Mount Holyoke College
Mount Holyoke College is a private women's liberal arts college in South Hadley, United States. It is the oldest institution within the Seven Sisters schools, an alliance of East Coast liberal arts colleges, founded to provide women with education equivalent to that provided for men in the men-only Ivy League. Mount Holyoke served as a model for other women's colleges and is part of the region's Five College Consortium, along with Amherst College, Smith College, Hampshire College, the University of Massachusetts Amherst; the school was founded in 1837 by Mary Lyon as Mount Holyoke Female Seminary. Mount Holyoke received its collegiate charter in 1888 as Mount Holyoke Seminary and College and became Mount Holyoke College in 1893. Mount Holyoke's buildings were designed between 1896 and 1960, it has a Donald Ross-designed 18-hole golf course, The Orchards, which hosted the U. S. Women's Open in 2004. U. S. News & World Report lists Mount Holyoke as the 30th-best liberal arts college in the United States in its 2019 rankings.
In 2011–2012, Mount Holyoke was one of the nation's top producers of Fulbright Scholars, ranking fourth among bachelor's institutions according to The Chronicle of Higher Education. Mount Holyoke's founder, Mary Lyon, is considered to have been an innovator in women's education. Mount Holyoke Female Seminary was one of several institutions of higher education for young women established during the first half of the 19th century. Lyon's contemporaries include Sarah Pierce. Prior to founding Mount Holyoke, Lyon contributed to the development of both Hartford Female Seminary and Ipswich Female Seminary, she was involved in the creation of Wheaton Female Seminary in 1834. Mount Holyoke Female Seminary was chartered as a teaching seminary in 1836 and opened its doors to students on 8 November 1837. Both Vassar College and Wellesley College were patterned after Mount Holyoke. From its founding, Mount Holyoke Female Seminary "had no religious affiliation". However, "students were required to attend church services, chapel talks, prayer meetings, Bible study groups.
Twice a day teachers and students spent time in private devotions. Every dorm room had two large lighted closets to give roommates privacy during their devotions". Mount Holyoke Female Seminary was the sister school to Andover Seminary; some Andover graduates looked to marry students from the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary before becoming missionaries because the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions required its missionaries to be married before starting their missions. By 1859 there were more than 60 missionary alumnae; the change in admission from Seminary to College included fundraising by the Trustees, an overhaul of the entrance requirements, course catalogue. Entrance exams were introduced at this time, scheduled in September at the college. In 1889, students traveling from the midwest could take these examinations in Freeport and within a few years, this was expanded to other cities. Many additions were made to the course catalog, starting in the 1889 academic year, students could choose to pursue degrees of Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science.
Mount Holyoke Female Seminary received its collegiate charter in 1888, becoming Mount Holyoke Seminary and College. Within 4 years, the seminary enrollment dropped from 269 to 122 to 8. In 1893, the seminary course was discontinued, the new title Mount Holyoke College was authorized. A movement towards what was referred to as cottage-style living started in 1889 by the New York Association after the change to Mount Holyoke Seminary and College. $15,000 was raised, plans were put in place for Mary Brigham Cottage, with accommodations for the president and thirty students, with priority given to those in the collegiate course. At the time, two South Hadley families agreed to host boarders, some students were permitted to live at the hotel. President Elizabeth Mead deemed both of these options unsatisfactory, pushed the Trustees to build yet another cottage. Mrs. Mead was ready to relieve the students of a large share of the drudgery of domestic work that had made up a good portion of their studies since Mary Lyon's conception of the seminary.
From 1895 to 1996 the trustees allotted funds for the employment of four women to wash the dinner dishes that had constituted the task of eight or ten students. The Mount Holyoke chapter of Phi Beta Kappa was established in 1905, it has been a sister school to Women's Christian College in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India since 1920. In the early 1970s Mount Holyoke had a long debate under the presidency of David Truman over the issue of coeducation. On 6 November 1971 the board of trustees voted to remain a women's college. On February 28, 1987, the United States Postal Service's Great Americans series issued a postage stamp featuring Mary Lyon, in honor of Mount Holyoke's Sesquicentennial. At Convocation on September 2, 2014, President Lynn Pasquerella announced a new policy allowing the admission of transgender individuals to the college, as well as the admission of students whose gender identities are non-binary. Mount Holyoke offers 50 departmental and interdepartmental majors, including the option to design a special major.
The primary degree conferred is the Bachelor of Arts degree, for which students complete 128 semester credits (one standard cour
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution; the institution moved to Newark in 1747 to the current site nine years and renamed itself Princeton University in 1896. Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, it offers professional degrees through the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance. The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University. Princeton has the largest endowment per student in the United States. From 2001 to 2018, Princeton University was ranked either first or second among national universities by U.
S. News & World Report, holding the top spot for 16 of those 18 years; as of October 2018, 65 Nobel laureates, 15 Fields Medalists and 13 Turing Award laureates have been affiliated with Princeton University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. In addition, Princeton has been associated with 21 National Medal of Science winners, 5 Abel Prize winners, 5 National Humanities Medal recipients, 209 Rhodes Scholars, 139 Gates Cambridge Scholars and 126 Marshall Scholars. Two U. S. Presidents, twelve U. S. Supreme Court Justices and numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princeton's alumni body. Princeton has graduated many prominent members of the U. S. Congress and the U. S. Cabinet, including eight Secretaries of State, three Secretaries of Defense and three of the past five Chairs of the Federal Reserve. New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey in 1746; the college was the religious capital of Scottish Presbyterian America. In 1754, trustees of the College of New Jersey suggested that, in recognition of Governor Jonathan Belcher's interest, Princeton should be named as Belcher College.
Belcher replied: "What a name that would be!" In 1756, the college moved to New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal House of Orange-Nassau of William III of England. Following the untimely deaths of Princeton's first five presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that office until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the college's focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for secular leadership in the new American nation. To this end, he solicited investment in the college. Witherspoon's presidency constituted a long period of stability for the college, interrupted by the American Revolution and the Battle of Princeton, during which British soldiers occupied Nassau Hall. In 1812, the eighth president of the College of New Jersey, Ashbel Green, helped establish the Princeton Theological Seminary next door; the plan to extend the theological curriculum met with "enthusiastic approval on the part of the authorities at the College of New Jersey".
Today, Princeton University and Princeton Theological Seminary maintain separate institutions with ties that include services such as cross-registration and mutual library access. Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the college's sole building; the cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17, 1754. During the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the country's capital for four months. Over the centuries and through two redesigns following major fires, Nassau Hall's role shifted from an all-purpose building, comprising office, dormitory and classroom space; the class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, when that same class replaced them with tigers. Nassau Hall's bell rang after the hall's construction; the bell was recast and melted again in the fire of 1855. James McCosh took office as the college's president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period, brought about by the American Civil War.
During his two decades of service, he overhauled the curriculum, oversaw an expansion of inquiry into the sciences, supervised the addition of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style to the campus. McCosh Hall is named in his honor. In 1879, the first thesis for a Doctor of Philosophy Ph. D. was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877. In 1896, the college changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides. During this year, the college underwent large expansion and became a university. In 1900, the Graduate School was established. In 1902, Woodrow Wilson, graduate of the Class of 1879, was elected the 13th president of the university. Under Wilson, Princeton introduced the preceptorial system in 1905, a then-unique concept in the US that augmented the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form in which small groups of students, or precepts, could interact with a single instructor, or preceptor, in their field of interest.
In 1906, the reservoir Lake Carnegie was created by Andrew Carnegie. A collection of historical photographs of the build
Boston University College of Communication
Boston University College of Communication is a communication school within Boston University. It was founded in 1947 as the School of Public Relations; the College of Communication is the oldest public relations school in the United States. Today, the school offers undergraduate and graduate degrees in three academic departments: Film and Television; the school's journalism and communication programs are ranked nationally with its film program ranked 11th by The Hollywood Reporter in 2013. The College of Communication building is just blocks from Fenway Park; the College of Communication is home to many of Boston University's most popular student-run organizations, including butv10, WTBU Radio, AdLab, PRLab. COM offers special internship programs in Los Angeles, Washington D. C. and London. Each summer, the school hosts the Academy of Media Production, a four-week program for high-school students, the Pre-College Summer Journalism Institute, sponsored by the New England Center for Investigative Reporting.
AdClub AdLab BU PRSSA butv10 PR Lab WTBU Radio The COMmunicator The Comment 201 Magazine Rory Albanese Scott Arpajian Ellen Bard Corinne Brinkerhoff Kevin Burns Andy Cohen Jerry Crasnick Bruce Feirstein Kaleigh Fratkin Naoko Funayama Tony Gilroy Richard Gladstein Stan Grossfeld Bonnie Hammer Ted Harbert Ray Kotcher Peter Ladue Debbie Liebling Shane McMahon Stephanie McMahon-Levesque Joe Nocera Bill O'Reilly Jean Picker Firstenberg Scott Rosenberg Joe Roth Jeffrey Ross Bob Sarles Lauren Shuler Donner Howard Stern Nina Totenberg Don Van Natta, Jr. Linda Vester William O. Wheatley College of Communication website butv10 homepage WTBU Online BU PRLab homepage
Loews Cineplex Entertainment
Loews Theatres known as Loews Incorporated, founded on June 23, 1904 by Marcus Loew, was the oldest theater chain operating in North America until it merged with AMC Theatres on January 26, 2006. From 1924 until 1959, it was the parent company of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios; the Loews name was used until 2017, when AMC simplified their branding to focus on three main lines: AMC, AMC Classic and AMC Dine-In after their purchase of Carmike Cinemas. The company was called "Loew's", after the founder, Marcus Loew. In 1969, when the Tisch brothers acquired the company, it became known as "Loews". Loew's Theatres Incorporated was founded in 1904 in Ohio, by entrepreneur Marcus Loew. Loew founded a chain of nickelodeon theaters which showed short silent films in storefront locations. Soon the successful enterprise grew to include deluxe vaudeville houses and lavish movie palaces. Loew's theaters were found in cities from coast-to-coast, but in East Coast and Midwest states. To provide quality films for his theaters, Loew founded Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures in 1924, by merging the earlier firms Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures, Louis B. Mayer Productions.
Loew's Incorporated served as distribution arm and parent company for the studio until the two were forced to separate by the 1948 U. S. Supreme Court ruling United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc; the two companies split in 1959. In 1985, when federal regulations had been relaxed, Tri-Star Pictures a joint venture co-owned by The Coca-Cola Company CBS, Time Inc.'s HBO, acquired the Loews theater chain from Loews Corporation, the successor company to the original firm founded by Marcus Loew. Loews Corporation by this time was a holding company owned by brothers Robert and Laurence Tisch diversified in non-entertainment business interests ranging from hotels to insurance. CBS left Tri-Star in 1985, HBO left the venture and Tri-Star merged with Columbia Pictures in 1987, resulting in the formation of Columbia Pictures Entertainment. Upon the full acquisition of Tri-Star by Columbia Pictures, when Columbia was bought from Coca-Cola by Sony in 1989, Sony inherited the theaters as well. For a while, Loews operated under the Sony Theaters banner.
In 1994, Sony partnered with Magic Johnson to form Magic Johnson Theaters, a mini-chain of theaters geared toward the inner cities in Los Angeles. A year before, Sony Dynamic Digital Sound was installed in several theaters since the parent company used it to promote Sony's cinema sound division, which shut down in 2002. In 1998, Cineplex Odeon Corporation merged with Loews Theaters to form Loews Cineplex Entertainment; the combined company was one of the largest movie exhibitors in the world, with theaters in the United States, Mexico, South Korea, Spain. In 2001, the company declared Chapter 11 bankruptcy. In 2002, Onex Corporation and Oaktree Capital Management acquired Loews Cineplex. In 2004, they sold Loews to a private group of investors. Onex retained the Canadian Loews Cineplex to form Cineplex Galaxy LP. In 2005, AMC Theatres announced that it would merge with Loews Cineplex Entertainment and that the merged company would adopt the AMC name. At the time of the merger, Loews operated 198 theaters with 2,235 screens.
Many theaters were rebranded as AMC Loews until the Loews name was phased out in 2017. Loew's Wonder Theaters United States v. Loew's Inc. a 1962 Supreme Court decision on block booking Cineplex Entertainment Robert Sobel, The Entrepreneurs: Explorations Within the American Business Tradition, luca 7, Marcus Loew: An Artist in Spite of Himself ISBN 0-679-40064-8. Official website
Sesame Workshop the Children's Television Workshop, is an American nonprofit organization, responsible for the production of several educational children's programs—including its first and best-known, Sesame Street—that have been televised internationally. Television producer Joan Ganz Cooney and foundation executive Lloyd Morrisett developed the idea to form an organization to produce Sesame Street, a television series which would help children those from low-income families, prepare for school, they spent two years, from 1966 to 1968, researching and raising money for the new series. Cooney was named as the Workshop's first executive director, termed "one of the most important television developments of the decade". Sesame Street premiered as a series on National Educational Television in the United States on November 10, 1969, moved to NET's successor, the Public Broadcasting Service, in late 1970; the Workshop was formally incorporated in 1970. Gerald S. Lesser and Edward L. Palmer were hired to perform research for the series.
They hired a staff of producers and writers. After the initial success of Sesame Street, they began to plan for its continued survival, which included procuring additional sources of funding and creating other television series; the early 1980s were a challenging period for the Workshop. After Sesame Street's initial success, the CTW began to think about its survival beyond the development and first season of the show, since their funding sources were composed of organizations and institutions that tended to start projects, not sustain them. Government funding ended by 1981, so the CTW developed other activities, including unsuccessful ventures into adult programs, the publications of books and music, international co-productions, interactive media and new technologies, licensing arrangements, programs for preschools. By 2005, income from the CTW's international co-productions of the series was $96 million. By 2008, the Sesame Street Muppets accounted for $15–17 million per year in licensing and merchandising fees.
Cooney resigned as CEO during 1990. On June 5, 2000, the CTW changed its name to Sesame Workshop to better represent its activities beyond television, Gary Knell became CEO. H. Melvin Ming replaced Knell during 2011. During 2014, Ming was succeeded by Jeffrey D. Dunn. During the late 1960s, 97% of all American households owned a television set, preschool children watched an average of 27 hours of television per week. Early childhood educational research at the time had shown that when children were prepared to succeed in school, they earned better grades and learned more effectively. Children from low-income families, had fewer resources than children from higher-income families to prepare them for school. Research had shown that children from low-income, minority backgrounds tested "substantially lower" than middle-class children in school-related skills, that they continued to have educational deficits throughout school; the topic of developmental psychology had grown during this period, scientists were beginning to understand that changes of early childhood education could increase children's cognitive growth.
During the winter of 1966, Joan Ganz Cooney hosted what she called "a little dinner party" at her apartment near Gramercy Park. Attending were her husband Tim Cooney, her boss Lewis Freedman, Lloyd and Mary Morrisett, whom the Cooneys knew socially. Cooney was a producer of documentary films at New York public television station WNDT, won an Emmy for a documentary about poverty in America. Lloyd Morrisett was a vice-president at Carnegie Corporation, was responsible for funding educational research, but had been frustrated in his efforts because they were unable to reach the large numbers of children in need of early education and intervention. Cooney was committed to using television to change society, Morrisett was interested in using television to "reach greater numbers of needy kids"; the conversation during the party, which according to writer Michael Davis was the start of a five-decade long professional relationship between Cooney and Morrisett, turned to the possibilities of using television to educate young children.
A week Cooney and Freedman met with Morrisett at the office of Carnegie Corporation to discuss doing a feasibility study for creating an educational television program for preschoolers. Cooney was chosen to perform the study. During the summer of 1967, Cooney took a leave of absence from WNDT, funded by Carnegie Corporation, traveled the U. S. and Canada interviewing experts in child development and television. She reported her findings in a fifty-five-page document entitled "The Potential Uses of Television in Preschool Education"; the report described what the new series, which became Sesame Street, would be like and proposed the creation of a company that managed its production, which became known as the Children's Television Workshop. For the next two years and Morrisett researched and developed the new show, acquiring $8 million funding for Sesame Street, establishing the CTW. Due to her professional experience, Cooney always assumed the show's natural network would be PBS. Morrisett was amenable to broadcast it by commercial stations, but all three major networks rejected the idea.
Davis, considering Sesame Street's licensing inco
The George Foster Peabody Awards program, named for the American businessman and philanthropist George Peabody, honor the most powerful and invigorating stories in television and online media. Programs are recognized in seven categories: news, documentaries, children's programming, interactive programming, public service. Peabody Award winners include radio and television stations, online media, producing organizations, individuals from around the world. Established in 1940 by a committee of the National Association of Broadcasters, the Peabody Award was created to honor excellence in radio broadcasting, it is the oldest major electronic media award in the United States and some say the most prestigious, sometimes competing for recognition with the Alfred I. duPont–Columbia University Award. Final Peabody Award winners are selected unanimously by the program's Board of Jurors. Reflecting excellence in quality storytelling, rather than popularity or commercial success, Peabody Awards are distributed annually to 30 out of 60 finalists culled from more than 1,000 entries.
Because submissions are accepted from a wide variety of sources and styles, deliberations seek "Excellence On Its Own Terms". Each entry is evaluated on the achievement of standards established within its own context. Entries, for which a US$350 fee is required, are self-selected by those making submissions. In 1938, the National Association of Broadcasters formed a committee to recognize outstanding achievement in radio broadcasting. Committee member Lambdin Kay, public-service director for WSB radio in Atlanta, Georgia, at the time, is credited for creating the award, named for businessman and philanthropist George Foster Peabody, who donated the funds that made the awards possible. Fellow WSB employee Lessie Smithgall introduced Lambdin to John E. Drewry, of the University of Georgia's Henry W. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication, who endorsed the idea; the Peabody Award was established in 1940 with the Grady College of Journalism as its permanent home. The Peabody Awards were issued only for radio programming, but television awards were introduced in 1948.
In the late 1990s additional categories for material distributed via the World Wide Web were added. Materials created for theatrical motion picture release are not eligible; the Peabody Awards judging process is unusually rigorous. Each year, more than 1,000 entries are evaluated by some 30 committees composed of a number of faculty and students from the University of Georgia and other higher education institutions across the country; each committee is charged with screening or listening to a small number of entries and delivering written recommendations to the Peabody Board of Jurors, a ~17-member panel of scholars and media-industry professionals. Board members discuss recommended entries as well as their own selections at intensive preliminary meetings in California and Texas; the Board convenes at the University of Georgia in early April for final screenings and deliberations. Each entrant is judged on its own merit, only unanimously selected programs receive a Peabody Award. For many years, there was no set number of awards issued.
However, in 2016 the program instituted the Peabody 30, representing the best programs out of a field of 60 nominees. Prior to this, the all-time record for Peabody Award recipients in a single year was 46 in 2013. George Foster Peabody, namesake of the awards, was a successful investment banker who devoted much of his fortune to education and social enterprise. Lambdin Kay was the awards chairman for The National Association of Broadcasters when he was asked to create a prize to honor the nation's premier radio programs and performances. John E. Drewry was the first dean of the University of Georgia's Henry W. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication, he accepted the position of dean when it was created in 1940. That same year he helped Lambdin Kay, general manager of Atlanta's WSB Radio, create the Peabody Awards recognizing excellence in broadcasting. Dr. Worth McDougald served as Director of the Peabody Awards program from 1963 until his retirement in 1991. Barry Sherman was the Director of the George Foster Peabody Awards program at the University of Georgia from 1991 until his death in 2000.
Horace Newcomb held the Lambdin Kay Chair for the Peabodys in the Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Georgia from 2001 to 2013. Jeffrey P. Jones succeeded Horace Newcomb in July 2013 as the Lambdin Kay Chair for the Peabodys in the Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Georgia; each spring, the Peabody Awards Board of Jurors announce award recipients for work released during the previous year. Traditionally, the winners' announcements have been made via a simple press release and/or a press conference. In recent years, organizers have taken to television to reveal some Peabody Award recipients in an effort to expand public awareness of the awards. An April 2014 segment of CBS This Morning included an announcement of 2013 Peabody winners. In April 2015, the 2014 Peabodys were revealed over an 8-day period, with the entertainment-based recipients revealed on ABC's Good Morning America. Formal presentation of the Peabody Awards are traditionally held in early June.
For many years, the awards were given during a luncheon in New York City. The ceremony moved to a red carpet evening event for the first time on May 31, 2015, with Fred Armisen serving as host. Several famous names have served as Peabody Awards ceremony hosts over the years, among them Walter Cronkite, Lesley Stahl, Jackie Gleason, Jon Stewart, Morley Safer, Cr
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the