Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
The Journey of Natty Gann
The Journey of Natty Gann is a 1985 American film directed by Jeremy Paul Kagan, produced by Walt Disney Pictures and released by Buena Vista Distribution. The film introduced Meredith Salenger and starred John Cusack, Lainie Kazan and Ray Wise. In 1935, 15-year-old tomboy Natty Gann lives in Chicago with Sol. After being out of work because of the Great Depression, Sol applies for work as a lumberjack in Washington. However, to take the job, he must leave on no notice on a company bus. Unable to find Natty before departing, he leaves her a letter promising to send her the fare to join him as soon as he has earned it. Meanwhile, he makes arrangements with Connie, the shallow and insensitive innkeeper of their rooming-house, so Natty can stay on under Connie's temporary supervision. After overhearing Connie reporting her as an abandoned child, Natty runs away to find her father on her own, embarking on a cross-country journey riding the rails along with other penniless travelers and hobos. Along the way she saves a wolfdog from a dog fighting ring.
In return the dog, whom she calls Wolf, becomes her friend and protector in her attempt to return to her father. She has a brief, innocent romance with another young traveler and encounters various obstacles that test her courage and ingenuity, such as being arrested after cattle rustling and remanded to a juvenile facility. Natty manages to escape the detention center and confronts the blacksmith, given control of the captured Wolf; the blacksmith turns out to be fair-minded. She is cheated of her ticket money by an unscrupulous ticket agent, narrowly escapes his attempt to turn her in, returning to "riding the rails" illicitly on freight trains, where she is unexpectedly reunited with Harry in a rail-side shantytown; when Natty's father calls Connie, she tells. In a phone call he is grieved to learn that Natty's wallet was found underneath a derailed freight train — unbeknownst to him, she lived through the crash, he is given a week's leave from the lumber company to search through the wreckage for her, but to no avail.
He returns to the lumber camp and requests the most dangerous jobs, known as "widow's work", now that he seems to have little to live for. Arriving on the west coast, Natty's journey takes several more challenging turns. Harry finds work through the federal Works Progress Administration in San Francisco, but she declines his invitation to go with him, preferring to find her father; the logging operation does not list Sol Gann among their workers, but Natty is undeterred, searching fruitlessly for him by showing other loggers his photo in a pendant he has given her, her last trace of her parents. Wolf hears the calls of other wolves nearby, Natty tearfully tells him to go join his own kind; the company clerk catches her in one of the backwoods camps and makes arrangements for her to be sent back down the mountain for her own safety. The clerk unexpectedly finds the returned letter her father had sent enclosing her train ticket to rejoin him and tells Natty of his location. Natty sees a company truck pass by loaded with injured men.
In the truck, she glimpses her father. She runs after it, calling out for him, but is devastated when it outpaces her, she finds him standing in the road. They share an emotional embrace, with Wolf looking on from a nearby cliff. Meredith Salenger as Natty Gann Jed the Wolfdog as Wolf John Cusack as Harry Ray Wise as Sol Gann Lainie Kazan as Connie Scatman Crothers as Sherman Barry Miller as Parker Verna Bloom as Farm Woman John P. Finnegan as Logging Boss Garry Chalk as Chicago Worker Frank C. Turner as Farmer Gabrielle Rose as Exercise Matron Don S. Davis as Railroad Brakeman Alek Diakun as Station Master Grant Heslov as member of Parker's Gang Bruce M. Fischer as Charlie Linfield Jack Rader as Employment Agent Matthew Faison as Buzz Jordan Pratt as Frank Zachary Ansley as Louie Campbell Lane as Chicago Moderator Max Trumpower as Chicago Worker The film has been released in the United States on VHS in April 1986 again in 2002; the DVD version was released using the scan format. The title was made available for streaming and download in SD and HD versions.
It was released on Blu-Ray as part of Disney's Movie Club on July 17, 2018. The movie has gained universally positive reviews. Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes gave the film a rating of 100%, based on 15 reviews, with a rating average of 7/10. Critics praised the actors' performances and the film's portrayal of Depression-era life, while lamenting its pace and level of sentimentality. At the Young Artist Awards, Salenger won for Best Leading Young Actress in a Feature Film, the film itself was nominated for Best Family Motion Picture. Albert Wolsky's costume design received an Academy Award nomination. Elmer Bernstein scored the picture, having to rewrite much of his material in the process. Both scores were released on compact disc – Bernstein's in 2008 as part of a four-disc set of rejected scores by Varèse Sarabande and Horner's in 2009 by Intrada Records. Official website The Journey of Natty Gann at Rotten Tomatoes The Journey of Natty Gann on IMDb The Journey of Natty Gann at the TCM Movie Database The Journey of Natty Gann at AllMovie
Acton is an unincorporated census-designated place in Los Angeles County, near the Antelope Valley. According to the 2010 census, Acton had a population of 7,596. Acton is a small residential community located in the Sierra Pelona Mountains, it is off the Antelope Valley Freeway near Palmdale. Acton is 20 miles northeast of the San Fernando Valley and 47 miles north of downtown Los Angeles; the town has a rural western theme which can be seen in its homes, commercial buildings, historical buildings. The homes in the mountains around Acton have great views of the valley below. In the valley are ranch style homes with equestrian facilities. While Acton is not a part of the Antelope Valley, it is grouped together with the "AV" in the General Plan. Acton has a Metrolink commuter rail station on its border with Palmdale, themed in an "old western" style and has been seen in various movies and commercials. Acton was founded in 1887 by gold miners, it was named after Massachusetts by one of the miners. Two of the best-known gold mines located in Acton were the Governor mine.
Mining of gold and titanium ore continued into the early 1900s. The town had served as a railroad camp from 1873 to 1876 when the Saugus-Mojave section of the Southern Pacific Railroad was under construction. Acton was once considered for the State capital of California. California Governor Henry T. Gage owned the Governor Mine, hence the name, sought to relocate the capital to Acton; this effort failed and the capital was not moved from Sacramento. In the late 1880s, Acton started to become more of a ranching and farming community. In 1889, Acton's first hotel and its first saloon, the 49er was opened, it is still open for business today. Acton is located at 34°28′22″N 118°11′1″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 39.3 square miles, over 99% of it land. At the 2000 census, the CDP had a total area of all land; this region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Acton has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps.
Summer month days average above. The 2010 United States Census reported that Acton had a population of 7,596; the population density was 193.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Acton was 6,564 White, 57 African American, 70 Native American, 155 Asian, 5 Pacific Islander, 451 from other races, 294 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,373 persons; the Census reported that 7,596 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 2,660 households, out of which 901 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,771 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 194 had a female householder with no husband present, 116 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 108 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 30 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 436 households were made up of individuals and 143 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.86.
There were 2,081 families. The population was spread out with 1,672 people under the age of 18, 660 people aged 18 to 24, 1,394 people aged 25 to 44, 3,037 people aged 45 to 64, 833 people who were 65 years of age or older; the median age was 45.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.7 males. There were 2,814 housing units at an average density of 71.6 per square mile, of which 2,386 were owner-occupied, 274 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.7%. 6,852 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 744 people lived in rental housing units. Median earnings per worker in Acton California in 2015 were $75,714 compared to the United States average of $44,178. Acton has $84,375 median earnings for 55 % greater than the $54,384 median for women. 22% of the people in Acton report self-employment income, twice the U. S. average of 11%. 6.9% of the population of Acton lives in poverty. Of those, 17% are employed.
Just 1% of Acton households use some form of public assistance, compared to the United States average of 14%. 7% of Acton workers car pool to work, less than the U. S. average of 10%. Acton has a large number of people who are able to work from home at 12% versus 4% for the U. S; the average commute to work in Acton is 46 minutes, much longer than the U. S. average of 26 minutes. The Shambala Preserve, a wild animal nature park run by actress Tippi Hedren, is located near Acton. Ventures on Hedren's 80-acre wild animal compound include a Safari at the authentic African-style haven for more than 70 African lions, Royal Bengal and Siberian tigers and black leopards and African elephants. Acton is home to Parker Mountain, the mecca for a style of radio-controlled aircraft flying called "dynamic soaring" and where at one time the world speed record of 302 mph was achieved. In the California State Legislature, Acton is in the 21st Senate District, represented by Republican Scott Wilk, in the
Turner & Hooch
Turner & Hooch is a 1989 American buddy cop comedy film starring Tom Hanks and Beasley the Dog as the eponymous characters respectively. The film co-stars Mare Winningham, Craig T. Nelson and Reginald VelJohnson, it was directed by Roger Spottiswoode. It was executive produced by Daniel Petrie Jr. of Beverly Hills Cop fame. The plotted K-9 was released three months earlier. A pilot for a Turner & Hooch television series, starring Thomas F. Wilson and Beasley the Dog, was made and ran as a part of The Magical World of Disney. Touchstone Pictures acquired the screenplay for Turner & Hooch for $1 million, the highest price paid by Touchstone for any script at the time. Scott Turner is a police investigator in California. Bored with the lack of serious crime with his current work, Turner is set to transfer to a much better position in Sacramento, leaving fellow investigator David Sutton to replace him. Turner shows David around in the three days left before his transfer, meeting with long time friend Amos Reed for a final time.
The two investigators are called to the discovery of $8,000 found at the local beach. That same evening, Amos is murdered by an affiliate of local seafood magnate Walter Boyett when Amos reveals his suspicions of Boyett's operations. Turner is alerted to the crime the following morning, resulting in Scott taking in Hooch, Amos' pet Dogue de Bordeaux. Scott takes Hooch to the new town veterinarian Emily Carson. Scott pleads with Emily to take in Hooch. However, Emily insists. Returning home, Hooch's noisy, destructive nature clashes intensely with Scott's routine and lifestyle. Scott leaves Hooch alone one night to buy dog food, only to return to a home, ransacked by Hooch unintentionally. Furious, Scott kicks Hooch out, only for him to return with Emily's female dog, Camille. Seeing an opportunity to jettison Hooch, Scott drives both Hooch and Camille back to the veterinary clinic, only to be caught by Emily as he leaves. Emily invites Scott inside, the two proceed to continue painting the house that Emily earlier abandoned for the night.
Scott leaves on and, although he expresses his lack of interest in taking things further with Emily, it becomes clear that the two are starting to like each other. Scott takes Hooch to the Police Precinct the next day, where a wedding occurs just across the street. Hooch gives chase; the murderer is able to escape from his pursuers, but Scott is able to identify the killer as Zack Gregory, a former Marine with several prior arrests who fits the profile of Amos' killing. Scott speculates that Amos wasn't murdered in a robbery attempt, but in order for Zack to cover up an illegal operation near to where he lived; this theory matches with Amos' regular complaints to Scott about the noises he heard going on at Boyett Seafood, the company that has Zack registered as an employee. Celebrating the approval to search Boyett Seafood, Scott treats Hooch but notices his refusal to eat. Scott considers this a consequence of Amos' death, the long term owner and only companion to Hooch. Scott and Hooch start to establish a closer bond.
The next day, the police search Boyett find no evidence of any illegal activity. With his transfer pending the following day, Scott is relieved of jurisdiction of the case, given to David by Police Chief Howard Hyde. Frustrated with reaching a dead end in the case, Scott meets with Emily, leading the two to spend the night together. In a eureka moment, Scott realizes why the earlier search of Boyett Seafood turned up nothing - instead of searching for imports, Boyett Seafood was exporting goods. Armed with this new lead, Scott takes Hooch back to the factory to stake-out; the following morning, David arrives upon Scott's request with the earlier recovered $8,000 from the beach. On a hunch, Scott commands Hooch to trace the scent of the money to anything he can find within the factory returning with the exact type of bag the wad was discovered in. Scott travels to the Lazy Acres Motel, the false address at which Zack Gregory was listed as a tenant. Scott interrogates the Motel owner into revealing where Zack is, only to be held up at gunpoint by him moments later.
Zack orders Scott into his car to drive away, but Scott crashes the Cadillac into a concrete barrier, propelling Zack through the windshield and pinning him down by the neck, while assistance is provided by Hooch. Scott interrogates Zack, who reveals that he killed Amos, reveals that Walter Boyett is in on the illegal money trade going on at his factory, but is not in charge of it, to Scott's surprise. Scott returns with Hooch to the factory, is unexpectedly joined by Chief Hyde. Suspicious of Zack's earlier confession, Scott confronts Hyde, believing him to be in charge of the money laundering operation at the docks, using the gigantic ice cubes to hide the cash being sent out of the country. A gunfight soon occurs between Hyde and Boyett on the other. Hooch is able to ambush Boyett from above. Confronting Hyde, Scott is coerced by the corrupt Police Chief to frame Boyett, subsequently killed by Hyde. However, Hyde knows that Scott is an honest police officer, calls his bluff. A mor
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Animal training is the act of teaching animals specific responses to specific conditions or stimuli. Training may be for purposes such as companionship, detection and entertainment; the type of training an animal receives will vary depending on the training method used, the purpose for training the animal. For example, a seeing eye dog will be trained to achieve a different goal than a wild animal in a circus. In some countries animal trainer certification bodies exist, they do not share consistent requirements. The United States does not require animal trainers to have any specific certification. An animal trainer should consider the natural behaviors of the animal and aim to modify behaviors through a basic system of reward and punishment. During training, an animal trainer can administer one of four potential consequences for a given behavior: Positive reinforcement Occurs when an animal's behavior is followed by a stimulus that increases occurrences of the behavior in the future. Negative reinforcement Occurs when a behavior is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus, which causes the occurrences of the behavior to increase in the future.
Positive punishment Occurs. This causes a decrease in occurrences of behavior in the future. Negative punishment Occurs; as a result, the occurrences of the behavior decrease in the future. Behavior analysts emphasize the use of positive reinforcement for increasing desirable behaviors and negative punishment for decreasing undesirable behaviors. If punishment is going to be used to decrease an undesirable behavior, the animal must be able to receive positive reinforcement for an alternative behavior. Reinforcement should be provided according to a predetermined schedule; such a schedule of reinforcement specifies whether all responses or only some are reinforced and includes the following: Variable ratio A reinforcer delivery occurs after a set number of responses, but that number varies around an average number. Fixed ratio A specific number of responses occur before a reinforcer is delivered. Variable interval Is the first response, emitted after a set but variable amount of time has elapsed is reinforced.
Fixed interval The first response, emitted after a set time has elapsed is reinforced. While continuous reinforcement in a fixed ratio schedule may be necessary for the initial learning stages, a variable ratio schedule is the most effective at maintaining behavior over long periods of time. There are various methods animal trainers can use to prompt an animal to respond to a stimulus in a specific way. For example, shaping is a process by which successive approximations are rewarded until the desirable response topography is attained. An animal trainer can use conditioned reinforcers, like clickers, to bridge the interval between response and positive reinforcement; some stimuli, considered discriminative are signals and cues. They can be used to prompt a response from an animal, can be changed to other stimuli or faded in magnitude. In order to delay satiation, reinforcer size should be as small as possible and still be effective for reinforcement; the timing of the delivery of a reinforcer is crucial.
The interval between response and consequence must be minimal in order for the animal to associate the consequence with the response. Other important issues related to this method are: stimulus control motivating operations Desensitization chaining S-deltas discrimination generalization. Certain sub-fields of animal training tend to have certain philosophies and styles. For example, fields such as: Companion bird training Hunting bird training Companion dog training Show dog training Dressage horse training Mahout elephant training Circus elephant training Zoo elephant training Zoo exotic animal training Marine mammal trainingThe degree of trainer protection from the animal and the tasks trained may vary, they can range from entertainment, husbandry behaviors, physical labor or athleticism, habituation to averse stimuli, interaction with other humans, or research. Training may take into consideration the natural social tendencies of the animal species, such as predilections for attention span, food-motivation, dominance hierarchies, aggression, or bonding to individuals.
Consideration must be given to practical aspects on the human side such as the ratio of the number of trainers to each animal. In some circumstances one animal may have multiple trainers, in others, a trainer might attend to many animals in a training session. Sometimes training is accomplished with a single trainer working individually with a single animal. In some species, the number of trainers is irrelevant, yet it can achieve the wanted outcome. Service animals, such as assistance dogs, Capuchin monkeys and miniature horses, are trained to utilize their sensory and social skills to bond with a human and help that person to offset a disability in daily life; the use of service animals dogs, is an ever-growing field, with a wide range of special adaptations. In the United States, selected inmates in prisons are used to train service dogs. In addition to adding to the short supply of service animals, such programs have produced benefits in improved socialization skills and behavior of inmates.
Organizations such as the American Humane Association monitor the use of animals such as those used in the entertainment industry, but they do not monitor their training. The Patsy Award (Picture Animal Top