Oman proper refers to a historical area within the present-day Sultanate of Oman. It lay inland from Muscat beyond the Jebel Akhdar and was centered on the city of Nizwa in the area of the current region of Ad Dakhiliyah. Along with Muscat and Dhofar, it was a constituent part of the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman, but with the 1970 palace coup, Oman proper was ruled by Ibadite imams who exercised spiritual and often temporal authority over the region. The Imamate is a system of government pioneered by the Ibadi religious leaders of Oman. It governed parts or the whole of Oman and other lands for interrupted periods of time for over 1000 years, in 1954, a new imam, Ghalib bin Ali, defended the Imamate from attack from Muscat, after oil was discovered in his lands. Sultan Said Bin Taimur of Muscat with the help of the colonial British forces were able to win eventually. In 1955, Nizwa was taken, the imam had exiled to Saudi Arabia, in 1959, the last forces of the Imamate were defeated and the name of the whole of Muscat and Oman was changed to the Sultanate of Oman in 1970.
In current usage, Oman proper can refer to the whole of the present-day sultanate minus the exclaves of Musandam, following its overthrow, the Imamate of Oman issued postage stamps under the name of the State of Oman. History of Oman List of rulers of Oman Muscat and Oman
Sultanate of Zanzibar
The Sultanate of Zanzibar, known as the Zanzibar Sultanate, comprised the territories over which the Sultan of Zanzibar was the sovereign. At one point they included all of what is now Kenya as well as the Zanzibar Archipelago of the Swahili Coast, they included only a ten mile wide coastal strip of Kenya and Zanzibar. Under an agreement concluded on 8 October 1963, the Sultan relinquished sovereignty over his territory in Kenya. On 12 January 1964, Sultan Jamshid bin Abdullah was deposed and lost sovereignty over the last of his dominions, Zanzibar. In 1698, Zanzibar became part of the holdings of Oman after Saif bin Sultan. In 1832 or 1840, Omani ruler Said bin Sultan moved his court from Muscat to Stone Town on the island of Unguja and he established a ruling Arab elite and encouraged the development of clove plantations, using the islands slave labour. Zanzibars commerce fell increasingly into the hands of traders from the Indian subcontinent, after his death in 1856, two of his sons, Majid bin Said and Thuwaini bin Said, struggled over the succession, so Zanzibar and Oman were divided into two separate realms.
Thuwaini became the Sultan of Muscat and Oman while Majid became the first Sultan of Zanzibar, during his 14-year reign as Sultan, Majid consolidated his power around the local slave trade. His successor, Barghash bin Said, helped abolish the trade in Zanzibar. The third Sultan, Khalifa bin Said, furthered the progress toward abolishing slavery. Until 1884, the Sultans of Zanzibar controlled a portion of the Swahili Coast, known as Zanj. That year, the Society for German Colonization forced local chiefs on the mainland to agree to German protection, both powers leased coastal territory from Zanzibar and established trading stations and outposts. The same year the German East Africa Company acquired formal direct rule over the area previously submitted to German protection. This resulted in an uprising, the Abushiri Revolt, which was crushed by a joint Anglo-German naval operation which heralded the end of Zanzibars influence on the mainland. With the signing of the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty between the United Kingdom and the German Empire in 1890, Zanzibar itself became a British protectorate, in August 1896, following the death of Sultan Hamad bin Thuwaini and Zanzibar fought a 38-minute war, the shortest in recorded history.
A struggle for succession took place as the Sultans cousin Khalid bin Barghash seized power, the British instead wanted Hamoud bin Mohammed to become Sultan, believing that he would be much easier to work with. The British gave Khalid an hour to vacate the Sultans palace in Stone Town, Khalid failed to do so, and instead assembled an army of 2,800 men to fight the British. The British launched an attack on the palace and other locations around the city after which Khalid retreated, Hamoud was peacefully installed as Sultan
Al Buraimi Governorate
Al Buraimi is a governorate of Oman which was split from the Ad Dhahirah Region. Until October 2006, the area was part of Ad Dhahirah Region, at this time, the new governorate was created from the wilayats Al Buraymi and Mahdah. A third wilayat, Al Sunaynah was created from parts of the two, the town of Al-Buraymi is an oasis town in northwestern Oman, on the border of the United Arab Emirates. An adjacent city on the UAEs side of the border is Al Ain, for many decades there has been an open border between Al-Buraimi located in Oman and Al-Ain. Effective from 16 September 2006, this border has been relocated to an area around Hilli which is around 8 kilometers from the open border. The traditional border near Al-Ain City is now closed to all except to those with valid visas, Al-Buraimi is considerably smaller than the adjoining city of Al-Ain and is visibly less affluent. Streets in Al-Buraimi are not named and development could be considered piecemeal with large villas often appearing some metres from the roads, transport in and around Al-Buraimi is by taxis, which like the majority of taxis in Oman are coloured orange and white.
Drivers accept payment in both Omani Riyals and United Arab Emirate Dirhams, a trip within the township of Al-Buraimi will generally cost no more than 5 AED/0.5 OMR to 1.5 OMR. A trip to Mahdha may cost over 50 AED /5 OMR to 10 OMR, Al-Buraimi, like the rest of Oman, features many historic forts in varying condition. The largest mosque in Al-Buraimi is the Masjid Qaboos, named after the Sultan Qaboos, there are ruins of ancient hovels and a fort in Al-Buraimi. Al-Buraimi was part of Oman from early times from around 600 AD the Azd tribes of Oman occupied the area. Then Al-Buraimi town was abandoned in the 700s, Al Nuaimi tribe, the original people of the town and ruled it in the 1800s to the 1950s. It had only two rulers, Sheikh Sulṭan bin Mohamed bin Ali Al-Hamood Al Qurtasi Al Naimi, Sheikh Saqer bin Sulṭan bin Moḥammed Al Hamood Al Qurtasi Al Naimi, Zayed was raised in a fortified house in the Muwaiji district of Al-Ain. Since 1761, Abu Dhabi was ruled by sheikhs of the Al Abu Falah dynasty, the Saudis relied on historical precedent and tax records.
Their claim was backed by the American oil company Aramco, which provided logistics and these were supported by two frigates. These forces were used to blockade the Saudi contingent, with attempts to reinforce them seeing truck convoys, a standstill agreement was implemented and, on 30 July 1954, it was agreed to refer the dispute to an international arbitration tribunal. Meanwhile, Saudi Arabia embarked on a campaign of bribery to obtain declarations of loyalty on which its case was based. This campaign even extended to Shaikh Zayed bin Sulṭan al Nahayan, brother of Sh Shakhbout, Zayed reportedly turned down an offer of $20,000,000
Special Air Service
The Special Air Service is a special forces unit of the British Army. The SAS was founded in 1941 as a regiment, and reconstituted as a corps in 1950, the unit undertakes a number of roles including covert reconnaissance, counter-terrorism, direct action and hostage rescue. The Special Air Service traces its origins to 1941 and the Second World War and it was reformed as part of the Territorial Army in 1947, named the 21st Special Air Service Regiment. It was conceived as a force to operate behind enemy lines in the North African Campaign. Its first mission, in November 1941, was a drop in support of the Operation Crusader offensive. Due to German resistance and adverse conditions, the mission was a disaster,22 men. Its second mission was a major success, transported by the Long Range Desert Group, it attacked three airfields in Libya, destroying 60 aircraft with the loss of 2 men and 3 Willys MB. In September 1942, it was renamed 1st SAS, consisting at that time of four British squadrons, one Free French, one Greek, in January 1943, Colonel Stirling was captured in Tunisia and Paddy Mayne replaced him as commander.
In April 1943, the 1st SAS was reorganised into the Special Raiding Squadron under Maynes command and the Special Boat Squadron was placed under the command of George Jellicoe. The Special Raiding Squadron fought in Sicily and Italy along with the 2nd SAS, the Special Boat Squadron fought in the Aegean Islands and Dodecanese until the end of the war. In 1944 the SAS Brigade was formed from the British 1st and 2nd SAS, the French 3rd and 4th SAS and the Belgian 5th SAS. It was tasked with parachute operations behind the German lines in France and carried out supporting the Allied advance through Belgium, the Netherlands. As a result of Hitlers issuing of the Commando Order on 18 October 1942, in July 1944, following Operation Bulbasket,34 captured SAS commandos were summarily executed by the Germans. In October 1944, in the aftermath of Operation Loyton another 31 captured SAS commandos were summarily executed by the Germans, at the end of the war the British Government saw no further need for the force and disbanded it on 8 October 1945.
The following year it was decided there was a need for a long-term deep-penetration commando unit, the Artists Rifles, raised in 1860 and headquartered at Dukes Road, took on the SAS mantle as 21st SAS Regiment on 1 January 1947. In 1950, a 21 SAS squadron was raised to fight in the Korean War, after three months of training in Britain, it was informed that the squadron would no longer be required in Korea and so it instead volunteered to fight in the Malayan Emergency. Upon arrival in Malaya, it came under the command of Mike Calvert who was forming a new unit called the Malayan Scouts, the Rhodesians returned home after three years service and were replaced by a New Zealand squadron. By this time the need for a regular army SAS regiment had been recognised, in 1959 the third regiment, the 23rd SAS Regiment, was formed by renaming the Reserve Reconnaissance Unit, which had succeeded MI9 and whose members were experts in escape and evasion
Cameronians (Scottish Rifles)
The Cameronians was a rifle regiment of the British Army, the only regiment of rifles amongst the Scottish regiments of infantry. It was formed in 1881 under the Childers Reforms by the amalgamation of the 26th Cameronian Regiment and it can trace its roots to that of the Cameronians, the 26th of Foot, who were raised in 1689. The 1881 amalgamation coincided with the Cameronians selection to become the new Scottish Rifles, the Cameronians was formed in 1881 under the Childers Reforms by the amalgamation of the 26th Cameronian Regiment and the 90th Perthshire Light Infantry. After the amalgamation, the 1st Battalion preferred to be known as The Cameronians while the 2nd preferred to be known as The Scottish Rifles, the 2nd Battalion saw action at the Battle of Spion Kop in January 1900 during the Second Boer War. Two Militia battalions were formed from the former 2nd Royal Lanark Militia, the 3rd battalion was embodied in May 1900 for service during the Second Boer War. More than 600 men embarked for South Africa in April 1901, the 4th battalion had been embodied already in December 1899, for service in the same war, and 600 officers and men embarked for South Africa in late February 1900.
The 1st Battalion landed at Le Havre as part of the 19th Brigade, the battalion famously refused to play football or otherwise fraternise with the enemy on Christmas Day 1914. The 2nd Battalion landed in France as part of the 23rd Brigade in the 8th Division in November 1914 for service on the Western Front. The 1/5th Battalion landed at Le Havre as part of the 19th Brigade in the 6th Division in November 1915 for service on the Western Front. The 1/6th Battalion landed at Le Havre as part of the 23rd Brigade in the 8th Division in March 1915 for service on the Western Front. The 9th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 27th Brigade in the 9th Division in May 1915 for service on the Western Front, the 10th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 46th Brigade in the 15th Division in July 1915 for service on the Western Front. The 11th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 77th Brigade in the 26th Division in September 1915 for service on the Western Front, in 1948, along with every other infantry regiment of the British Army, the Cameronians was reduced to a single regular battalion.
The 1st Battalion which had been decimated in the Burma campaign was placed in suspended animation. It was deployed to Malaya in 1950 during the Malayan Emergency, under the reforms of the army in the 1967 Defence White Paper, which saw several regiments amalgamated, the Cameronians chose to disband rather than amalgamate with another in the Lowland Brigade. The 1st Battalion, The Cameronians was disbanded on 14 May 1968 at Douglas Castle, near Douglas, South Lanarkshire in the presence of the Duke of Hamilton, the Earl of Angus. Its recruiting area in Lanarkshire and Dumfries and Galloway taken over by the Kings Own Scottish Borderers, soldiers wore a rifle green doublet with Douglas tartan trews as part of their full dress and No.1 dress uniforms. George Henry Mackinnon, CB 1881–1882, Gen. William Hassall Eden 1882–1889, Gen. John Alfred Street 1899–1910, sir James Clerk Rattray, KCB 1910–1918, Maj-Gen. Joseph Henry Laye, CVO, CB 1918–1927, Maj-Gen, sir Philip Rynd Robertson, KCB, CMG 1927–1946, Maj-Gen
The Portuguese Empire, known as the Portuguese Overseas, was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire. It existed for almost six centuries from the capture of Ceuta in 1415 to the grant of sovereignty to East Timor in 2002, the first era of the Portuguese empire originated at the beginning of the Age of Discovery. Initiated by the Kingdom of Portugal, it would eventually expand across the globe, in 1488, Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and in 1498, Vasco da Gama reached India. In 1500, either by an accidental landfall or by the secret design. Over the following decades, Portuguese sailors continued to explore the coasts and islands of East Asia, establishing forts, by 1571, a string of naval outposts connected Lisbon to Nagasaki along the coasts of Africa, the Middle East and South Asia. This commercial network and the trade had a substantial positive impact on Portuguese economic growth. Though the realms continued to be administered separately, the Council of Portugal ruled the country and its empire from Madrid.
As the King of Spain was King of Portugal, Portuguese colonies became the subject of attacks by three rival European powers hostile to Spain, the Dutch Republic and France. With its smaller population, Portugal was unable to defend its overstretched network of trading posts. Eventually, Brazil became the most valuable colony of the era until, as part of the wave of independence movements that swept the Americas during the early 19th century. The third era represents the stage of Portuguese colonialism after the decolonization of the Americas of the 1820s. The colonial possessions had been reduced to the African coastline, Portuguese Timor, the disastrous 1890 British Ultimatum led to the contraction of Portuguese ambitions in Africa. Macau was returned to China in 1999, the origin of the Kingdom of Portugal lay in the reconquista, the gradual reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from the Moors. There were several motives for their first attack, on the Marinid Sultanate. In 1415 an attack was made on Ceuta, a strategically located North African Muslim enclave along the Mediterranean Sea, although Ceuta proved to be a disappointment for the Portuguese, the decision was taken to hold it while exploring along the Atlantic African coast.
At the time, Europeans did not know what lay beyond Cape Bojador on the African coast, under his sponsorship, soon the Atlantic islands of Madeira and Azores were reached and started to be settled producing wheat to export to Portugal. Fears of what lay beyond Cape Bojador, and whether it was possible to return once it was passed, were assuaged in 1434 when it was rounded by one of Infante Henrys captains, Gil Eanes. Once this psychological barrier had been crossed, it became easier to further along the coast
BP P. L. C. referred to by its former name, British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, England. It has renewable energy interests in biofuels and wind power, the company has around 17,200 service stations worldwide. Its largest division is BP America in the United States, in Russia BP owns a 19. 75% stake in Rosneft, the worlds largest publicly traded oil and gas company by hydrocarbon reserves and production. BP has a listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE100 Index. It has secondary listings on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange, BPs origins date back to the founding of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company in 1908, established as a subsidiary of Burmah Oil Company to exploit oil discoveries in Iran. In 1935, it became the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company and in 1954 British Petroleum, in 1959, the company expanded beyond the Middle East to Alaska and it was one of the the first companies to strike oil in the North Sea.
British Petroleum acquired majority control of Standard Oil of Ohio in 1978, formerly majority state-owned, the British government privatised the company in stages between 1979 and 1987. British Petroleum merged with Amoco in 1998, becoming BP Amoco plc, from 2003 to 2013, BP was a partner in the TNK-BP joint venture in Russia. BP has been involved in several major environmental and safety incidents. 1.8 million gallons of Corexit oil dispersant were used in the cleanup response, legal proceedings continued into January 2015 which determined payouts and fines under the Clean Water Act and the Natural Resources Damage Assessment. BP appealed the ruling, which raised concerns about BPs future and they settled in July 2015 in the amount of $19 billion plus the original amount. In May 1908 a group of British geologists discovered a large amount of oil at Masjid-i-Suleiman in Mohammerah and it was the first commercially significant find of oil in the Middle East. William Knox DArcy, by contract with the Emir of Mohammerah, Sheikh Khazal Khan al-Kaabi and this event changed the history of the Middle East.
The oil discovery led to petrochemical industry development and the establishment of industries that depended on oil. On 14 April 1909, the Anglo-Persian Oil Company was incorporated as a subsidiary of Burmah Oil Company, some of the shares were sold to the public. The first chairman and minority shareholder of the company became Lord Strathcona, the refinery was built and began operating in 1912. In 1913, the British Government acquired a controlling interest in the company and at the suggestion of Winston Churchill, the Royal Navy, which projected British power all over the world, came to be run 100% on oil from Iran. In 1919, the became a shale-oil producer by establishing a subsidiary named Scottish Oils which merged remaining Scottish oil-shale industries
Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, and across from the Sinai Peninsula lies Saudi Arabia, although Jordan and it is the worlds only contiguous Afrasian nation. Egypt has among the longest histories of any country, emerging as one of the worlds first nation states in the tenth millennium BC. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt experienced some of the earliest developments of writing, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. One of the earliest centres of Christianity, Egypt was Islamised in the century and remains a predominantly Muslim country. With over 92 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa and the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, and the fifteenth-most populous in the world.
The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres, the large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypts territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypts residents live in areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria. Modern Egypt is considered to be a regional and middle power, with significant cultural and military influence in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world. Egypts economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, Egypt is a member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Miṣr is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern name of Egypt. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew מִצְרַיִם, the oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian
History of Oman
This article is about the history of Oman. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates place the Arabian Nubian Complex at approximately 106,000 years old and this provides evidence for a distinct Middle Stone Age technocomplex in southern Arabia, around the earlier part of the Marine Isotope Stage 5. Samples from the times had little pollen or charcoal, suggesting sparse vegetation with little to burn. The area around Lake Malawi, today heavily forested, was a desert approximately 135,000 to 90,000 years ago, the stone tools, some up to 125,000 years old, resemble those made by humans in Africa around the same period. Luminescence dating is a technique that measures naturally occurring radiation stored in the sand, data culled via this methodology demonstrates that 130,000 years ago, the Arabian Peninsula was relatively more warm which caused more rainfall, turning it into a series of lush habitable land. During this period the southern Red Sea’s levels dropped and was only 2.5 miles or 4 km wide and this offered a brief window of time for humans to easily cross the sea and cross the Peninsula to opposing sites like Jebel Faya.
These early migrants running away from the change in Africa, crossed the Red Sea into Yemen and Oman. 2,000 kilometres of inhospitable desert lie between the Red Sea and Jebel Faya in UAE, but around 130,000 years ago the world was at the end of an ice age. The Red Sea was shallow enough to be crossed on foot or on a raft. The northern half of Oman was part of the Maka satrapy of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, by the time of the conquests of Alexander the Great, the satrapy was likely already independent, as it played no part in the struggle. It remained independent until it was reestablished as a satrapy by the Parthian and Sassanian empires, Persian domination ended due to the invading Arab Muslims during the Muslim conquest of Persia. Islam was introduced to Oman in the 7th century, during the lifetime of the prophet Muhammad, Ibadism became the dominant religious sect locally by the 8th century. Oman is currently the country with a majority Ibadi population. Ibadhism has a reputation for its moderate conservatism, one distinguishing feature of Ibadism is the choice of ruler by communal consensus and consent.
Several millennia ago, Arab tribes migrated eastward to Oman, coinciding with the presence in the region of peoples from present-day Iran. The introduction of Ibadism vested power in the Imam, the leader nominated by the ulema, the Imams position was confirmed when the imam — having gained the allegiance of the tribal sheiks — received the bayah from the public. In 751 Ibadi Muslims, a branch of the Kharijites. Despite interruptions, the Ibadi imamate survived until the mid-20th century, the Qarmatians controlled the area between 931 and 932 and again between 933 and 934
2011 Omani protests
The 2011 Omani protests were a series of protests in the Persian Gulf country of Oman that occurred as part of the revolutionary wave popularly known as the Arab Spring. The protesters demanded salary increases, lower living costs, the creation of more jobs, protests in Sohar, Omans fifth-largest city, centered on the Globe Roundabout. The Sultans responses included the dismissal of a third of the governing cabinet, protesters demanded salary increases and lower costs of living. On 20 February 2011, protesters welcomed a move by the government to increase the minimum wage, the wage increase targets Omani workers in the private sector. Public sector Omani employees have received wage increases in the past, the Government of Oman raised minimum wages for an estimated 150,000 private sector employees to $520 from $364 a month. As protests continued in Sohar the demands were still jobs and political reforms, the protesters want more jobs, freedom of expression, less government control over the media, political reforms, better living conditions, an abolition of taxes and the trial of all ministers.
Protesters in Muscat demanded cabinet ministers not serve more than four years, in several other protests, Omanis furthered their demands by calling for a reduction of foreign workers in order to provide more jobs for Omani citizens by private companies. About 200 protesters marched on 17 January demanding salary increases and lower costs of living, the protest surprised international observers, who have viewed Oman as a politically stable and sleepy country. Renewed protests termed as the Green March, occurred on 18 February,350 people marched, demanding an end to corruption and better distribution of oil revenue. The protesters carried signs with slogans of support for the Sultan, Police did not intervene in the gathering, the petition calling for the reforms will be handed to Omans Sultan Qaboos. On 1 March, about 50 protesters held a sit-in as well outside the Consultative Assembly to demand political reform, the group grew to over 400 people. Protesters continued to demand the Consultative Assembly be turned into a real parliament, the protests were reported to be peaceful, well-organised and very disciplined.
Tents had been set up with separate accommodations for men and women, placards with protest slogans had been translated into English and German for the international media. On 2 April, dozens of protesters staged a sit-in in Muscat, outside the prosecutors office. On 26 February, nearly 500 protesters gathered around a mall in the industrial city of Sohar,230 kilometres from the capital Muscat. The protesters stopped traffic and shoppers around the mall premises, the shops in the area including the mall remained closed on 27 February as well. On 27 February, protesters returned in Sohar for a second day, the Royal Oman Police eventually used tear gas and rubber bullets to contain and disperse the protesters. According to witnesses, two protesters were killed, on 28 February, protesters looted and burned a hypermarket in Sohar