Louis XIII of France
Louis XIII was a monarch of the House of Bourbon, King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown. Shortly before his ninth birthday, Louis became king of France and Navarre after his father Henry IV was assassinated, his mother, Marie de' Medici, acted as regent during his minority. Mismanagement of the kingdom and ceaseless political intrigues by Marie and her Italian favourites led the young king to take power in 1617 by exiling his mother and executing her followers, including Concino Concini, the most influential Italian at the French court. Louis XIII, taciturn and suspicious, relied on his chief ministers, first Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes and Cardinal Richelieu, to govern the Kingdom of France. King and cardinal are remembered for establishing the Académie française, ending the revolt of the French nobility, they systematically denounced the use of private violence. By the end of 1620s, Richelieu established "the royal monopoly of force" as the ruling doctrine.
The reign of Louis "the Just" was marked by the struggles against the Huguenots and Habsburg Spain. Born at the Palace of Fontainebleau, Louis XIII was the oldest child of King Henry IV of France and his second wife Marie de' Medici; as son of the king, he was a Fils de France, as the eldest son, Dauphin of France. His father Henry IV was the first French king of the House of Bourbon, having succeeded his second cousin, Henry III of France, in application of Salic law. Louis XIII's paternal grandparents were Antoine de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme, Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre, his maternal grandparents were Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Joanna of Austria, Grand Duchess of Tuscany. Eleonora de' Medici, his maternal aunt, was his godmother; as a child, he was raised under the supervision of the royal governess Françoise de Montglat. The ambassador of King James I of England to the court of France, Sir Edward Herbert, who presented his credentials to Louis XIII in 1619, remarked on Louis’s extreme congenital speech impediment and his double teeth:...
I presented to the King a letter of credence from the King my master: the King assured me of a reciprocal affection to the King my master, of my particular welcome to his Court: his words were never many, as being so extream a stutterer that he would sometimes hold his tongue out of his mouth a good while before he could speak so much as one word. Although Louis XIII became of age at thirteen, his mother did not give up her position as Regent until 1617, when he was 16. Marie maintained most of her husband's ministers, with the exception of Maximilien de Béthune, Duke of Sully, unpopular in the country, she relied on Nicolas de Neufville, seigneur de Villeroy, Noël Brûlart de Sillery, Pierre Jeannin for political advice. Marie pursued a moderate policy, she was not, able to prevent rebellion by nobles such as Henri, Prince of Condé, second in line to the throne after Marie's second surviving son Gaston, Duke of Orléans. Condé squabbled with Marie in 1614, raised an army, but he found little support in the country, Marie was able to raise her own army.
Marie agreed to call an Estates General assembly to address Condé's grievances. The assembly of this Estates General was delayed until Louis XIII formally came of age on his thirteenth birthday. Although his coming-of-age formally ended Marie's Regency, she remained the de facto ruler of France; the Estates General accomplished little, spending its time discussing the relationship of France to the Papacy and the venality of offices, but reaching no resolutions. Beginning in 1615, Marie came to rely on the Italian Concino Concini, who assumed the role of her favourite. Concini was unpopular because he was a foreigner; this further antagonised Condé, who launched another rebellion in 1616. Huguenot leaders supported Condé's rebellion, which led the young Louis XIII to conclude that they would never be loyal subjects. Condé and Queen Marie made peace via the Treaty of Loudun, which allowed Condé great power in government but did not remove Concini. With growing dissatisfaction from nobles due to Concini's position, Queen Marie, with Louis's help, imprisoned Condé to protect Concini, leading to renewed revolts against the Queen and Concini.
In the meantime, Charles d'Albert, the Grand Falconer of France, convinced Louis XIII that he should break with his mother and support the rebels. Louis staged a palace coup d'état; as a result, Concino Concini was assassinated on 24 April 1617. His widow, Leonora Dori Galigaï, was tried for witchcraft, condemned and burned on 8 July 1617, Marie was sent into exile in Blois. Louis conferred the title of Duke of Luynes on d'Albert. Luynes soon became as unpopular. Other nobles resented his monopolisation of the King. Luynes was seen as less competent than Henry IV's ministers, many now elderly or deceased, who had surrounded Marie de' Medici; the Thirty Years' War broke out in 1618. The French court was unsure which side to support. On the one hand, F
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Lens is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France. It is one of the main towns of Hauts-de-France along with Lille, Amiens, Tourcoing and Douai; the inhabitants are called Lensois. Lens belongs to the intercommunality of Lens-Liévin, which consists of 36 communes, with a total population of 250,000. Lens, along with Douai, forms the metropolitan area of Douai-Lens, whose population at the 1999 census was 552,682. Lens was a fortification from the Norman invasions. In 1180, it was owned by the Count of Flanders, sovereignty was exercised by the Crown of France. In the 13th century, Lens received a charter from Louis VIII of France, allowing it to become a city; the Flemish razed the city in 1303. Prior to this, the city's population relied on its markets. In 1526, Lens was made part of the Spanish Netherlands under the ownership of the French monarchy, only passed back to France on 7 November 1659 with the Treaty of the Pyrenees. In 1849, coal was discovered in Lens after surveys were carried out at Annay, Courrières and Loos-en-Gohelle.
This led to the expansion of the city into an important industrial center. The Lens Mining Company was founded in experienced large profits; the city was destroyed in the First World War and half of the population perished. The Gare de Lens railway station, built in 1927, is served by regional trains towards Lille, Douai, Dunkirk and Valenciennes. In World War II, the Allies bombarded the city from the air. Nine kilometres from Lens, the Canadian National Vimy Memorial was opened in 1936, dedicated to the Battle of Vimy Ridge and the First World War Canadian soldiers who lost their lives during the war; the centennial commemoration of the Battle of Vimy Ridge was held at the Memorial on 9 April 2017. The official ceremony included comments from Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, Governor General David Johnston as representative of the Monarchy of Canada, Prince Charles as representative of the Monarchy of the United Kingdom, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, Prince Harry, the President of France François Hollande, the Prime Minister of France Bernard Cazeneuve.
The last coal mine in Lens closed in 1986. Since 2012, Lens has been the location of the Louvre-Lens art museum. Lens is connected with high speed trains to Paris. Football club RC Lens plays in the town, their stadium, Stade Bollaert-Delelis, was used for UEFA Euro 1984, the 1998 FIFA World Cup and UEFA Euro 2016 and the 1999 Rugby World Cup and the 2007 Rugby World Cup. Stade Bollaert-Delelis Communes of the Pas-de-Calais department Category:Counts of Lens Institut de génie informatique et industriel INSEE commune file Official web site Communauté d'Agglomeration of Lens-Liévin
For much of history, humans have used some form of cavalry for war and, as a result, cavalry tactics have evolved over time. Tactically, the main advantages of cavalry over infantry troops were greater mobility, a larger impact, a higher position. Chariot tactics had been the basis for using the horse in war; the chariot's advantage of speed was outdone by the agility of riding on horseback. The ability of horsemen to pass more difficult terrain was crucial to this change. Horsemen supplanted most light chariots. In Celtic warfare, light chariots persisted among mounted troops, for their ability to transport armoured warriors and as mobile command platforms. At first it was not considered effective to use weapons on horseback, but rather to use the horse as transport. "Mounted infantry" would ride to battle, dismount to fight. For a long time and charioteers worked alongside each other in the cavalry; the first recorded instance of mounted warriors are the mounted archers of the Iranian tribes appearing in Assyrian records from the 9th century BC.
Mongolian troops had a Buryat bow, for showering the enemy with arrows from a safe distance. The aim on horseback was better than in a jiggling chariot, after it was discovered that the best time to shoot was while all the hooves of the horse were in the air. An archer in a chariot could shoot stronger infantry bows. Javelins were employed as a powerful ranged weapon by many cavalries, they were easy to handle on horseback. Two to ten javelins would be carried, depending on their weight. Thrown javelins have less range than composite bows, but prevailed in use nevertheless. Due to the mass of the weapon, there was a greater armour-piercing ability, they thus caused fatal wounds more frequently. Usage is reported for both light and heavy cavalry, for example, by Numidia and the Mongol's light cavalry and the heavy cataphracts, Celtic cavalry and the Mamluks during the Crusades; the Celtic horsemen's training was copied by the Roman equites. A significant element learned from the Celts was turning on horseback to throw javelins backwards, similar to the Parthian shot in archery.
Stirrups and spurs improved the ability of riders to act fast and securely in melées and manoeuvres demanding agility of the horse, but their employment was not unquestioned. Modern historical reenactors have shown that neither the stirrup nor the saddle are necessary for the effective use of the couched lance, refuting a widely held belief. Free movement of the rider on horseback were esteemed for light cavalry to shoot and fight in all directions, contemporaries regarded stirrups and spurs as inhibiting for this purpose. Andalusian light cavalry refused to employ them until the 12th century, nor were they used by the Baltic turcopoles of the Teutonic Order in the battle of Legnica. An example of combined arms and the efficiency of cavalry forces were the Medieval Mongols. Important for their horse archery was the use of stirrups for the archer to stand while shooting; this new position enabled them to use stronger cavalry bows than the enemy. Armies of horse archers could cover enemy troops with arrows from a distance and never had to engage in close combat.
Slower enemies without effective long range weapons had no chance against them. It was in this manner that the cavalry of the Parthian Empire destroyed the troops of Crassus in the Battle of Carrhae. During their raids in Central and Western Europe during the 9th and 10th centuries, Magyar mounted archers spread terror in West Francia and East Francia; the Sassanid Persians and the Mamluks were the chief proponents of the idea, although Muslim cavalry in India had been known to use it in battle. It involved a line of well-armoured cavalrymen standing in a massed static line, or advancing in an ordered formation at the walk while loosing their arrows as as possible, it was effective against unsteady enemies who could be unnerved by the sight of a vast cloud of arrows raining down upon them. A case in point is Procopius's accounts of Belisarius's wars against the Sassanids where he states how the Byzantine cavalry engaged in massed archery duels against their Persian counterparts; the Persians loosed their arrows with far greater frequency, but as their bows were much weaker, they did not do much damage compared to the stronger Roman bows.
The great weakness of mounted archers was their need of their light equipment. If they were forced to fight in close combat against better armoured enemies, they lost. Furthermore, they were not suited for participating in sieges. For example, although victorious in the field the Mongols had been unable to take the fortified Chinese cities until they managed to capture and enlist the services of Islamic siege engineers; the Mongols subsequently failed to retake Hungary in 1280 after the Hungarians became more focused on Western European heavy cavalry and castle building. Good cavalry troops needed lots of training and good horses. Many peoples who engaged in this form of classical cavalry, such as the Hungarians and Mongols lived on horseback; the Battle of Dorylaeum during the First Crusade shows the advantages and disadvantages of mounted archers.
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC