999 are the most successful years with about 11,000 students enrolled throughout the campus and the university is full of training. A central university library is built on two floors; the scattered premises of the former BUs of the various UFRs are abandoned to make them classrooms or IBs, libraries of institutes, more sharp than the central BU. In 2007, the Le
Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km south from Paris, 320 km north from Marseille and 56 km northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais. Lyon had a population of 513,275 in 2015, it is the capital of the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. The Lyon metropolitan area had a population of 2,265,375 in 2014, the second-largest urban area in France; the city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, historical and architectural landmarks. Lyon was an important area for the production and weaving of silk. Lyon played a significant role in the history of cinema: it is where Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinematograph, it is known for its light festival, the Fête des Lumières, which begins every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a major centre for banking, as well as for the chemical and biotech industries.
The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games, in recent years has fostered a growing local start-up sector. Lyon hosts the international headquarters of Interpol, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and Euronews, it was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014. It ranked second in 39th globally in Mercer's 2015 liveability rankings. According to the historian Dio Cassius, in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered the creation of a settlement for Roman refugees of war with the Allobroges; these refugees had been expelled from Vienne and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. The foundation was built on Fourvière hill and called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods; the city became referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as "Desired Mountain" is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary. In contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, dúnon.
The Romans recognised that Lugdunum's strategic location at the convergence of two navigable rivers made it a natural communications hub. The city became the starting point of the principal Roman roads in the area, it became the capital of the province, Gallia Lugdunensis. Two Emperors were born in this city: Claudius, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic Senators, Caracalla. Early Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, among others. In the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was Irenaeus. To this day, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as "Primat des Gaules". Burgundians fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled at Lugdunum. In 443 the Romans established the Kingdom of the Burgundians, Lugdunum became its capital in 461.
In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, Lyon went to the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I. It was made part of the Kingdom of Arles. Lyon did not come under French control until the 14th century. Fernand Braudel remarked, "Historians of Lyon are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris and Lyon, a constant structure in French development...from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution". In the late 15th century, the fairs introduced by Italian merchants made Lyon the economic counting house of France; the Bourse, built in 1749, resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air. When international banking moved to Genoa Amsterdam, Lyon remained the banking centre of France. During the Renaissance, the city's development was driven by the silk trade, which strengthened its ties to Italy. Italian influence on Lyon's architecture is still visible among historic buildings. In the 1400s and 1500s Lyon was a key centre of literary activity and book publishing, both of French writers and of Italians in exile.
In 1572, Lyon was a scene of mass violence by Catholics against Protestant Huguenots in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Two centuries Lyon was again convulsed by violence when, during the French Revolution, the citizenry rose up against the National Convention and supported the Girondins; the city was besieged by Revolutionary armies for over two months before surrendering in October 1793. Many buildings were destroyed around the Place Bellecour, while Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois and Joseph Fouché administered the execution of more than 2,000 people; the Convention ordered that its name be changed to "Liberated City" and a plaque was erected that proclaimed "Lyons made war on Liberty. A decade Napoleon ordered the reconstruction of all the buildings demolished during this period; the Convention was not the only target within Lyon during the 1789-1799 French Revolution. After the National Convention faded into history, the French Directory appeared and days after the September 4, 1797, Coup of 18 Fructidor, a Directory's commissioner was assassinated in Ly
University of Franche-Comté
The University of Franche-Comté is a pluridisciplinary public French university located in Besançon, Franche-Comté, with decentralized campuses in Belfort, Montbéliard and Lons-le-Saunier. It is a founding member of the community of universities and institutions University of Burgundy - Franche-Comté, headquartered in Besançon and which federates universities and other higher learning institutes in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region. With 28 research labs, 667 PhD students and 788 research professors in 2016-2017, the University of Franche-Comté is well represented in the research community, it collaborates with many organizations. It has about 24,000 students, including nearly a third of scholarship students and 11% of foreign students, its Centre for Applied Linguistics is one of the world's leading schools for teaching French as a foreign language and French linguistics. The university was founded in 1423 at that time in the Duchy of Burgundy, it was moved to Besançon in 1691 as Dole was being punished for having resisted too long against the king of France Louis XIV during his conquest of the region.
The Centre for Applied Linguistics of the University of Franche-Comté ranks among the top language teaching institutions in the world. The CLA has research contacts in more than 110 countries, partners with the French Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; the Centre of Distance Teaching allow to people who are working to continue to study in different matters like history, mathematics, AEG, etc. Much of the international visibility in pure and applied science at the University of Franche-Comté comes through the CNRS FEMTO-ST with its expertise in numerous fields, including physics, mechanics, time-frequency and nanotechnology. In 2015, Dr José Lages of the University of Franche-Comté and Dima Shepelyansky of Paul Sabatier University in Toulouse published a global university ranking based on Wikipedia scholarly citations; some notable professors include: Louis Bachelier, founder of financial mathematics. Robert Badinter and criminal lawyer. Georges Duby, mediaeval historian.
Olivier Duhamel, politician. Felix Gaffiot, author of Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français. Louis Rougier, philosopher. Henri Étienne Sainte-Claire Deville, chemist known for his work with aluminium; some alumni include: Yukiya Amano, Japanese diplomat. Jean-Luc Lagarce and director. Claude Lorius, glaciologist. Yves Jégo, politician. Jean-Luc Mélenchon, politician. Hubert-Félix Thiéfaine, pop-rock singer. Abdoulaye Wade, Senegalese politician. Centre for Applied Linguistics Jardin botanique de Besançon List of early modern universities in Europe List of public universities in France by academy