Margaret of Valois
Margaret of Valois was a French princess of the Valois dynasty who became queen consort of Navarre and also of France. By her marriage to Henry III of Navarre, she was queen of Navarre and France at her husband's 1589 accession to the latter throne, their marriage was annulled in 1599 by decision of the Pope. She was the daughter of King Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici and the sister of kings Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III, her marriage, intended to celebrate the reconciliation of Catholics and Huguenots, was tarnished by the St Bartholomew's Day massacre, the resumption of the religious troubles which ensued. In the conflict between Henry III and the Malcontents, she took the side of Francis, Duke of Anjou, her younger brother, this caused the king to have a deep aversion towards her; as Queen of Navarre, she played a pacifying role in the stormy relations between her husband and the French monarchy. Shuttled back and forth between the two courts, she endeavored to lead a happy conjugal life, but her sterility and the political tensions inherent in the French Wars of Religion caused the end of her marriage.
Mistreated by a brother quick to take offence and rejected by a fickle and opportunistic husband, she chose the path of opposition in 1585. She took the side of the Catholic League and was forced to live in Auvergne in an exile which lasted twenty years. A well-known woman of letters and an enlightened mind as well as an generous patron, she played a considerable part in the cultural life of the court after her return from exile in 1605, she was a vector of Neoplatonism. While imprisoned, she took advantage of the time to write her Memoirs, she was the first woman to have done so. She was one of the most fashionable women of her time, influenced many of Europe's royal courts with her clothing, she has been a victim of a misogynist historiographic tradition that has demolished the importance of her actions in the political sphere of the era, to reinforce the dynastic transition from the Valois to the Bourbon, giving credit to libel and slander circulated on her account and created and handed down through the centuries the myth of a beautiful woman, cultured and incestuous.
This legend has crystallized around the famous nickname La Reine Margot, invented by Alexandre Dumas, père. Margaret of Valois was born on 14 May 1553, at the royal Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the seventh child and third daughter of Henry II and Catherine de' Medici. Three of her brothers would become kings of France: Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III, her sister, Elisabeth of Valois, would become the third wife of King Philip II of Spain, her brother Francis II, married Mary, Queen of Scots. Her childhood was spent in the French royal nursery of the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye with her sisters Elisabeth and Claude, under the care of Charlotte de Vienne, baronne de Courton, "a wise and virtuous lady attached to the Catholic religion". After her sisters' weddings, Margaret grew up in the Château d'Amboise with her brothers Henry and Francis. During her childhood, her brother Charles IX gave her the nickname of "Margot". At the French court, she studied grammar, classics and Holy Scripture.
Margaret learned to speak Italian, Spanish and Greek in addition to her native French. She was competent in prose, poetry and dance, she traveled with the court in the grand tour of France. During this period Margaret had direct experience of the dangerous and complex political situation in France, learned from her mother the art of political mediation. In 1565, Catherine met with Philip II's chief minister the Duke of Alba at Bayonne in hopes of arranging a marriage between Margaret and Carlos, Prince of Asturias. However, Alba refused any consideration of a dynastic marriage. Other marriage negotiations with Sebastian of Portugal and Archduke Rudolf did not succeed. During her teenage years and her brother Henry, were close friends. In 1568, leaving court to command the royal armies, he entrusted his 15-year-old sister with the defense of his interests with their mother, his words inspired me with resolution and powers I did not think myself possessed of before. I had a degree of courage, and, as soon as I recovered from my astonishment, I found I was quite an altered person.
His address pleased me, wrought in me a confidence in myself. Delighted with this mission, she fulfilled it conscientiously, but Henry showed no gratitude upon his return, according to her Memoirs, he had discovered Margaret's secret romance with Henry of Guise and their presumptive plan of marriage. When the royal family found this out and Charles beat her and sent Henry of Guise away from court; this episode is at the root of a "lasting brotherly hatred" between Margaret and her brother Henry, as well as the lasting cooling of relations with her mother. Some historians have hinted that the duke was Margaret's lover, but nothing confirms this, in the sixteenth century a king's daughter had to remain a virgin until her marriage for political reasons. After their marriage she was not faithful to her husband, however, it is difficult to discern what is true or invented about her extramarital affairs. Many have no basis, others were platonic. Most of Margaret's alleged adventures are the result of pamphlets that have had to politically discredit her and her family.
The most successful defamation was Le Divorce Satyrique, which described Margaret as a nymphomaniac: never
Théodore-Agrippa d'Aubigné was a French poet, soldier and chronicler. His epic poem Les Tragiques is regarded as his masterpiece. Born at the Aubigné Château of Saint-Maury near Pons in the present day Charente-Maritime, the son of Jean d'Aubigné, implicated in the Huguenot Amboise conspiracy to kidnap the King. According to his own account he knew Latin and Hebrew at six years of age, he had translated the Crito of Plato before he was eleven, his father strengthened his Protestant sympathies by showing him, while they were passing through that town on their way to Paris, the heads of the conspirators exposed upon the scaffold, instructing him not to spare his own head in order to avenge their death. After a brief residence he was obliged to flee from Paris to avoid persecution, but was captured and threatened with death. Escaping through the intervention of a friend, he went to Montargis. In his fourteenth year he was present at the siege of Orléans. In 1567 he made his escape from tutelage, attached himself to the Huguenot army under the prince of Condé.
Aubigné studied in Paris, Orléans and Lyon before joining the Huguenot cause of Henry of Navarre as both soldier and counsellor. After a furious battle at Casteljaloux, suffering from fever from his wounds, he wrote his Tragiques in 1571, he was in the battle of Coutras, at the siege of Paris. His career at camp and court, was a somewhat chequered one, owing to the roughness of his manner and the keenness of his criticisms, which made him many enemies and tried the king's patience. In his tragédie-ballet Circe he did not hesitate to indulge in the most outspoken sarcasm against the king and other members of the royal family. Henry's accession to the throne of France entailed an, at least nominal, conversion to the Roman Catholic Church and Aubigné left his service to tend to his own Poitou estates though his Huguenot confederates welcomed Henry's religious tolerance; however he never lost the favour of Henry, who made him governor of Maillezais. D'Aubigné remained true to the Huguenot cause, a fearless advocate of the Huguenot interests.
The first two volumes of the work by which he is best known, his Histoire universelle depuis 1550 jusqu'à l'an 1601, appeared in 1616 and 1618 respectively. The third volume was published in 1619, being still more free and personal in its satire than those which had preceded it, it was ordered to be burned by the common hangman; when Marie de' Medici became regent following Henry's assassination in 1610, she embraced the Counter-Reformation and Aubigné's isolation made him an easy target. He was proscribed in 1620 and fled to Geneva where he lived for the rest of his life, though the hatred of the French court showed itself in procuring a sentence of death to be recorded against him more than once, he devoted the period of his exile to study, supervising the fortifications of Bern and Basel which were designed as a material defence of the cause of Protestantism. His daughter Louise Arthemise d'Aubigné, Madame de Villette, was born in 1584 at Mursay to Suzanne de Lusignan de Lezay, his son, Constant d'Aubigné, led a scandalous life of adventure.
Between his two sons, later his three grandsons, the family sailed to England in the late 1680s, or America, avoiding the Huguenot persecution in Europe. In 1715 or thereabouts, most if not all of the main family had sailed to the new world and settled on the east coast near the North River around Falls Church and changed their name to Dabney, his great grand daughter Françoise Charlotte d'Aubigné married into the House of Noailles. Histoire universelle Les Tragiques Avantures du Baron de Faeneste Confession catholique du sieur de Sancy Sa vie à ses enfants Written over some three decades, the alexandrine verse of this epic poem relies on multiple genres as well as stylistic familiarity with the work of the opposing, Catholic poets of the Pléïade, headed by Pierre de Ronsard. Divided into seven books, a number symbolic of the author's ultimate, apocalyptic intent, the Tragiques incorporates literary influence from classical sources, such as tragedy and satire, palpable in the first three books, before resorting to influence from genres like ecclesiastical history and apocalypse in the creation of the remaining books.
In the first of two liminal paratexts, the introduction "Aux Lecteurs," Aubigné endorses the account, that the inception of the Tragiques came to him as an ecstatic vision during a near-death experience. In the second, "L'Auteur À Son Livre," Aubigné adopts the metaphor of father as author to name the text that follows as a more pious son than the less religious works of his youth; the intent of the epic is subsequently spelled out as an attack against the falsely beautiful, verisimilar works written by the Catholic poets of the Pléïade for their patrons in the midst of the religious wars. Linden, Paul and Witnessing in Agrippa d'Aubigné's Les Tragiques. Dissertation, Emory University, 2003. Fragonard, Marie-Madeleine, La pensée religieuse d’Agrippa d’Aubigné et son expression. Bibliothèque littéraire de la Renaissance 53. Junod, Agrippa d'Aubigné ou les misères du prophète, 2008. Works by
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in 1572 was a targeted group of assassinations and a wave of Catholic mob violence, directed against the Huguenots during the French Wars of Religion. Traditionally believed to have been instigated by Queen Catherine de' Medici, the mother of King Charles IX, the massacre took place a few days after the wedding day of the king's sister Margaret to the Protestant Henry III of Navarre. Many of the most wealthy and prominent Huguenots had gathered in Catholic Paris to attend the wedding; the massacre began in the night of 23–24 August 1572, two days after the attempted assassination of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, the military and political leader of the Huguenots. The king ordered the killing of a group of Huguenot leaders, including Coligny, the slaughter spread throughout Paris. Lasting several weeks, the massacre expanded outward to the countryside. Modern estimates for the number of dead across France vary from 5,000 to 30,000; the massacre marked a turning point in the French Wars of Religion.
The Huguenot political movement was crippled by the loss of many of its prominent aristocratic leaders, as well as many re-conversions by the rank and file. Those who remained were radicalized. Though by no means unique, it "was the worst of the century's religious massacres." Throughout Europe, it "printed on Protestant minds the indelible conviction that Catholicism was a bloody and treacherous religion." The Massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day was the culmination of a series of events: The Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, which put an end to the third War of Religion on 8 August 1570. The marriage between Henry III of Navarre and Margaret of Valois on 18 August 1572; the failed assassination of Admiral de Coligny on 22 August 1572. The Peace of Saint-Germain put an end to three years of terrible civil war between Catholics and Protestants; this peace, was precarious since the more intransigent Catholics refused to accept it. The Guise family was out of favour at the French court. Staunch Catholics were shocked by the return of Protestants to the court, but the queen mother, Catherine de' Medici, her son, Charles IX, were practical in their support of peace and Coligny, as they were conscious of the kingdom's financial difficulties and the Huguenots' strong defensive position: they controlled the fortified towns of La Rochelle, La Charité-sur-Loire and Montauban.
To cement the peace between the two religious parties, Catherine planned to marry her daughter Margaret to the Protestant, Henry of Navarre, son of the Huguenot leader Queen Jeanne d'Albret. The royal marriage was arranged for 18 August 1572, it was not accepted by the Pope. Both the Pope and King Philip II of Spain condemned Catherine's Huguenot policy as well; the impending marriage led to the gathering of a large number of well-born Protestants in Paris. But Paris was a violently anti-Huguenot city, Parisians, who tended to be extreme Catholics, found their presence unacceptable. Encouraged by Catholic preachers, they were horrified at the marriage of a princess of France to a Protestant; the Parlement's opposition and the court's absence from the wedding led to increased political tension. Compounding this bad feeling was the fact that the harvests had been poor and taxes had risen; the rise in food prices and the luxury displayed on the occasion of the royal wedding increased tensions among the common people.
A particular point of tension was an open-air cross erected on the site of the house of Philippe de Gastines, a Huguenot, executed in 1569. The mob erected a large wooden cross on a stone base. Under the terms of the peace, after considerable popular resistance, this had been removed in December 1571, which had led to about 50 deaths in riots, as well as mob destruction of property. In the massacres of August, the relatives of the Gastines family were among the first to be killed by the mob; the court itself was divided. Catherine had not obtained Pope Gregory XIII's permission to celebrate this irregular marriage, it took all the queen mother's skill to convince the Cardinal de Bourbon to marry the couple. Beside this, the rivalries between the leading families re-emerged; the Guises were not prepared to make way for the House of Montmorency. François, Duke of Montmorency and governor of Paris, was unable to control the disturbances in the city. On August 20, he retired to Chantilly. In the years preceding the massacre, Huguenot "political rhetoric" had for the first time taken a tone against not just the policies of a particular monarch of France, but monarchy in general.
In part this was led by an apparent change in stance by John Calvin in his Readings on the Prophet Daniel, a book of 1561, in which he had argued that when kings disobey God, they "automatically abdicate their worldly power" – a change from his views in earlier works that ungodly kings should be obeyed. This change was soon picked up by Huguenot writers, who began to expand on Calvin and promote the idea of the sovereignty of the people, ideas to which Catholic writers and preachers responded fiercely, it was only in the aftermath of the massacre that anti-monarchical ideas found widespread supp
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website