Batting average (baseball)
In baseball, the batting average is defined by the number of hits divided by at bats. It is reported to three decimal places and read without the decimal: A player with a batting average of.300 is "batting three-hundred." If necessary to break ties, batting averages could be taken beyond the.001 measurement. In this context, a.001 is considered a "point," such that a.235 batter is 5 points higher than a.230 batter. Henry Chadwick, an English statistician raised on cricket, was an influential figure in the early history of baseball. In the late 19th century he adapted the concept behind the cricket batting average to devise a similar statistic for baseball. Rather than copy cricket's formulation of runs scored divided by outs, he realized that hits divided by at bats would provide a better measure of individual batting ability; this is because while in cricket, scoring runs is entirely dependent on one's own batting skill, in baseball it is dependent on having other good hitters on one's team.
Chadwick noted that hits are independent of teammates' skills, so used this as the basis for the baseball batting average. His reason for using at bats rather than outs is less obvious, but it leads to the intuitive idea of the batting average being a percentage reflecting how a batter gets on base, whereas hits divided by outs is not as simple to interpret in real terms. In modern times, a season batting average higher than.300 is considered to be excellent, an average higher than.400 a nearly unachievable goal. The last player to do so, with enough plate appearances to qualify for the batting championship, was Ted Williams of the Boston Red Sox, who hit.406 in 1941, though the best modern players either threaten to or do achieve it if only for brief periods of time. There have been numerous attempts to explain the disappearance of the.400 hitter, with one of the more rigorous discussions of this question appearing in Stephen Jay Gould's 1996 book Full House. Ty Cobb holds the record for highest career batting average with.366, 9 points higher than Rogers Hornsby who has the second highest average in history at.358.
The record for lowest career batting average for a player with more than 2,500 at-bats belongs to Bill Bergen, a catcher who played from 1901 to 1911 and recorded a.170 average in 3,028 career at-bats. The modern-era record for highest batting average for a season is held by Nap Lajoie, who hit.426 in 1901, the first year of play for the American League. The modern-era record for lowest batting average for a player that qualified for the batting title is held by Chris Davis, who hit.168 in 2018. While finishing six plate appearances short of qualifying for the batting title, Adam Dunn of the Chicago White Sox hit.159 for the 2011 season, nine points lower than the record. The highest batting average for a rookie was.408 in 1911 by Shoeless Joe Jackson. For non-pitchers, a batting average below.230 is considered poor, one below.200 is unacceptable. This latter level is sometimes referred to as "The Mendoza Line", named for Mario Mendoza, a stellar defensive shortstop whose defensive capabilities just made up for his offensive shortcomings.
The league batting average in Major League Baseball for 2016 was.255, the all-time league average is between.260 and.275. In rare instances, MLB players have concluded their careers with a perfect batting average of 1.000. John Paciorek had three hits in all three of his turns at bat. Esteban Yan went two-for-two, including a home run. Hal Deviney's two hits in his only plate appearances included a triple, while Steve Biras, Mike Hopkins, Chet Kehn, Jason Roach and Fred Schemanske went two-for-two. A few dozen others have hit safely in their one and only career at-bat. Sabermetrics, the study of baseball statistics, considers batting average a weak measure of performance because it does not correlate as well as other measures to runs scored, thereby causing it to have little predictive value. Batting average does not take into account walks or power, whereas other statistics such as on-base percentage and slugging percentage have been designed to measure such concepts. Adding these statistics together form a player's On-base plus slugging or "OPS".
This is seen as a much better, though not perfect, indicator of a player's overall batting ability as it is a measure of hitting for average, hitting for power and drawing bases on balls. In 1887, Major League Baseball counted bases on balls as hits; this skyrocketed batting averages, including some near.500, the experiment was abandoned the following season. The Major League Baseball batting averages championships is awarded annually to the player in each league who has the highest batting average. Ty Cobb holds the MLB record for most batting titles winning 11 in his pro career; the National League record of 8 batting titles is shared by Tony Gwynn. Most of Cobb's career and all of Wagner's career took place in what is known as the Dead-Ball Era, characterized by higher batting averages and much less power, whereas Gwynn's career took place in the Live-Ball Era. To determine which players are eligible to win the batting title, the following conditions have been used over the sport's history: Pre-1920 – A player is required to appear in at least 100 or more games when the schedule was 154 games, 90 games when the schedule was 140 games.
An exception to the rule was made for Ty Cobb in 1914, who appeared in 98 games but had a big lead and was a favorite of League President Ban Johnson. 1920–1949 – A player had to appear in 100 games to qualify in the National League.
Triple-A or Class AAA is the highest level of play in Minor League Baseball in the United States and Mexico. Before 2008, Triple-A leagues fielded teams in Canada. A total of 30 teams play in the Triple-A International League and Pacific Coast League, with 14 teams in the IL and 16 in the PCL; the MLB-independent Mexican League fields 16 teams. Triple-A teams are located in large metropolitan areas that do not have Major League Baseball teams, such as San Antonio. Interleague play between the International League and Pacific Coast League occurs twice each season. In July, each league's All-Star team competes in the Triple-A All-Star Game. In September each league's regular season champions play each other in the Triple-A National Championship Game to determine an overall champion of Triple-A baseball; the Triple-A classification was created before the 1946 season. Prior to the top level of the minors had been designated as Double-A since 1912; the modern Double-A classification dates to 1946, when the former Class A1 level was renamed.
Triple-A teams' main purpose is to prepare players for the Major Leagues. ESPN wrote in 2010: Winning is nice, but secondary. It's much more important for a young prospect like outfielder Xavier Paul to get regular at-bats against lefties, or work on dropping down sacrifice bunts with a runner on first, than it is to take three of four from the Portland Beavers. Both young players and veterans play for Triple-A teams:There are the young prospects speeding through the organization on the fastest treadmill, the guys who used to be young prospects who are in danger of topping out in Triple-A, the 30-somethings trying to get back to the majors after an injury or a rough patch, the guys just playing a few more seasons because someone still wants them and they still want to. Players on the 40-man roster of a major league team are eligible for promotion to the major league club once the major league roster expands on September 1. For teams in contention for the postseason, these players create the flexibility needed to rest regular starters in late regular-season games.
For those not in contention, using such players lets the teams evaluate them under game conditions. Teams at this level are divided into three leagues: the International League, the Pacific Coast League, the MLB-independent Mexican League; the Mexican League fields teams throughout Mexico. The International League traditionally fielded teams in the Northeastern United States, now fields teams in the Midwest and South as well; the Pacific Coast League fielded teams on the West Coast, but now fields teams throughout the western part of the United States, as far east as Nashville, Tennessee. For much of the 20th century, the American Association, which consisted of teams in the Midwestern United States, was at this level, but it disbanded in 1997 and its teams were divided among the IL and PCL; each of the 30 Major League Baseball teams has an affiliation with one Triple-A team in the United States. However, Mexican Triple-A teams are not included in the organized farm team system. A Indicates current IL franchise's first year in current city.
Some franchises have prior history in other cities, or had local predecessor franchises at other levels that shared their current name. B Many stadiums have lawn seating; the Triple-A All-Star Game is a single game held between the two affiliated Triple-A leagues—the International League and the Pacific Coast League. Each league fields a team composed of the top players in their respective leagues as voted on by fans, the media, each club's field manager and general manager; the event has taken place every year since 1988 when the first Triple-A All-Star Game was played in Buffalo, New York. Prior to 1998, a team of American League-affiliated Triple-A All-Stars faced off against a team of National League-affiliated Triple-A All-Stars. Traditionally, the game has taken place on the day after the mid-summer Major League Baseball All-Star Game; the game is meant to mark a symbolic halfway-point in the season. Both Triple-A leagues share a common All-Star break, with no regular-season games scheduled for two days before the All-Star Game itself.
Some additional events, such as the All-Star Fan Fest and Triple-A Home Run Derby, take place each year during this break in the regular season. Since 2006, the annual Triple-A National Championship Game has been held to serve as a single championship game between the champions of the International League and Pacific Coast League to determine an overall champion of Triple-A baseball, it was held annually at Chickasaw Bricktown Ballpark in Oklahoma City, known as the Bricktown Showdown. Since 2011, the game has been held in a different Triple-A city each year. Previous postseason interleague championships include the Junior World Series, Triple-A World Series, Triple-A Classic; as a part of professional baseball's pace of play initiatives implemented in 2015, 20-second pitch clocks entered use at Triple-A stadiums in 2015. In 2018, the time was shortened to 15 seconds. Other significant changes implemented in 2018 included beginning extra innings with a runner on second base and limiting teams to six mound visits during a nine-inning game.
Beginning in 2019, the number of mound visits is reduced to five, pitchers are required to face a minimum of three consecutive batters until the side is retired or the pitcher becomes injured and is unable to continue playing. Notes Triple-A Baseba
2010 Major League Baseball season
The 2010 Major League Baseball season began April 4, with the regular season ending on October 3. The 2010 All-Star Game was played on July 13 at Angel Stadium of Anaheim in California; the National League ended a 13-game winless streak with a 3–1 victory. Due to this result, the 2010 World Series began October 27 in the city of the National League Champion, the San Francisco Giants, ended November 1 when the Giants defeated the American League Champion Texas Rangers in the 2010 World Series, four games to one. Green backgrounds indicate teams. Numbers in parentheses indicate seedings for the playoffs, determined by won-lost records. In first round of Playoffs two teams in the same division cannot play each other For much of the season, 2010 was labeled the Year of the Pitcher. 2010 saw many prominent pitching occurrences, including: Six no-hitters were thrown. They were thrown by Ubaldo Jiménez, Dallas Braden, Roy Halladay, Edwin Jackson, Matt Garza, Halladay again, this time in Game 1 of the NLDS.
It was only the third time in major league history that at least six no-hitters were thrown in a single season. Braden's no-hitter and Halladay's first were both perfect games. Armando Galarraga's near-perfect game, in which Galarraga set down the first twenty-six Cleveland Indians batters in order before umpire Jim Joyce incorrectly ruled Jason Donald safe at first on a ground ball. If not for Joyce's mistaken call, Galarraga's would have been the third perfect game in a season, the third in less than a month. MLB pitchers combined for a record 34,306 strikeouts. A record-tying 15 pitchers recorded 200 or more strikeouts. Neftalí Feliz of the Texas Rangers earned 40 saves, breaking the record for most saves in a season for a rookie. Stephen Strasburg of the Washington Nationals struck out 41 batters in his first four major league starts, a major league record. * Served as interim manager, replacing Cecil Cooper. The following managers who were interim managers for 2009 will lead their respective teams in 2010: Manny Ramirez /: As a member of the Los Angeles Dodgers, Ramirez recorded his 2500th career hit with a single in the 5th inning against the Florida Marlins on April 10.
Ramirez became the 91st player to reach this mark. Ramírez hit his 550th career home run in the 2nd inning against the Arizona Diamondbacks on May 31, he became the 14th player to reach this mark. Iván Rodríguez: Recorded his 550th career double in the 6th inning against the Philadelphia Phillies on April 12. "Pudge" became the 23rd player to reach this mark. Johnny Damon: Recorded his 1000th career RBI with a double in the 5th inning against the Kansas City Royals on April 14. Damon became the 264th player to reach this mark. Scored his 1500th career run in the 1st inning against the Los Angeles Angels on April 30, he became the 68th player to reach this mark. Recorded his 2500th career hit with a single in the 3rd inning against the Baltimore Orioles on July 6, he became the 92nd player to reach this mark. Collected his 100th career triple against the Texas Rangers on September 15, he became 160th the player to reach this mark. José Guillén: Recorded his 200th career home run in the 7th inning against the Detroit Tigers on April 14.
Guillen became the 296th player to reach this mark. On August 13, Guillen was traded to the San Francisco Giants. Magglio Ordóñez: Recorded his 1000th career run scored in the 3rd inning on a Carlos Guillén ground out against the Los Angeles Angels on April 22. Ordonez became the 303rd player to reach this mark. Recorded his 2000th career hit with a single in the 4th inning against the Minnesota Twins on April 29, he became the 260th player to reach this mark. David Wright: Becomes the youngest in Mets history to record his 1000th hit, he reached that mark with a single in the 5th inning against the Los Angeles Dodgers in the second game of a doubleheader on April 27. Orlando Cabrera: Recorded his 200th career stolen base in the 6th inning against the St. Louis Cardinals on April 30. Cabrera became the 337th player to reach this mark. Vernon Wells: Recorded his 200th career home run in the 5th inning against the Oakland Athletics on April 30. Wells became the 297th player to reach this mark. Jason Kendall: Was hit by a pitch for the 250th career time on May 12 against the Cleveland Indians.
Fausto Carmona was the pitcher that hit him in the 4th inning as Kendall became the 5th player to reach this mark. Scored his 1000th career run on a Mike Avilés single in the 3rd inning against the Cleveland Indians on May 19, he became the 304th player to reach this mark. Lance Berkman /: As a member of the Houston Astros, Berkman walked for the 1000th career time on May 27 against the Milwaukee Brewers in the 5th inning by David Bush. Berkman became the 110th player to reach this mark. Berkman as a member of the Astros, scored his 1000th career run on a home run on July 8 against the Pittsburgh Pirates, he became the 306th player to reach this mark. Berkman was traded to the New York Yankees on July 30. Mark Teixeira: Recorded his 250th career home run in the 7th inning against the Cleveland Indians on May 30. Teixeira became the 197th player to reach this mark. Bobby Abreu: Recorded his 500th career double in the 1st inning against the Kansas City Royals on June 2. Abreu became the 51st player to reach this mark.
Recorded his ninth 20–20 season by hitting his 20th home run on Septem
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company. The newspaper has a centrist audience. Founded by Al Neuharth on September 15, 1982, it operates from Gannett's corporate headquarters on Jones Branch Drive, in McLean, Virginia, it is printed at five additional sites internationally. Its dynamic design influenced the style of local and national newspapers worldwide, through its use of concise reports, colorized images, informational graphics, inclusion of popular culture stories, among other distinct features. With a weekly circulation of 1,021,638 and an approximate daily reach of seven million readers as of 2016, USA Today shares the position of having the widest circulation of any newspaper in the United States with The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times. USA Today is distributed in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, an international edition is distributed in Asia, Canada and the Pacific Islands.
The genesis of USA Today was on February 29, 1980, when a company task force known as "Project NN" met with Gannett Company chairman Al Neuharth in Cocoa Beach, Florida to develop a national newspaper. Early regional prototypes included East Bay Today, an Oakland, California-based publication published in the late 1970s to serve as the morning edition of the Oakland Tribune, an afternoon newspaper which Gannett owned at the time. On June 11, 1981, Gannett printed the first prototypes of the proposed publication; the two proposed design layouts were mailed to newsmakers and prominent leaders in journalism, for review and feedback. The Gannett Company's board of directors approved the launch of the national newspaper, titled USA Today, on December 5, 1981. At launch, Neuharth was appointed president and publisher of the newspaper, adding those responsibilities to his existing position as Gannett's chief executive officer. Gannett announced the launch of the paper on April 20, 1982. USA Today began publishing on September 15, 1982 in the Baltimore and Washington, D.
C. metropolitan areas for an newsstand price of 25¢. After selling out the first issue, Gannett expanded the national distribution of the paper, reaching an estimated circulation of 362,879 copies by the end of 1982, double the amount of sales that Gannett projected; the design uniquely incorporated color graphics and photographs. Only its front news section pages were rendered in four-color, while the remaining pages were printed in a spot color format; the paper's overall style and elevated use of graphics – developed by Neuharth, in collaboration with staff graphics designers George Rorick, Sam Ward, Suzy Parker, John Sherlock and Web Bryant – was derided by critics, who referred to it as "McPaper" or "television you can wrap fish in," because it opted to incorporate concise nuggets of information more akin to the style of television news, rather than in-depth stories like traditional newspapers, which many in the newspaper industry considered to be a dumbing down of the news. Although USA Today had been profitable for just ten years as of 1997, it changed the appearance and feel of newspapers around the world.
On July 2, 1984, the newspaper switched from predominantly black-and-white to full color photography and graphics in all four sections. The next week on July 10, USA Today launched an international edition intended for U. S. readers abroad, followed four months on October 8 with the rollout of the first transmission via satellite of its international version to Singapore. On April 8, 1985, the paper published its first special bonus section, a 12-page section called "Baseball'85," which previewed the 1985 Major League Baseball season. By the fourth quarter of 1985, USA Today had become the second largest newspaper in the United States, reaching a daily circulation of 1.4 million copies. Total daily readership of the paper by 1987 had reached 5.5 million, the largest of any daily newspaper in the U. S. On May 6, 1986, USA Today began production of its international edition in Switzerland. USA Today operated at a loss for most of its first four years of operation, accumulating a total deficit of $233 million after taxes, according to figures released by Gannett in July 1987.
On January 29, 1988, USA Today published the largest edition in its history, a 78-page weekend edition featuring a section previewing Super Bowl XXII. On April 15, USA Today launched a third international printing site, based in Hong Kong; the international edition set circulation and advertising records during August 1988, with coverage of the 1988 Summer Olympics, selling more than 60,000 copies and 100 pages of advertising. By July 1991, Simmons Market Research Bureau estimated that USA Today had a total daily readership of nearly 6.6 million, an all-time high and the largest readership of any daily newspaper in the United States. On September 1 of that year, USA Today launched a fourth printsite for its international edition in London for the United Kingdom and the British Isles; the international edition's schedule was changed as of April 1, 1994 Monday through Friday, rather than from Tuesday through Saturday, in order to accommodate business travelers.
2012 Major League Baseball season
The 2012 Major League Baseball season began on March 28 with the first of a two-game series between the Seattle Mariners and the Oakland Athletics at the Tokyo Dome in Japan. On November 22, 2011, a new contract between Major League Baseball and its players union was ratified, as a result, an expanded playoff format adding two clubs will be adopted no than 2013 according to the new Collective Bargaining Agreement; the new format was finalized for the 2012 season on March 2, 2012, will use the 2–3 game schedule format for the Division Series for the 2012 season only. The restriction against divisional rivals playing against each other in the Division Series round that had existed in previous years was eliminated, as the Baltimore Orioles and New York Yankees squared off in one of the best-of-5 LDS series in the American League; the stateside portion of the regular season started April 4 in Miami with the opening of the new Marlins Park, as the newly renamed Miami Marlins hosted the defending World Series champion St. Louis Cardinals.
The regular season ended on Wednesday, October 3. The entire master schedule was released on September 14, 2011; the Major League Baseball postseason was expanded to include a second wild card team in each league beginning in the 2012 season. The season marked the last for the Houston Astros as a member of the National League. Following the sale to new owner Jim Crane, the Astros agreed to move to the American League effective in the 2013 season, would be assigned to the American League West, joining their in-state rivals, the Texas Rangers; the Major League Baseball All-Star Game's 83rd edition was held on July 10 at Kauffman Stadium in Kansas City, with the National League winning the All-Star Game for the third consecutive year in an 8–0 shutout of the American League. With the win, the National League champion earned home field advantage for the 2012 World Series, which began on October 24 and ended on October 28 when the San Francisco Giants swept the Detroit Tigers; the Civil Rights Game was held on August 18 at Turner Field, as the Los Angeles Dodgers beat the host Atlanta Braves, 6–2.
Friday, October 5, 2012 – 8:37 pm at Rangers Ballpark in Arlington, Texas Friday, October 5, 2012 – 5:07 pm at Turner Field in Atlanta †: postponed from October 17 due to rain The following managers were hired for the 2012 season after the former manager retired from baseball. At the end of the 2011 season, the following teams made replacements to their managers. ** Melky Cabrera of the San Francisco Giants was ineligible to win the batting title, at his request, due to being suspended for testing positive for testosterone. He finished the season with a.346 average. Adam Dunn: Tied the Major League record for most opening-day home runs by hitting his eighth against the Texas Rangers on April 6, he tied the record held by Frank Robinson and Ken Griffey, Jr.. Set the Major League record to strikeout at least once in each of his team's first 15 games of a season, by striking out in the first inning against the Seattle Mariners on April 22, he broke the record, held by Howie Goss, who struck out in each of Houston's first 14 games in 1963.
Dunn continued to 32 games before not striking out May 11 against the Kansas City Royals. Recorded his 1000th career RBI in the ninth inning on August 13 against the Toronto Blue Jays, he became the 273rd player to reach this mark. Hit his 400th career home run against the Kansas City Royals on August 18, he became the 50th player to reach this mark. José Reyes: Recorded his 100th career triple in the ninth inning against the Cincinnati Reds on April 8, he became the 162nd player to reach this mark. Alex Rodriguez: Tied Ken Griffey, Jr. for fifth place on the career home run list with his 630th home run on April 13. One week on April 20, Rodriguez hit his 631st home run to pass Griffey for fifth place on the career home run list. Tied Lou Gehrig for most career grand slams with his 23rd against the Atlanta Braves on June 12. Adrián Beltré: Scored his 1000th career run in the ninth inning against the Minnesota Twins on April 14, he became the 314th player to reach this mark. Todd Helton: Recorded his 350th career home run in the ninth inning against the Milwaukee Brewers on April 21.
He became the 85th player to reach this mark. Rafael Furcal: Scored his 1000th career run in the eighth inning against the Chicago Cubs on April 24, he became the 315th player to reach this mark. Paul Konerko: Hit his 400th career home run against the Oakland Athletics on April 25, he became the 48th player to reach this mark. Miguel Cabrera: Collected his 1000th RBI against the New York Yankees on April 27, he became the 272nd person to reach that mark. Hit his 300th career home run on July 22 against the Chicago White Sox. Became the first player to win the batting "Triple Crown" since Carl Yaztremski in 1967. Torii Hunter: Scored his 1000th career run in the fourth inning against the Minnesota Twins on May 2, he became the 316th player to reach this mark. Josh Hamilton: Hit four home runs in a game against the Baltimore Orioles on May 8, he became the 16th player in Major League history to accomplish this feat. Became the first player in Rangers' franchise history to exceed 20 home runs by the end of May.
Plácido Polanco: Recorded his 2000th career hit with a two-run home run in the eighth inning against the Houston Astros on May 14. He became the 269th player to reach this mark. Jamie Moyer: With his two-run single against the Arizona Diamondbacks on May 16, Moyer became the oldest player in Major League history to record an RBI. Albert Pujols: Hit his 450th career home run against the Seattle Mariners on May 24, becoming the 35th player and fourth-youngest to reach this mar
First base, or 1B, is the first of four stations on a baseball diamond which must be touched in succession by a baserunner to score a run for that player's team. A first baseman is the player on the team playing defense who fields the area nearest first base, is responsible for the majority of plays made at that base. In the numbering system used to record defensive plays, the first baseman is assigned the number 3. Called first sacker or cornerman, the first baseman is ideally a tall player who throws left-handed and possesses good flexibility and quick reflexes. Flexibility is needed because the first baseman receives throws from the other infielders, the catcher and the pitcher after they have fielded ground balls. In order for the runner to be called out, the first baseman must be able to stretch towards the throw and catch it before the runner reaches first base. First base is referred to as "the other hot corner"—the "hot corner" being third base—and therefore, like the third baseman, he must have quick reflexes to field the hardest hit balls down the foul line by left-handed pull hitters and right-handed hitters hitting to the opposite field.
They are power hitters who have a substantial number of home runs and extra base hits while maintaining a.270 plus batting average. Good defensive first basemen, according to baseball writer and historian Bill James, are capable of playing off first base so that they can field ground balls hit to the fair side of first base; the first baseman relies upon the pitcher to cover first base to receive the ball to complete the out. Indications of a good defensive first baseman include a large number of assists and a low number of throwing errors by other infielders; the nature of play at first base requires first basemen to stay close to the bag to hold runners or to reach the bag before the batter. First basemen are not expected to have the range required of a third baseman, second baseman or an outfielder; as a result, first base is not perceived to be as physically demanding as other positions. However, it can be a hard position to play. Though many play at first base their entire career, it is common for veteran players to be moved to first base to extend their careers or to accommodate other acquired players.
Facing a possible trade or a considerable reduction in playing time, a player will opt to move to first base instead. Catchers and corner outfielders are moved to first base due to deteriorating health or if their fielding abilities at their original position are detrimental to the team. Unlike the pitcher and catcher, who must start every play in a designated area the first baseman and the other fielders can vary their positioning in response to what they anticipate will be the actions of the batter and runner once play begins; when first base is not occupied by a baserunner, the first baseman stands behind first base and off the foul line. The distance he plays from the base and foul line is dependent on the current hitter and any runners on base; the exact position may depend on the first baseman's experience and fielding ability. For a known right-handed pull hitter, the first baseman might position himself further towards the second baseman's normal fielding position. For a known left-handed pull hitter, the first baseman will position himself closer to the foul line to stop a ball hit down the line.
To protect against a bunt on the first base side of the infield, the first baseman will position himself in front of the base and move towards the hitter as the pitch is thrown. As soon as the pitcher commits to throwing towards home plate, the first baseman will charge towards the hitter to field the bunt. During these plays, it is the responsibility of the second baseman to cover first base. With a base runner present at first base, the first baseman stands with his right foot touching the base to prepare for a pickoff attempt. Once the pitcher commits to throwing towards home plate, the first baseman comes off the bag in front of the runner and gets in a fielding position. If the bases are loaded, or if the runner on first base is not a base stealing threat, the first baseman will position himself behind the runner and appropriate for the current batter; when waiting for a throw from another player, the first baseman stands with his off-glove foot touching the base stretches toward the throw.
This stretch decreases the amount of time it takes the throw to get to first and encourages the umpire to call close plays in favor of the fielding team. Veteran first basemen are known to pull off the bag early on close plays to convince the umpire that the ball reached his glove before the runner reached first base; the first baseman has the responsibility of cutting off throws from any of the three outfield positions on their way to home plate. Though situational, the first baseman only receives throws from the center or right fielder; the first baseman is at the end of a double play, though he can be at the beginning and end of a double play. Unusual double plays involving the first baseman include the 3–6–3, 3–4–3, 3–2–3, or a 3–6–1 double play. In a 3–6–3 or 3–4–3 double play, the first baseman fields the ball, throws to second, where the shortstop or second baseman catches the ball to make the first out and throws back to the first baseman who reaches first base in time to tag first base before the batter reaches first base.
For a 3–2–3 double play, the bases must be loaded for the force-out at home plate or the catcher must tag the runner coming from
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play with 15 teams in each league; the NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000; the organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869; the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier; the 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world.
MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution; this document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball; this is due in large part to the 1922 U. S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law; this ruling has been weakened only in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916.
The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president, chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, chief baseball officer; the multimedia branch of MLB, based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees each of the 30 teams' websites, its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV, it operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, has editorial independence from the league. In 1920, the weak National Commission, created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.
From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U. S. Team. Two teams were added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994; until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997. In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998; this addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL; the original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league, but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it