Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Jean-Marie Bockel was Secretary of State for Defence and Veterans in the government of Prime Minister François Fillon appointed on 18 March 2008, having been Secretary of State for Cooperation and La Francophonie since June 2007. He has been a member of the French National Assembly since 1981, when he stood as a Socialist Party candidate, was Minister for Commerce in the Socialist Party government of Laurent Fabius between 1984 and 1986. Bockel was born in Strasbourg, he is a lawyer and has been mayor of Mulhouse since 1989. On the right wing of the Socialist Party, he declared himself to be an admirer and strong supporter of the policies of Tony Blair. In November 2007 he announced the formation of a new centre-left political party, Modern Left, following his resignation from the Socialist Party when joining the Sarkozy administration, used this party as a vehicle to campaign in the municipal elections of 2008 for a fourth term as mayor. Governmental functions Secretary of State for Prisons and Prison Reform: 2009–2010.
Secretary of State for Defense and Veterans: 2008–2009. Secretary of State for Cooperation and Francophony: 2007–2008. Minister of Commerce and Tourism: February–March 1986. State Secretary to the Minister of Commerce and Tourism: 1984–1986. Electoral mandates National Assembly of France Member of the National Assembly of France for Haut-Rhin: 1981–1984 / 1986–1993 / 1997–2002. Elected in 1981, reelected in 1986, 1988, 1997. Senate of France Senator of Haut-Rhin: 2004–2007. Elected in 2004. Reelected in 2008, but he stays minister. General Council General councillor of Haut-Rhin: 1982–1989 / 1994–1997. Reelected in 1988, 1994. Municipal Council Mayor of Mulhouse: 1989–2010. Reelected in 1995, 2001, 2008. Municipal councillor of Mulhouse: Since 1989. Reelected in 1995, 2001, 2008. Agglomeration community Council President of the Agglomeration community of Mulhouse Sud Alsace: Since 2001. Reelected in 2008. Member of the Agglomeration community of Mulhouse Sud Alsace: Since 2001. Reelected in 2008. Official website of Modern Left Biography on the official Prime-Ministerial web site
Valérie Pécresse is a French politician. She has been deputy of the Yvelines since 16 May 2002, Minister for Higher Education and Research from 18 May 2007 to June 2011 and Minister of the Budget from until May 2012, she was the Government's spokeswoman. Pécresse is the daughter of Dominique Roux. Pécresse has degrees from HEC Paris and ÉNA, she was an auditor of the Conseil d'État until 1998, when she was designated Counselor of the President of the French Republic. She speaks French, English and Japanese. In June 2002, she was elected deputy of the Yvelines' second constituency, she was elected regional counselor of Île-de-France in 2004. Pécresse was a national spokeswoman of the UMP, spokeswoman of the party in the Yvelines. On 18 May 2007, she was designated Minister of Higher Education and Research of François Fillon's second cabinet. There, she has launched many reforms. In 2009, the Académie de la Carpette anglaise, an organization that opposes the spread of the English language in Francophone countries, gave Pécresse the Prix de la Carpette Anglaise for having refused to speak French at international meetings in Brussels, Belgium.
After the defeat of Nicolas Sarkozy in the French presidential election of 2012, Pécresse remains a key member of the Union for a Popular Movement. In 2016 Republican presidential primary she endorsed former prime minister Alain Juppé. Governmental function Government's spokeswoman: 2011-2012. Ministre of Budget, Public accounts and State reform: 2011-2012. Minister of Higher Education and Research: 2007-2011. Electoral mandates National Assembly of France Member of the National Assembly of France for Yvelines: 2002–2007. Elected in 2002, reelected in 2007. Regional Council Regional councillor of Île-de-France: Since 2004. Reelected in 2010. Biography interview of Valérie Pécresse for a student TV during the strike of university teacher in February 2009
Didier Robert is a French politician, a member of the Republicans party. He represents the island of Réunion, was a member of the Union for a Popular Movement. Robert has served as President of the Regional Council of Réunion since 26 March 2010, succeeding Paul Vergès
Marie-Marguerite Dufay best known as Marie-Guite Dufay is the incumbent president of the regional council of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. She won the nomination to be the next socialist candidate for President of Franche-Comté in 2010, she was first elected to the Besançon city council in 1989. Six years she was appointed as deputy mayor of Besançon. In the Franche-Comté regional election, 2004, she was second in the Socialist List just after Raymond Forni. After the death of President Raymond Forni, she was elected by the assembly as President of the Region. Biography of Marie-Marguerite Dufay
Socialist Party (France)
The Socialist Party is a social-democratic political party in France and was, for decades, the largest party of the French centre-left. The PS used to be one of the two major political parties in the French Fifth Republic, along with the Republicans; the Socialist Party replaced the earlier French Section of the Workers' International in 1969, is led by First Secretary Olivier Faure. The PS is a member of the Party of European Socialists, the Socialist International and the Progressive Alliance; the PS first won power in 1981, when its candidate François Mitterrand was elected President of France in the 1981 presidential election. Under Mitterrand, the party achieved a governing majority in the National Assembly from 1981 to 1986 and again from 1988 to 1993. PS leader Lionel Jospin lost his bid to succeed Mitterrand as president in the 1995 presidential election against Rally for the Republic leader Jacques Chirac, but became prime minister in a cohabitation government after the 1997 parliamentary elections, a position Jospin held until 2002, when he was again defeated in the presidential election.
In 2007, the party's candidate for the presidential election, Ségolène Royal, was defeated by conservative UMP candidate Nicolas Sarkozy. The Socialist party won most of regional and local elections and it won control of the Senate in 2011 for the first time in more than fifty years. On 6 May 2012, François Hollande, the First Secretary of the Socialist Party from 1997 to 2008, was elected President of France, the next month, the party won the majority in the National Assembly; the PS formed several figures who acted at the international level: Jacques Delors, the eighth President of the European Commission from 1985 to 1994 and the first person to serve three terms in that office, was from the Socialist Party, as well as Dominique Strauss-Kahn, the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund from 2007 to 2011, Pascal Lamy, Director-General of the World Trade Organization from 2005 to 2013. The party had 42,300 members in 2016, down from 60,000 in 2014 and 173,486 members in 2012.
The defeat of the Paris commune reduced the power and influence of the socialist movements in France. Its leaders were exiled. France's first socialist party, the Federation of the Socialist Workers of France, was founded in 1879, it was characterised as "possibilist". Two parties split off from it: in 1882, the French Workers' Party of Jules Guesde and Paul Lafargue in 1890 the Revolutionary Socialist Workers' Party of Jean Allemane. At the same time, the heirs of Louis Auguste Blanqui, a symbol of the French revolutionary tradition, created the Central Revolutionary Committee led by Édouard Vaillant. There were some declared socialist deputies such as Alexandre Millerand and Jean Jaurès who did not belong to any party. In 1899, the participation of Millerand in Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet caused a debate about socialist participation in a "bourgeois government". Three years Jaurès, Allemane and the possibilists founded the possibilist French Socialist Party, which supported participation in government, while Guesde and Vaillant formed the Socialist Party of France, which opposed such co-operation.
In 1905, during the Globe Congress, the two groups merged in the French Section of the Workers International. Leader of the parliamentary group and director of the party paper L'Humanité, Jaurès was its most influential figure; the party was hemmed in between the middle-class liberals of the Radical Party and the revolutionary syndicalists who dominated the trade unions. Furthermore, the goal to rally all the Socialists in one single party was reached: some elects refused to join the SFIO and created the Republican-Socialist Party, which supported socialist participation in liberal governments. Together with the Radicals, who wished to install laicism, the SFIO was a component of the Left Block without to sit in the government. In 1906, the General Confederation of Labour trade union claimed its independence from all political parties; the French socialists were anti-war, but following the assassination of Jaurès in 1914 they were unable to resist the wave of militarism which followed the outbreak of World War I.
They suffered a severe split over participation in the wartime government of national unity. In 1919 the anti-war socialists were defeated in elections. In 1920, during the Tours Congress, the majority and left wing of the party broke away and formed the French Section of the Communist International to join the Third International founded by Vladimir Lenin; the right wing, led by Léon Blum, kept the "old house" and remained in the SFIO. In 1924 and in 1932, the Socialists joined with the Radicals in the Coalition of the Left, but refused to join the non-Socialist governments led by the Radicals Édouard Herriot and Édouard Daladier; these governments failed because the Socialists and the Radicals could not agree on economic policy, because the Communists, following the policy laid down by the Soviet Union, refused to support governments presiding over capitalist economies. The question of the possibility of a government participation with Radicals caused the split of "neosocialists" at the beginning of the 1930s.
They merged with the Republican-Socialist Party in the Socialist Republican Union. In 1934, the Communists changed their line, the four left-wing parties came together in the Popular Front, which won the 1936 elections and brought Blum to power as France's first SFIO Prime Minister. Indeed, for the first time in its history, the SFIO obtained more votes and seats than the Ra
Hervé Morin is a French politician the President of Normandy. Leader of the party The Centrists, he was the Minister of Defence under President Nicolas Sarkozy, he was elected as a representative to the French National Assembly on 16 June 2002, in the 3rd constituency of Eure, Normandy. He was the president of the Union for French Democracy in the National Assembly. After the UDF's candidate for the 2007 presidential election, François Bayrou, did not make it to the 2nd round, he hinted that he attempted to create an alliance with the Socialist Party and decided to found a new political party: the Democratic Movement. Morin, of the center-right and an ally of the presidential election's winner, Nicolas Sarkozy, made it an organisation within the presidential majority in the National Assembly, it is now called New Centre and he is the leader. After the creation of the UMP, he took the presidency of the UDF group at the National Assembly, from 2002 to 2007. While Morin was joining the government as minister of Defence in July 2007, Marc Vampa New Centre replaced him as representative.
On 27 November 2011, Hervé Morin announced his intention to run for the 2012 French presidential election. During his campaign he claimed to have been present at the allied invasion of Normandy, although he was not born until 1961. On 16 February 2012, he gave support to Nicolas Sarkozy. Governmental functions Minister of Defence: 2007–2010 Electoral mandates National Assembly of France Member of the National Assembly of France for Eure: 1998–2007 / 2010-2016. Elected in 1998, reelected in 2002, 2007, 2012. Resignation in 2016. General Council General councillor of Eure: 1992–2004 / 2011-2014. Reelected in 1998 and 2011. Regional Council Regional councillor and President of Normandy, elected in Eure constituency: Since 2016. Regional councillor of Haute-Normandie, elected in Eure constituency: 2004-2010. Municipal Council Mayor of Epaignes: 1995-2016. Reelected in 2001, 2008, 2014. Resignation in 2016. Municipal councillor of Epaignes: Since 1989. Reelected in 1995, 2001, 2008, 2014. Community of communes Council President of the Communauté de communes of Canton de Cormeilles: Since 2001.
Reelected in 2008, 2014. Member of the Communauté de communes of Canton de Cormeilles: Since 2001. Reelected in 2008, 2014. Official page on the French National Assembly's website