Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Come Out and Play (The Offspring song)
"Come Out and Play" is a song by the Californian punk rock group The Offspring. It is the seventh track on their third album Smash and was released as the first single from that album. Written by frontman Dexter Holland, the song was the second single to be released by the band, after "I'll Be Waiting", it is considered to be The Offspring's breakthrough song, as it received widespread radio play, with first attention brought by Jed the Fish of KROQ-FM, reached number one on the Billboard Modern Rock Tracks chart, bringing both the band and the punk rock genre to widespread attention. Dexter Holland said most songs on Smash "were just about whatever was happening in front of me." In the case of "Come Out And Play", it was about gang and school violence, as "Back I was a grad student and I was commuting to school everyday in a shitty car, driving through East L. A. Gangland central. I was there the day of the L. A. riots. So I was aware of that part of the world, a lot of that gun stuff came out in songs like "Come Out and Play."Inspiration for the "keep'em separated" lyric came from Dexter Holland's experience in a laboratory cooling Erlenmeyer flasks full of hot liquids.
"Come Out and Play" was the first Offspring song. The music video, directed by Darren Lavett, was shot in May 1994 and debuted on MTV in the summer of that year; the video is entirely in black-and-white with sepia tone segments, features the band performing the song in the garage of a house with tinfoil covering the walls. There is footage involving dogs fighting over a chew toy with a crowd watching, a horse race, a sword fight and some clips of several snakes and snake charmers, as well as some fencing scenes; the song is a nod to the Twisted Sister 1985 album Come Play. In 1994, Posh Boy Records owner Robbie Fields submitted a written claim to Epitaph Records via the Harry Fox Agency, alleging that the two-bar Arabian guitar phrase repeated throughout "Come Out and Play" copied the guitar solo from "Bloodstains", a song by the Fullerton, California punk rock band Agent Orange written in 1979 to which Fields, as the song's publisher, owned the copyright. Offspring lead vocalist and primary songwriter Dexter Holland had cited "Bloodstains" as one of the songs that sparked his interest in punk rock, saying it "really influenced me that Arabian-sounding lead.
I've written a lot of stuff like that", The Offspring's public admiration had brought Agent Orange increased attention. Fields contended that the similarity between the two guitar parts amounted to The Offspring sampling Agent Orange, requested that Epitaph pay a licensing fee of US$0.01 for each copy of Smash sold—equating to $60,000 or more at the time—which he would split evenly with Agent Orange frontman and "Bloodstains" writer Mike Palm. A lawsuit was not filed, but I feel I have a fiduciary duty to represent Mike Palm's interests." Palm declined to give an opinion on the matter noting that he was not involved in filing the claim but did not disagree with it, invited listeners to compare the two songs, saying "Anyone who listens will know what the issue is."The Offspring's manager Jim Guerinot called Fields' claim baseless, saying the two guitar parts were "not close to identical. They're both in the same scale, there's no doubt there's an influence, it doesn't mean that it's stolen. If he feels he has something, he'll sue, if we've done something, proven wrong we should be sued.
But we don't feel there's any merit to it." Randall Wixen, the Offspring's music publisher, stated that a musicologist hired by Epitaph determined the two guitar parts were not identical, despite being based in the same Middle Eastern scale. "We've told a hundred times he's not getting paid. He's not getting a cent", Wixen said in 1996, stating that Fields and Palm would have to sue if they wished to pursue the claim. Although no lawsuit was filed, Palm maintained that he still deserved credit for the guitar riff: "I could show you interviews in which Dexter Holland outright admits that he took that riff from my song and used it in his song," he asserted in 2000, "In the rap world, when something like, taken as a sample, they pay for it the same way I pay for guitar strings and picks." The claim became national news when The Offspring discussed it on MTV, leading to a backlash against Palm: "Some punk kid's perception of, to think that I'm the bad guy," he said, "but they don't understand that the Offspring are millionaires and I'm just trying to retain whatever little tiny thing is mine."Some fellow Californian punk rock musicians criticized the allegation.
Frank Agnew, guitarist of fellow Fullerton band the Adolescents, remarked "I don't see how you can call that plagiarism. It just reeks to me. If the Offspring did a guitar solo, reminiscent of one of my guitar solos, I'd be honored, not. I think it's real petty." The Vandals, who were signed to Holland's label Nitro Records, released the song "Aging Orange" on their 1996 album The Quickening, with lyrics by bassist Joe Escalante mocking Palm's claim to ownership of a style rooted in ancient Middle Eastern music. Back in ancient Egypt many pharoahs went to jailFor misappropriation of my Phrygian scaleI said "Listen, you're driving me insaneIt's obvious those bellies are all dancing to'Bloodstains'I figured out you owe me, please try not to laughBut every time I hear it, I get one more golden calf" Palm called the song "nothing but Joe's desperate attempt to brown-nose The Offspring", characterizing it as "lame and
Teaching Mrs. Tingle
Teaching Mrs. Tingle is a 1999 American dark comedy-thriller film; the directing debut of the film's screenwriter Kevin Williamson, it follows a trio of high school seniors who must prove their innocence to their vindictive history teacher, who accuses them of cheating on their exams. Williamson shelved the script, before the success of his projects, including Dawson's Creek and its first sequel. Following this, the script was picked up; the film stars Helen Mirren, Katie Holmes, Marisa Coughlan, Barry Watson, Jeffrey Tambor, was released on August 20, 1999. It was titled Killing Mrs. Tingle, but was delayed and retitled due to the uproar over teen violence in films after the Columbine High School massacre; the film received poor reviews from critics and was a box-office bomb. It has since gained a small cult following, it remains Williamson’s only directional effort on film to November 2018. In Grandsboro, Northern California, Leigh Ann Watson is a high school student living with her single mother Faye, who works as a waitress.
Leigh Ann's aim is to achieve top grades to leave town. However, her grade in history class is threatened by her sadistic and vindictive teacher, Mrs. Eve Tingle, who has a special dislike for Leigh Ann and downgrades Leigh Ann's well-designed project due to a minor historical inaccuracy. Fellow student Luke Churner makes a copy, he offers Leigh Ann the papers. However, Luke stashes the papers in Leigh Ann's backpack. Tingle discovers the papers in Leigh Ann's backpack, threatens to expel her for cheating. Mrs. Tingle heads to Principal Potter's office, but he has left for the day and decides to tell him in the morning; the trio head to Mrs. Tingle's house that night and try to convince Mrs. Tingle that Leigh Ann is innocent. Mrs. Tingle, refuses to listen and hints that she believes them but does not care. Luke picks up a loaded crossbow, a project from one of Mrs. Tingle's students, threatens her. A physical struggle ensues, the crossbow goes off, in the ensuing mêlée, Mrs. Tingle is accidentally knocked unconscious.
The students tie Mrs. Tingle to her bed. Leigh Ann returns to her house and promises to return in the morning, while Luke and Jo Lynn are left to watch Mrs. Tingle in the bedroom. While under Jo Lynn's watch, Mrs. Tingle regains consciousness, playing on her guilt, asks to be untied. Mrs. Tingle attacks Jo Lynn, but is restrained by Luke and is retied and gagged; the trio gathers together at Mrs. Tingle's house the next morning. Jo Lynn calls the school and impersonates Mrs. Tingle, calling in sick. Leigh Ann and Luke go to school; when they return home, the trio devises a plan to blackmail Mrs. Tingle by using fake photos of Luke and Mrs. Tingle in bed together. Meanwhile, Mrs. Tingle plays mind games with Jo Lynn, concerning her jealousy about Leigh Ann's supposed relationship with Luke; that day, the plan goes awry when the school's gym teacher, Coach Richard Wenchell arrives and is revealed to be having an affair with her. Jo Lynn, impersonates Mrs. Tingle and blindfolds Coach Wenchell to hide her identity.
When Wenchell passes out after a high intake of alcohol, Leigh Ann, Jo Lynn decide to blackmail Mrs. Tingle by producing photographic evidence of her love affair with Wenchell. While Leigh Ann and Luke leave to have the pictures printed and take an unconscious Coach Wenchell home undetected, Mrs. Tingle reveals to Jo Lynn that Leigh Ann and Luke spent the night together at a party. Distraught, Jo Lynn leaves; when Leigh Ann and Luke arrive back, Leigh Ann charges that Tingle only hates Leigh Ann because Leigh Ann has, unlike herself, the potential to leave their small town and experience life and that Leigh Ann is not afraid of Tingle. In retaliation, Tingle acknowledges Leigh Ann's cowardice, saying she used to be Leigh Ann in every way and that Tingle herself is Leigh Ann's future. In response, Leigh Ann and Luke have sex downstairs; the two find Mrs. Tingle's history grade book. Leigh Ann marks down her rival Trudie Tucker's top A grade down to a B, upgrades her own C to an A+; the next day at school, Jo Lynn ignores Leigh Ann, still hurt over her betrayal.
Leigh Ann tries to make amends with Jo Lynn, but admits that she had sex with Luke, further infuriating Jo Lynn, who accuses Leigh Ann of being just like Mrs. Tingle. Mrs. Tingle escapes from her bonds, ties Luke down in her place, using the loaded crossbow, once again threatens Leigh Ann. Jo Lynn returns, now saying she is revealed to be lying. After a violent fight, Mrs. Tingle fires it wildly, trying to hit Leigh Ann. Trudie Tucker walks through the door, gets hit in the chest by the bolt, collapses. Leigh Ann says she is dead. Principal Potter is horrified by the scene. Guilt-ridden, Tingle confesses that she shot Trudie while trying to kill Leigh Ann and wanted to make her fail like Tingle did herself. However, Trudie was protected by the thick textbook she was holding to her chest and is unharmed, which Leigh Ann knew. Potter fires Tingle; the film ends with Leigh Ann being named as valedictorian at graduation. Helen Mirren as Mrs. Eve Tingle Katie Holmes as Leigh Ann Watson Jeffrey Tambor as Coach Richard "Spanky" Wenchell Barry Watson as Luke Churner Marisa Coughlan as Jo Lynn Jordan Liz Stauber as Trudie Tucker Michael McKean as Principal Potter Lesley Ann Warren as Mrs Faye Watson Molly Ringwald as Miss Banks Vivica A.
Fox as Miss Gold John Patrick White as Brian Berry Robert Gant as Professor Mer
Cathay Pacific Airways Limited known as Cathay Pacific or just Cathay, is the flag carrier of Hong Kong, with its head office and main hub located at Hong Kong International Airport. The airline's operations and subsidiaries have scheduled passenger and cargo services to more than 190 destinations in more than 60 countries worldwide including codeshares and joint ventures. Cathay Pacific operates a fleet of wide-body aircraft, consisting of Airbus A330, Airbus A350 and Boeing 777 equipment. Cathay Pacific Cargo operates two models of the Boeing 747. Wholly owned subsidiary airline Cathay Dragon operates to 44 destinations in the Asia-Pacific region from its Hong Kong base. In 2010, Cathay Pacific and Cathay Pacific Cargo, together with Cathay Dragon, carried nearly 27 million passengers and over 1.8 million tons of cargo and mail. The airline was founded on 24 September 1946 by Australian Sydney H. de Kantzow and American Roy C. Farrell; the airline made the world's first non-stop transpolar flight flying over the North Pole in July 1998, the maiden flight to arrive at the new Hong Kong International Airport.
The airline celebrated its 70th anniversary in 2016. It is reciprocally one of the major shareholders of Air China. Cathay Pacific is the world's tenth largest airline measured in terms of sales, fourteenth largest measured in terms of market capitalisation. In 2010, Cathay Pacific became the world's largest international cargo airline, along with main hub Hong Kong International Airport as the world's busiest airport in terms of cargo traffic, it is one of the founding members of the Oneworld alliance. Cathay Pacific's subsidiary Cathay Dragon is an affiliate member of Oneworld. Cathay Pacific Airways was founded on 24 September 1946 in Hong Kong, with Sydney "Syd" de Kantzow, Roy Farrell, as well as Neil Buchanan, Donald Brittan Evans and Robert "Bob" Stanley Russell were the initial shareholders. Buchanan and Russell worked for de Kantzow and Farrell in the predecessor of Cathay Pacific, Roy Farrell Import-Export Company, headquartered in Shanghai. Both de Kantzow and Farrell were ex-air force pilots who had flown the Hump, a route over the Himalayan mountains.
Farrell purchased the airline's first aircraft, a Douglas DC-3, nicknamed Betsy, in Bush Field, New York City in 1945. The company began freight services on 28 January 1946 from Sydney to Shanghai, after Farrell and Russell flew the plane to Australia and obtained a license to carry freight services earlier that month, its first commercial flight was a shipment of Australian goods. The profitable business soon attracted attention from the Republic of China government officials. After several instances where the company's planes were detained by authorities in Shanghai, on 11 May 1946 the company relocated, flying its two planes to Hong Kong. Farrell and de Kantzow re-registered their business in Hong Kong on 24 September 1946 as "Cathay Pacific Airways Limited", while another sister company The Roy Farrell Export Import Company Limited was incorporated on 28 August 1946 and chartered some flights of Cathay. According to International Directory of Company Histories, forming two companies are for tax purposes.
They named the airline Cathay, the ancient name given to China, Pacific because Farrell speculated that they would one day fly across the Pacific. Moreover, to avoid the name "Air Cathay" as it was occurred in a comic; the Chinese name for the company was not settled on until the 1950s. It comes from a Chinese idiom meaning "grand and peaceful state" and was at the time used by other businesses called "Cathay" in English. According to legend, the airline's unique name was conceived by Farrell and some foreign correspondents at the bar of the Manila Hotel, while another narrative was the name was taken in the Cathay Hotel in Shanghai Bund, during drinking and brainstorming, choosing Cathay was to avoid the word China in the airline name. 25 September, on Cathay Pacific's maiden voyage, de Kantzow and Peter Hoskins flew from Sydney to Hong Kong via Manila. The airline flew routes between Hong Kong, Manila, Shanghai, Bangkok, with additional chartered destinations; the airline grew quickly. By 1947, it had added 2 Vickers Catalina seaplane to its fleet.
In 1948, a new legal person of Cathay Pacific Airways was incorporated, with John Swire & Sons, China Navigation Company, Australian National Airways being the new shareholders of the new entity, acquiring the assets from the old legal person. De Kantzow and Russell were the shareholders of Cathay Pacific Holdings at that time, it was reported that the colonial British government of Hong Kong, required the airline was majority owned by British. Despite de Kantzow being a British subject through his Australian roots, Farrell was an American, thus forcing them to sell their majority stake. Under Swire's management, de Kantzow remained in the airline until 1951, while Farrell had sold his minority stake in Cathay Pacific soon after Swire's takeover in 1948, due to his wife's health problems, he became a successful businessman. Swire acquired 52% of Cathay Pacific Airways; as of 31 December 2017, the airline is still 45% owned by Swire Group through its subsidiary Swire Pacific Limited, as the largest shareholder.
However, Swire Group formed a shareholders' agreement with the second largest shareholder Air China (which was controlled by state-owned China National Aviation Hold
Alternative rock is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became popular in the 1990s. In this instance, the word "alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from mainstream rock music; the term's original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their collective debt to either the musical style or the independent, DIY ethos of punk rock, which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music. At times, "alternative" has been used as a catch-all description for music from underground rock artists that receives mainstream recognition, or for any music, whether rock or not, seen to be descended from punk rock. Alternative rock broadly consists of music that differs in terms of its sound, social context and regional roots. By the end of the 1980s, magazines and zines, college radio airplay, word of mouth had increased the prominence and highlighted the diversity of alternative rock, helping to define a number of distinct styles such as noise pop, indie rock and shoegaze.
Most of these subgenres had achieved minor mainstream notice and a few bands representing them, such as Hüsker Dü and R. E. M. had signed to major labels. But most alternative bands' commercial success was limited in comparison to other genres of rock and pop music at the time, most acts remained signed to independent labels and received little attention from mainstream radio, television, or newspapers. With the breakthrough of Nirvana and the popularity of the grunge and Britpop movements in the 1990s, alternative rock entered the musical mainstream and many alternative bands became successful. In the past, popular music tastes were dictated by music executives within large entertainment corporations. Record companies signed contracts with those entertainers who were thought to become the most popular, therefore who could generate the most sales; these bands were able to record their songs in expensive studios, their works sold through record store chains that were owned by the entertainment corporations.
The record companies worked with radio and television companies to get the most exposure for their artists. The people making the decisions were business people dealing with music as a product, those bands who were not making the expected sales figures were excluded from this system. Before the term alternative rock came into common usage around 1990, the sort of music to which it refers was known by a variety of terms. In 1979, Terry Tolkin used the term Alternative Music to describe the groups. In 1979 Dallas radio station KZEW had a late night new wave show entitled "Rock and Roll Alternative". "College rock" was used in the United States to describe the music during the 1980s due to its links to the college radio circuit and the tastes of college students. In the United Kingdom, dozens of small do it yourself record labels emerged as a result of the punk subculture. According to the founder of one of these labels, Cherry Red, NME and Sounds magazines published charts based on small record stores called "Alternative Charts".
The first national chart based on distribution called the Indie Chart was published in January 1980. At the time, the term indie was used to describe independently distributed records. By 1985, indie' had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, rather than distribution status; the use of the term alternative to describe rock music originated around the mid-1980s. Individuals who worked as DJs and promoters during the 1980s claim the term originates from American FM radio of the 1970s, which served as a progressive alternative to top 40 radio formats by featuring longer songs and giving DJs more freedom in song selection. According to one former DJ and promoter, "Somehow this term'alternative' got rediscovered and heisted by college radio people during the 80s who applied it to new post-punk, indie, or underground-whatever music". At first the term referred to intentionally non–mainstream rock acts that were not influenced by "heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave" and "high-energy dance anthems".
Usage of the term would broaden to include new wave, punk rock, post-punk, "college"/"indie" rock, all found on the American "commercial alternative" radio stations of the time such as Los Angeles' KROQ-FM. Journalist Jim Gerr wrote that Alternative encompassed variants such as "rap, trash and industrial". In December 1991, Spin magazine noted: "this year, for the first time, it became resoundingly clear that what has been considered alternative rock – a college-centered marketing group with lucrative, if limited, potential- has in fact moved into the mainstream"; the bill of the first Lollapalooza, an itinerant festival in North America conceived by Jane's Addiction frontman Perry Farrell, reunited "disparate elements of the alternative rock community" including Henry Rollins, Butthole Surfers, Ice-T, Nine Inch Nails and the Banshees and Jane's Addiction. That same year, Farrell coined the term Alternative Nation. In the late 1990s, the definition again became more specific. In 1997, Neil Strauss of The New York Times defined alternative rock as "hard-edged rock distinguished by brittle,'70s-inspired guitar riffing and singers agonizing over their problems until they take on epic proportions".
Defining music as alt
Newport Beach, California
Newport Beach is a coastal city in Orange County, United States. Its population was 85,287 at the 2010 census. Newport Beach is home to Balboa Island; the Upper Bay of Newport is a canyon, carved by a stream in the Pleistocene period. The Lower Bay of Newport was formed much by sand, brought along by ocean currents, which constructed the offshore beach, now recognized as the Balboa Peninsula of Newport Beach. Before settlers reached the coasts of California, the Newport area and surrounding areas were prominent Indian lands. Indian shells and relics can still be found today scattered throughout the area. Though, throughout the 1800s, settlers began to settle the area due to the availability of land; the State of California sold acre-plots of land for $1 a piece in the Newport area. Anglo-American inhabitation in the area grew following the events of 1870 when a 105-ton steamer named The Vaquero, captained by Captain Samuel S. Dunnells safely steered through the lower and upper bay of Newport where it unloaded its cargo.
James Irvine, after hearing the astonishing news traveled from his home in San Francisco to the San Joaquin Ranch. Meeting in Irvine's ranch house near current day UC Irvine with his brother, Robert Irvine, friend James McFadden, they all agreed that the newly found port should be named "Newport" thus where Newport Beach gets its name. In 1905, city development increased when Pacific Electric Railway established a southern terminus in Newport connecting the beach with downtown Los Angeles. In 1906, the scattered settlements were incorporated as the City of Newport Beach. Settlements filled in on West Newport, Newport Island, Balboa Island and Lido Isle. In 1923 Corona del Mar was annexed and in 2002 Newport Coast, East Santa Ana Heights and San Joaquin Hills, were annexed. In 2008, after a long battle with the city of Costa Mesa, Newport Beach annexed West Santa Ana Heights. Newport Beach extends in elevation from sea level to the 1161 ft summit of Signal Peak in the San Joaquin Hills, but the official elevation is 25 feet above sea level at a location of 33°37′0″N 117°53′51″W.
The city is bordered on the west by Huntington Beach at the Santa Ana River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 53.0 square miles. 23.8 square miles of it is land and 29.2 square miles of it is water. Areas of Newport Beach include Corona del Mar, Balboa Island, Balboa Peninsula, Lido Peninsula, Newport Coast, San Joaquin Hills, Santa Ana Heights, West Newport. Newport Harbor is a semi-artificial harbor, formed by dredging Newport Bay estuary during the early 1900s. Several artificial islands were built, which are now covered with private homes: Newport Island, Balboa Island, Little Balboa Island, Collins Island, Bay Island, Harbor Island, Lido Isle and Linda Isle. Newport Harbor once supported maritime industries such as boatbuilding and commercial fishing, but today it is used for recreation, its shores are occupied by private homes and private docks. With 9,000 boats, Newport Harbor is one of the largest recreational boat harbors on the U. S. west coast.
It's a popular destination for all boating activities, including sailing, rowing, canoeing and paddleboarding. Commercial maritime operations today include the Catalina Flyer ferry to Catalina Island, harbor tours, sport fishing and whale watching day trips and charters, a few small commercial fishing boats. Newport Bay is divided by the Pacific Coast Highway bridge, too low for most sailboats and large boats to pass under. North of the bridge is referred to as the Back Bay. South of the bridge is called Lower Newport Bay, or Newport Harbor; however the Back Bay has harbor facilities the marina and launch ramp at The Dunes. The north end of the Newport Harbor channels around Lido Island have a number of small business centers and were at one time used by the fishing fleets as their home. On the North East side of the channel, the Lido Marina Village now provides the local port to many "Newport Party Boats" as well as small merchants and local restaurants, it hosts the area boat show each year as well as an organic "Farmers Market" Sundays, in addition to being the port for the local Gondola Company.
In 2014, the center was closed for a renovation. In 1927 a home was built at the mouth of the entrance of Newport Harbor that came to be known as the China House of China Cove; the home was built using the traditional Chinese architecture. It was a landmark in the Newport Beach Harbor; some of the original roof can be seen on a home located in the China Cove. Upper Newport Bay is an estuary, formed by a prehistoric flow of the Santa Ana River. Today it is fed by a small stream from San Diego Creek. Much of Upper Newport Bay is a protected natural area known as the Upper Newport Bay Ecological Reserve, established in 1975. Newport Beach has a mid-latitude semi-arid climate with Mediterranean characteristics. Like many coastal cities in Los Angeles and Orange counties, Newport Beach exhibits weak temperature variation, both diurnally and seasonally, compared to inland cities a few miles from the ocean; the Pacific Ocean moderates Newport Beach's climate by warming winter temperatures and cooling summer temperatures.
Newport Beach does not receive enough precipita
A disc jockey abbreviated as DJ, is a person who plays existing recorded music for a live audience. Most common types of DJs include radio DJ, club DJ who performs at a nightclub or music festival and turntablist who uses record players turntables, to manipulate sounds on phonograph records; the disc in disc jockey referred to gramophone records, but now DJ is used as an all-encompassing term to describe someone who mixes recorded music from any source, including cassettes, CDs or digital audio files on a CDJ or laptop. The title DJ is used by DJs in front of their real names or adopted pseudonyms or stage names. In recent years it has become common for DJs to be featured as the credited artist on tracks they produced despite having a guest vocalist that performs the entire song: like for example Uptown Funk. DJs use audio equipment that can play at least two sources of recorded music and mix them together to create seamless transitions between recordings and develop unique mixes of songs; this involves aligning the beats of the music sources so their rhythms do not clash when played together or to enable a smooth transition from one song to another.
DJs use specialized DJ mixers, small audio mixers with crossfader and cue functions to blend or transition from one song to another. Mixers are used to pre-listen to sources of recorded music in headphones and adjust upcoming tracks to mix with playing music. DJ software can be used with a DJ controller device to mix audio files on a computer instead of a console mixer. DJs may use a microphone to speak to the audience; the "disc" in "disc jockey" referred to gramophone records, but now "DJ" is used as an all-encompassing term to describe someone who mixes recorded music from any source, including vinyl records, cassettes, CDs, or digital audio files stored on USB stick or laptop. DJs perform for a live audience in a nightclub or dance club or a TV, radio broadcast audience, or in the 2010s, an online radio audience. DJs create mixes and tracks that are recorded for sale and distribution. In hip hop music, DJs may create beats, using percussion breaks and other musical content sampled from pre-existing records.
In hip hop, rappers and MCs use. DJs use equipment that can play at least two sources of recorded music and mix them together; this allows the DJ to create seamless transitions between recordings and develop unique mixes of songs. This involves aligning the beats of the music sources so their rhythms do not clash when they are played together, either so two records can be played at the same time, or to enable the DJ to make a smooth transition from one song to another. An important tool for DJs is the specialized DJ mixer, a small audio mixer with a crossfader and cue functions; the crossfader enables the DJ to transition from one song to another. The cue knobs or switches allow the DJ to listen to a source of recorded music in headphones before playing it for the live club or broadcast audience. Previewing the music in headphones helps the DJ pick the next track they want to play, cue up the track to the desired starting location, align the two tracks' beats in traditional situations where auto sync technology is not being used.
This process ensures that the selected song will mix well with the playing music. DJs may use a microphone to speak to the audience; the title "DJ" is commonly used by DJs in front of their real names or adopted pseudonyms or stage names as a title to denote their profession. Some DJs focus on creating a good mix of songs for the club dancers or radio audience. Other DJs use turntablism techniques such as scratching, in which the DJ or turntablist manipulates the record player turntable to create new rhythms and sounds. DJs need to have a mixture of artistic and technical skills for their profession, because they have to understand both the creative aspects of making new musical beats and tracks, the technical aspects of using mixing consoles, professional audio equipment, and, in the 2010s, digital audio workstations and other computerized music gear. In many types of DJing, including club DJing and radio/TV DJing, a DJ has to have charisma and develop a good rapport with the audience. Professional DJs specialize in a specific genre of music, such as house music or hip hop music.
DJs have an extensive knowledge about the music they specialize in. Many DJs are avid music collectors of rare or obscure tracks and records. Radio DJs or radio personalities introduce and play music broadcast on AM, FM, digital or Internet radio stations. Club DJs referred as DJs in general, play music at musical events, such as parties at music venues or bars, music festivals and private events. Club DJs mix music recordings from two or more sources using different mixing techniques in order to produce non-stopping flow of music. One key technique used for seamlessly transitioning from one song to another is beatmatching. A DJ who plays and mixes one specific music genre is given the title of that genre; the quality of a DJ performance consists of two main features: technical skills, or how well can DJ operate the equipment and produce sm