Jef Raskin was an American human–computer interface expert best known for conceiving and starting the Macintosh project at Apple in the late 1970s. Jef Raskin was born in New York City to a secular Jewish family, whose surname is a matronymic from "Raske", Yiddish nickname for Rachel, he received a BA in mathematics and a BS in physics with minors in philosophy and music from Stony Brook University. In 1967, he received a master's degree in computer science from Pennsylvania State University, after having switched from mathematical logic due to differences of opinion with his advisor. Though he had completed work for his PhD, the university was not accredited for a PhD in computer science; the first original computer application he wrote was a music application as part of his master's thesis. Raskin enrolled in a graduate music program at the University of California, San Diego, but stopped to teach art and computer science there, he worked as an assistant professor in the Visual Arts department from 1968 until 1974.
He was awarded a National Science Foundation grant to establish a Computer and Humanities center which used several 16-bit Data General Nova computers and glass terminals rather than the teletypes which were more common at that time. Along with his undergraduate student Jonathan Collins, Raskin developed the FLOW programming language for use in teaching programming to the art and humanities students; the language was first used at the Humanities Summer Training Institute held in 1970 at the University of Kansas in Lawrence, Kansas. The language can not manipulate numbers; the language utilizes "typing amplification" in which only the first letter is typed and the computer provides the balance of the instruction eliminating typing errors. It was the basis for programming classes taught by Raskin and Collins in the UCSD Visual Arts Department. Raskin curated several art shows including one featuring his collection of unusual toys, it was during this period that he changed the spelling of his name from "Jeff" to "Jef" after having met Jon Collins and liking the lack of extraneous letters.
Raskin wrote for computer publications, such as Dr. Dobb's Journal, he formed a company named Bannister and Crun, named for two characters playing in the BBC radio comedy The Goon Show. Raskin first met Apple Computer co-founders Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak in their garage workshop following the debut of their Apple II personal computer at the first West Coast Computer Faire. Jobs hired Raskin's company Crun to write the Apple II BASIC Programming Manual. Raskin said "I was talking fifty dollars a page, they talked fifty dollars for the whole manual." Upon the Apple II unit with the serial number of "2", he wrote "a literate manual that became a standard for the young industry". In January 1978, Raskin joined Apple as Manager of the company's 31st employee. For some time he continued as Director of Publications and New Product Review, worked on packaging and other issues, he had concealed his degree in computer science, out of concern for cultural bias against academia among the hobby-driven personal computer industry.
He explained, "If they had known... they might not have let me in the company, because there was such an antiacademic bias in the early Apple days."From his responsibility for documentation and testing, Raskin had great influence on early engineering projects. Because the Apple II only displayed uppercase characters on a 40-column screen, his department used the Polymorphic Systems 8813 to write documentation, his experiences testing Applesoft BASIC inspired him to design a competing product, called Notzo BASIC, never implemented. When Wozniak developed the first disk drives for the Apple II, Raskin went back to his contacts at UCSD and encouraged them to port the UCSD P-System operating system to it, which Apple licensed and shipped as Apple Pascal. Through this time, Raskin continually wrote memos about how the personal computer could become a true consumer appliance. While the Apple III was under development in 1978 and'79, Raskin was lobbying for Apple to create a radically different kind of computer, designed from the start to be easy to use.
In Computers by the Millions, he stated that expandable computers like the Apple II were too complex, development was difficult due to the unknown nature of the machine the program ran on. The machine he envisioned was different from the Macintosh, released and had much more in common with PDAs than modern desktop-based machines. Raskin started the Macintosh project in 1979 to implement some of these ideas, he hired his former student Bill Atkinson from UCSD to work at Apple, along with Andy Hertzfeld and Burrell Smith from the Apple Service Department, located in the same building as the Publications Department. Secretly bypassing Jobs's ego and authority by continually securing permission and funding directly at the executive level, Raskin created and supervised the Macintosh project for its first year; this included selecting the name of his favorite apple, writing the mission document The Book of Macintosh, securing office space, recruiting and managing the original staff. Author Steven Levy said, "It was Raskin who provided the powerful vision of a computer whose legacy would be low cost, high utility
Richard Paey is a Florida man, falsely incarcerated in 2004 for drug trafficking. There was no evidence he distributed or intended to sell any pills, but drug laws in many states, including Florida, allow officials to prosecute for trafficking based on the quantity an individual possesses. Paey spent three and a half years in prison, until he was granted a full pardon by Florida Governor Charlie Crist in September 2007. In 1985, Richard Paey was involved in an automobile accident. A subsequent botched operation left him in nearly constant pain. Like many chronic pain patients, over the years he developed a tolerance to the opioid painkillers he was using to alleviate his suffering. Detectives began their investigation of him in 1996. Due to the quantities of pills he was prescribed, it was believed. However, a three-month investigation turned up no evidence of intent to sell, the quantities he was prescribed were not unusual for long-time users of opioids. Nonetheless, Florida law allows prosecution for trafficking based on the amount of drug the suspect possesses.
Paey was arrested in March 1997. According to prosecutors, investigators found a DEA number stamp and other equipment used to forge prescriptions in Paey's residence. However, according to Dr. Russell Portnoy, chairman of the Department of Pain Medicine at the Beth Israel Hospital in New York City, such behavior is typical of patients experiencing extreme chronic pain; when interviewed for 60 Minutes, he said these patients sometimes go to great lengths to ensure they never suffer a break in their pain treatment. The lead prosecutor, Scott Andringa, offered Paey a plea deal in 1999 that would have resulted in a guilty plea of attempted trafficking and 3 years of house arrest, but he chose to fight the charges. A similar plea was offered during his first trial in 2002, but it was rescinded after Paey accepted it. Paey was convicted in his third trial on 15 counts of drug trafficking, possession of a controlled substance, obtaining a controlled substance by fraud. On April 16, 2004, he was sentenced to a 25-year mandatory minimum prison sentence and a $500,000 fine.
Dwayne Hillis, one of the jurors in the trial, came forward publicly and said he was pressured into a guilty verdict with assurances that Richard Paey would serve no jail term. Paey served three and a half years at the Tomoka Correctional facility in Florida. During this time, the state provided an intrathecal pump delivering morphine directly into his back to alleviate his pain. After succeeding Florida Governor Jeb Bush, Governor Charlie Crist granted Paey a waiver of the requirement that a minimum period of the sentence be served on his clemency petition, permitting his petition to be heard by the clemency board immediately; the board recommended denying clemency for Paey. In a sudden and unexpected move, Governor Crist and the Cabinet unanimously granted Paey a full pardon on the morning of September 20, 2007. Paey was freed from prison at 2:51 pm. Paey's case is the subject of the book Pain In America, the film documentary The War on Drugs, was featured on the Showtime series Penn & Teller: Bullshit!.
CBS News - Zero-Tolerance Causes A Lot Of Pain CBS News - 60 Minutes Piece on Paey Another profile of Richard Paey ABC News - Prescription Painkillers Cause Problems for Patients and Prosecutors Miami Herald - Pain sufferer wins pardon, set free New York Times Op/Ed by John Tierney Pain Relief Network Radley Balko. "Richard Paey Speaks". Reason Magazine
JR Bus collectively refers to the bus operations of Japan Railways Group companies in Japan. JR Bus is operated by eight regional companies, each owned by a JR railway company. JR Bus companies provide regional, long distance, chartered bus services; the Ministry of Railways of Japan started its first bus operation in Aichi Prefecture in 1930 and expanded bus routes. The Japanese National Railways, public corporation established in 1949, succeeded the bus operations called Kokutetsu Bus or JNR Bus. In 1987, JNR was divided into regional railway companies together with its bus operations. JR companies separated their bus operations to subsidiaries in 1988, 2000, 2001 and 2004. JR Bus Tohoku, JR Bus Kanto, JR Tokai Bus and Chugoku JR Bus share a common livery based on the JNR Bus livery. Https://web.archive.org/web/20151203224900/http://www.kakuyasubus.jp/
The Training Center for Tropical Resources and Ecosystems Sustainability is an international training and continuing education unit of the University of the Philippines Los Baños College of Forestry and Natural Resources. It was established on June 25, 1998. and organizes training courses and study tours related to tropical forestry, natural resource management, ecosystems management. It has taught more than 6,000 graduates from over 40 countries; the Centre for Forestry Education Research and Development for Asia and the Pacific was founded in 1979 with founding support from the Food and Agriculture Organization, SIDA, GOP through UPLB. In 1981, it was renamed to Centre for Forestry Education for Southwest Pacific Regions. In 1985, CFNR recognized the need for a college-wide system for conducting trainings. Through the merger of Forestry Research and Extension Center and the FAO-UPLB-CFED project, the Institute of Forest Conservation was founded on January 22, 1985, it was mandated to coordinate CFNR's forestry research, extension services and training, to develop and conserve Mount Makiling, to generate resources for future activities.
The IFC's Forestry Training Office became the central training unit to develop, conducts international and local training courses and study tours. The IFC became the first accredited provider of Continuing Professional Education courses for forestry professionals in the Philippines, accredited by the Professional Regulation Commission on 24 October 1996. On June 25, 1998, IFC was divided into two: the Training Center for Tropical Resources and Ecosystems Sustainability and the Makiling Center for Mountain Ecosystems. TREES took over the functions of the former FTO, it was provided with the autonomy and authority to plan and implement CFNR's training projects. On December 14, 2000, TREES was declared as an accredited training institute by the Civil Service Commission. Ittraining center engages trainers and facilitators from a pool of UPLB faculty and staff members as well as experts from collaborating and organizations. TREES conducts training courses and study tours, designs customized training projects Training Center for Tropical Resources and Ecosystems Sustainability College of Forestry and Natural Resources Makiling Center for Mountain Ecosystems
Sirens is an American metalcore band from Terre Haute, Indiana formed in 2011. They released their debut EP, entitled Spore, in June 2012, before releasing a remixed and remastered version of the EP via Imminence Records on November 13, 2012. In 2013, Sirens competed in the Ernie Ball Battle of the Bands, where they place first nationally amongst the fan vote. On June 18, 2013, Ernie Ball announced Sirens as a winner for Indianapolis's Warped Tour 2013. Sirens has since left Imminence Records. On June 12, 2015, Sirens announced a new album titled SURGE. Surge was released July 28, 2015. CurrentJoey Fenoglio – vocals Logan Pollaro – guitar, bass Zhea Erose – drums, electronics PastJordan Thralls – guitar Jordan Caylor – guitar, vocals Cody Butler – guitar Luke Boismier - bass LP Surge"Surge" "Drift" "Drone" "Pendulous" "Ephyra" "Macroscopic" "Cloudbreak" "Unstable and Floating" "Swarm Dynamics" "Medusae" Spore"Drift" "Cloudbreak" "Unstable and Floating" "Music Box" "Propaganda" "Drone" "Pendulous "Swarm Dynamics Official website
Colegio Nacional de Arquitectos de Cuba is a Cuban national institution that grew out of El Colegio de Arquitectos de La Habana. It was founded in Havana on March 13, 1916. Established by legislation, the compulsory licensing of these professionals and the Provincial Colleges of Architects were founded, giving way in 1933 to the constitution of the National College of Architects of Cuba. On April 5, 1916, at a meeting held at Tacón Street No. 2, with the presence of the architects Gabriel Román Casals, Rogelio Santana Fernández, Jorge Broderman de Vignier and Lorenzo Rodríguez Ubals, the following minutes were drawn up: The gentlemen who, at the margin, expresses themselves in the session, are in the chair, at the request of those present Mr. Gabriel Román Casals, who explains the reason for the citation, noting the disagreeable situation that the professional architects find with respect to the works that are executed in this city and the technical and artistic deficiencies that all of them suffers and understands that it is convenient, both for professional architects and for the beautification of our capital and guarantee of the owners, to ensure that the works that are built in the future, have a real facultative direction in the achievement of these purposes, forming an association to ensure compliance with current laws and greater prestige of the profession.
The circulation of the Colegio Nacional de Arquitectos building is through a double-loaded corridor, it is one of the first curtain walls to be used in Cuba. The building consists of a semi-basement and two floors that houses offices, a library, recreation rooms, an auditorium, a large spiral staircase that forms a large space on three levels, illuminated by natural light from three panels of glass blocks, it has several outdoor porches. On the outside, coral stone and green Cuban marble are used; the main part of the building is covered by a gable roof, the rest of the building has a flat roof. In 1928 the board was formed by Esteban Rodríguez Castells, the first vice president, Emilio de Soto, the second vice president, Miguel Ángel Moenck served as treasurer and Alberto Camacho was the librarian, artistic director of the magazine and member of the Legal and Advertising Commission. Other members were the architects Joaquín Weiss, Enrique Luis Varela, Pedro Martínez Inclán and Pérez Benitoa, a member of the Foreign Affairs Committee.
Between 1950 and 1961, they occupied the presidency, Rene Echarte Mazorra, Pedro Guerra Seguí, Agustín Sorhegui Vázquez, Vicente J. Salles Burell, Horacio Navarrete Serrano and Rodulfo Ibarra Pérez; the Colegio Nacional de Arquitectos de Cuba emerged as a result of Decree-Law No. 3174 of the Ministry of Public Works on December 13, 1933. The Colegio had six provincial headquarters throughout the country; the law established. Segunda Zafra presents the list of architects who formed part of the National College of Architects of Cuba in 1940, its Executive Committee, its Provincial Colleges and its Honorary and Correspondent partners, both in Cuba and abroad. National College of Architects of Cuba; as of December 31, 1958, there were 676 architects licensed and registered in the National College of which 590 were in the Provincial College of Havana. In 1924, proposals were requested and the project was awarded to Architect César Guerra. In 1926 the building was finished however soon thereafter it was discovered the building was too small to include many of the required functions.
In 1945 proposals were once again accepted for the enlargement of the existing building. The new building by architects Esquiroz and Zarraga resulted in a total reconstruction of the existing building. In 1932 the Federation of Architects of Cuba was created, which grouped the professionals who began to practice outside of Havana, until the 1950s had about 90% of architects based in the capital. 1953, Tropicana Club, Max Borges Jr. Architect. 1959, Edificio del Seguro Médico, Antonio Quintana Simonetti, Architect. Tropicana Club Max Borges Jr. Edificio del Seguro Médico, Havana Cuba portal