Telfair County, Georgia
Telfair County is a county located in the central portion of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 16,500; the largest city and county seat is McRae-Helena. In 2009 researchers from the Fernbank Museum of Natural History announced having found artifacts they associated with the 1541 Hernando de Soto Expedition at a private site near the Ocmulgee River, the first such find between Tallahassee and western North Carolina. De Soto's expedition was well recorded, but researchers have had difficulties finding artifacts from sites where he stopped; this site was an indigenous village occupied by the historic Creek people from the early 15th century into the 16th century. It was located further southeast. Archaeologists associated with Atlanta's Fernbank Museum of Natural History have excavated a 2,000-acre plot near McRae-Helena and a mile from the Ocmulgee River, beginning in 2005. In 2009 they announced finding evidence of a Spanish settlement dating to the first half of the 16th century.
The archaeologists believed that the artifacts may have come from a settlement founded by Spanish leader Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón from Hispaniola in 1526 and occupied by hundreds of colonists. The group encountered fewer than 200 survived to return to Hispaniola. Additional research suggests that the site instead was one visited in 1541 by the de Soto Expedition. Researchers have recovered Murano glass beads, made in Venice and brought by the Spanish for trading with Native Americans; some of the beads bear a chevron pattern. Such beads have been identified as a hallmark of the de Soto expedition, due to the limited period of time in which they were produced. Excavations have produced six metal objects, including three iron tools and a silver pendant; the site is further west than scholars had earlier believed that the de Soto expedition had traveled, based on documentation from his expedition. This was the first evidence found of his expedition between Tallahassee, where excavations have revealed artifacts of his expedition, western North Carolina where another site has been found.
What we have now is the best-documented collection of Spanish artifacts in Georgia. This site is believed to have been a Native American community, occupied from the end of the 15th century through the first decades of the 16th century. At that time, they had metal goods. Blanton presented a paper on his findings on November 5, 2009 at the Southeastern Archaeological Conference in Mobile, Alabama; the historic Creek people occupied much of this area of Georgia. Telfair County was established by European Americans on December 1807 as part of Georgia. Development of the county took place after Indian Removal in the 1830s of the Creek Confederacy, who had occupied a large territory, including the southern two thirds of present-day Georgia, for thousands of years, they were removed in today's Oklahoma. The county is named for Edward Telfair, the sixteenth governor of Georgia and a member of the Continental Congress. Many of the first European-American settlers were Scottish immigrants and Scots-Irish migrants who traveled down the backcountry from Pennsylvania and Virginia.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 444 square miles, of which 437 square miles is land and 6.7 square miles is water. The county contains at least 50 artesian wells; the southern two-thirds of Telfair County, bordered by a line from Milan east to Lumber City, are located in the Lower Ocmulgee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin. The northern portion of the county is located in the Little Ocmulgee River sub-basin of the same Altamaha River basin. Wheeler County Jeff Davis County Coffee County Ben Hill County Wilcox County Dodge County Laurens County As of the census of 2000, there were 11,794 people, 4,140 households, 2,873 families residing in the county; the population density was 27 people per square mile. There were 5,083 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 59.71% White, 38.44% Black or African American, 0.03% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 1.16% from other races, 0.47% from two or more races.
1.82% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,140 households out of which 31.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.40% were married couples living together, 16.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.60% were non-families. 28.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.50% under the age of 18, 10.30% from 18 to 24, 30.10% from 25 to 44, 22.30% from 45 to 64, 14.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 110.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 113.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,097, the median income for a family was $32,513. Males had a median income of $26,444 versus $19,970 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,197.
About 17.30% of families and 21.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.40% of those under age 18 and 23.70% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 16,500 people, 5,543 house
The Ocmulgee River is a western tributary of the Altamaha River 255 mi long, in the U. S. state of Georgia. It is the westernmost major tributary of the Altamaha; the Ocmulgee River and its tributaries provide drainage for some 6,180 square miles in parts of 33 Georgia counties, a large section of the Piedmont and coastal plain of central Georgia. The Ocmulgee River basin has three river subbasins designated by the U. S. Geological Survey: the Upper Ocmulgee River subbasin; the name of the river may have come from a Hitchiti words oki plus molki meaning "where the water boils up." The river rises at a point in north central Georgia southeast of Atlanta, at the confluence of the Yellow and Alcovy rivers. Since the construction of the Lloyd Shoals Dam in the early 20th century, these rivers join as arms of the Jackson Lake reservoir; the river's source is formed at an elevation of around 530 feet above sea level. The Ocmulgee River flows from the dam southeast past Macon, founded on the Fall Line.
It joins the Oconee from the northwest to form the Altamaha near Lumber City. Four power plants in the Ocmulgee basin that use the river's water, including the coal-fired Plant Scherer in Juliette, operated by the Georgia Power Company. Plant Scherer is the seventh-largest power plant in the United States by capacity, the largest to be fueled by coal. A diverse array of fish—105 species in twenty-one families—inhabit the Ocmulgee River basin; the family with the largest representation in the river basin is Cyprinidae, with 27 species. It is followed by Centrarchidae; the Ocmulgee basin contains ten species in the family Ictaluridae and eight species of in the family Catostomidae. The river basin is inhabited by one State of Georgia-designated endangered fish species, the Altamaha shiner and two designated rare species, the goldstripe darter and redeye chub; the Ocmulgee River is popular with anglers for its excellent fishing for redbreast sunfish, redear sunfish, largemouth bass, black crappie, channel catfish, flathead catfish.
The world record for largest recorded catch of a largemouth bass was achieved in 1932 in Montgomery Lake, an oxbow lake off the Ocmulgee River in Telfair County. The record-setting fish, caught by farmer George Washington Perry, weighed 4 ounces; the International Game Fish Association declared the world record for largemouth bass tied in 2010, following Manabu Kurita's catch of a 22 pound, 4 ounce largemouth bass in Lake Biwa in Japan. There are some fifteen invasive species of fish. According to a Georgia Department of Natural Resources report, "many of these species are well-established and are detrimental to native fish populations; the fifteen invasives are threadfin shad, grass carp, blacktail shiner. Archeological evidence shows that Native Americans first inhabited the Ocmulgee basin about 10,000 to 15,000 years ago. Scraping tools and flint spearpoints from nomadic Paleoindians hunters have been discovered in the Ocmulgee floodplain. In the Archaic period which followed, hunter-gatherers in Ocmulgee basin used fiber-tempered pottery and stone tools.
During the Woodland period, there were various villages in the area, evidenced by earthen mounds and pottery sherds. There is evidence that the Mississippian culture reached the Ocmulgee basin by 900 CE; these areas are now part of the Ocmulgee National Monument, a National Park Service-administered protected area established in 1936. Europeans first explored the Ocmulgee basin in 1540, during the expedition of the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto and his party, who visited the late Mississippian chiefdom of Ichisi, now identified by archeologists as the floodplain south of Macon; the Ichisi served corncakes, wild onion, roasted venison to De Soto and his party. Over the next hundred years, the Native Americans in the area were devastated from disease and chaos following European contract. Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin stimulated development of short-staple cotton plantations in the uplands, where it grew well; the gin made it profitable. Demand for land in the Southeast increased, as well as demand for slave labor in the Deep South.
In 1806, the U. S. acquired the area between the Oconee and Ocmulgee rivers from the Creek Indians by the First Treaty of Washington. That same year United States Army established Fort Benjamin Hawkins overlooking the Ocmulgee Fields. In 1819 the Creek held their last meeting at Ocmulgee Fields, they ceded this territory in 1821. In the same year, the McCall brother established a barge-building oper
President of the Confederate States of America
The President of the Confederate States of America was the elected head of state and government of the Confederate States. The president headed the executive branch of government and was commander-in-chief of the Army and Navy, of the militia of the several states when called into Confederate service. Article II of the Confederate States Constitution vested the executive power of the Confederacy in the president; the power included the execution of law, alongside the responsibility of appointing executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the senate. He was further empowered to grant reprieves and pardons, convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances; the president was indirectly elected by the people through the Electoral College to a six-year term, was one of only two nationally elected Confederate officers, the other being the Vice President. On February 18, 1861, Jefferson Davis became president of the provisional government.
On February 22, 1862, he became president of the permanent government and served in that capacity until being captured by elements of the United States Cavalry in 1865. The constitutional powers of the President of the Confederate States were similar to those of the President of the United States; the permanent Confederate States Constitution made him commander-in-chief of the Army and Navy, of the militia of the confederated states when called into service of the Confederate States. He was empowered to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the Confederate States, he was authorized to make treaties. He could fill vacancies during a recess of the Senate, but he could not reappoint, during a recess, persons rejected by it, he was to supply Congress with information, recommend legislation, receive ambassadors and other public ministers, see that the federal laws were faithfully executed, commission all officers of the military and naval forces of the Confederate States. On February 9, 1861, the provisional congress at Montgomery unanimously elected Jefferson Davis president and Alexander H. Stephens vice president.
Stephens, a delegate to Congress from Georgia, was inaugurated on February 11. Davis was inaugurated on February 18 upon his arrival from Mississippi, where he had gone upon his resignation from the U. S. Senate. Davis and Stephens were elected on Wednesday November 6, 1861, for six-years terms, as provided by the permanent constitution; the Capital had been moved in June 1861, to Richmond, the inauguration took place at the statue of Washington, on the public square, on February 22, 1862. Before Davis entered on the execution of his office as President of the Confederate States, he was constitutionally required to take the following oath or affirmation: I do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the Confederate States, will, to the best of my ability, preserve and defend the Constitution thereof. In 1861, the President of the Confederate States earned a CS$25,000 annual salary, along with an expense account, a nontaxable travel account; the President's Office was located on the second floor of the Custom House on Main Street, a structure which housed the Cabinet Room and the State and Treasury Department.
The City of Richmond purchased the Brockenbrough house for presentation to the Confederate government for use as an executive mansion. Davis declined to accept the gift. Referred to as the "White House of the Confederacy" or the "Grey House," the mansion was used by President Davis throughout the existence of his presidency, it became a repository for documents and pictures, in 1896 it was redesignated the Confederate Museum. Late on the evening of April 2, 1865, President Davis, his aides, members of the Presidential Cabinet, except C. S. Secretary of War John C. Breckinridge, departed from the burning capital city of Richmond going southwest on the Richmond and Danville Railroad shortly before Union troops occupied it; the Confederate President Davis and his Cabinet stayed at Danville, 140 miles southwest of Richmond, until April 10, hearing of General Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House further northeast, it continued its flight farther south. At Greensboro, North Carolina, on April 12 the Cabinet met with Generals Joseph E. Johnston and Pierre G. T.
Beauregard and discussed surrender of Johnston's Army of Tennessee to Union General William Tecumseh Sherman in nearby North Carolina moving north from Savannah through the Carolinas destroying and burning everything in its path including Columbia the South Carolina state capital city. As the railroad leading south out of Greensboro had been destroyed, the flight from that location was changed to on horseback and in a train of additional wagons and carriages carrying some Confederate archives papers and the C. S. A. Treasury remnants of gold/silver bullion; the last official Cabinet meetings of the Presidential Cabinet of the Confederate States took place at Charlotte, on April 24, 26 later on May 4. Elements of the United States Cavalry / Union Army captured Davis and his companions at an encampment near Irwinville, Georgia on May 10, 1865. Jefferson Davis was imprisoned at Fort Monroe, by the Hampton Roads harbor of tidewater
Appling County, Georgia
Appling County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,236; the county seat is Baxley. Appling County is named for Lieutenant Colonel Daniel Appling, a soldier in the War of 1812. Appling County, the 42nd county created in Georgia, was established by an act of the Georgia General Assembly on December 15, 1818; the original county consisted of Creek lands ceded in the 1814 Treaty of Fort Jackson and the 1818 Treaty of the Creek Agency. On December 15, 1824, Ware County was formed by the Georgia General Assembly from the southern half of Appling land districts 4, 5, 6, all of land districts 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. On December 24, 1825, Appling County land district 6 was added to Telfair County by an act of the Georgia General Assembly; this created an ambiguity of the border between Telfair County and Ware County, solved by additional legislation. On December 8, 1828, Georgia was declared the county seat by the General Assembly. Court was held at residence of William Carter Jr.
In 1836, the General Assembly appointed a seven-member commission to find a location for a more centrally located county seat than Holmesville, but were not able to come to a conclusion. The need for a more central county seat would remain a point of contention in county politics for several decades. On December 18, 1857, the part of Appling County, south of Lightsey's Ford on Big Creek downstream to the Little Satilla River was taken from Appling County for the creation of Pierce County. At the time of the 1850 United States Census, Appling County had a white population of 2,520, a slave population of 404, 25 free people of color. By the 1860 United States Census, the county had a white population of 3,442, a slave population of 740, 3 free people of color. On August 27, 1872, eastern sections of Appling land districts 3 and 4 were added to Wayne County; this area included Wayne County's current county seat Jesup, which became the new county seat of Wayne County in 1873. In August 1872, the General Assembly called for an election in Appling County to vote on the removal of the county seat to a point along the Macon and Brunswick Railroad.
The residents voted for removal and the town of Baxley, Georgia was selected as the new county seat after the election. In February 1873, the General Assembly mistakenly passed a law giving county commissioners to sell the public lands in Holmesville so the proceeds can go to the construction of a new courthouse in Holmesville, they amended the law a year for the new courthouse location to read Baxley as it had been intended. On August 18, 1905, Jeff Davis County was created from western portions of Appling County and eastern portions Coffee County. On July 27, 1914, Bacon County was created from parts of Appling County, Pierce County, Ware County; the remaining section of Appling County, south of Little Satilla River became part of Bacon County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 512 square miles, of which 507 square miles is land and 5.2 square miles is water. The southern two-thirds of Appling County, south of a line from Graham to Baxley running due east from Baxley, is located in the Little Satilla River sub-basin of the St. Marys River-Satilla River basin.
The northern third of the county is located in the Altamaha River sub-basin of the basin by the same name. Toombs County - north Tattnall County - northeast Wayne County - southeast Pierce County - south Jeff Davis County - west Bacon County - west As of the census of 2000, there were 17,419 people, 6,606 households, 4,855 families residing in the county; the population density was 34 people per square mile. There were 7,854 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.79% White, 19.59% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 2.49% from other races, 0.61% from two or more races. 4.55 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 6,606 households out of which 34.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.60% were married couples living together, 12.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.50% were non-families. 23.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.10% under the age of 18, 9.00% from 18 to 24, 28.50% from 25 to 44, 23.50% from 45 to 64, 11.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 97.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,266, the median income for a family was $34,890. Males had a median income of $27,753 versus $18,148 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,044. About 14.90% of families and 18.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.90% of those under age 18 and 24.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 18,236 people, 6,969 households, 4,894 families residing in the county; the population density was 36.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 8,512 housing units at an average density of 16.8 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 73.4% white, 18.6% black or African American, 0.7% Asian, 0.4% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 5.7% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 9.3% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 15.2% were American, 9.3% were
Montgomery County, Georgia
Montgomery County is a county in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,123; the county seat is Mount Vernon. Montgomery County is part of GA Micropolitan Statistical Area. Montgomery County is named in honor of Richard Montgomery, an American Revolutionary War general killed in 1775 while attempting to capture Quebec City, Canada, it was created on December 1793 from a southern portion of Washington County, Georgia. Arthur Lott's Plantation was designated the first county seat in 1797. In 1801, Tattnall County, Georgia was formed from the southern part of Montgomery County; the dividing line between Tatnall and Montgomery ran from the mouth of Limestone Creek on the Oconee River, just below modern Mount Vernon, Georgia, to the mouth of Wolf Creek on the Canoochee River below Metter, Georgia. On December 11, 1811, the county lines between Washington County, Montgomery County, Laurens County were adjusted by the Georgia General Assembly; the northern section of Montgomery between the Oconee River and the Ohoopee River was transferred to Laurens.
On December 10, 1812, the county line of Montgomery was adjusted as part of the creation of Emanuel County. Its new boundaries became from the Laurens and Telfair county line on the Oconee River to the north prong of the Little Ocmulgee River down the Little Ocmulgee River as it meanders to its confluence with the Ocmulgee River downstream as it meanders to the Oconee River North 30 degrees to Milligan's Creek in Tatnall County, with it to the Montgomery County line. Pendleton Creek was used as the border between Emanuel; because of these transitions Montgomery regained part of the land it had lost in the creation of Tatnall County in 1801, but lost land along the upper Oconee River to Laurens County. The creation of Emanuel County, put the old county seat within Emanuel's border. On December 12, the Georgia General Assembly appointed the justices of the inferior court of Montgomery county to a commission to designate a new county seat and called for county business to be held until at the home of James Alston.
In 1813, the General Assembly recognized Mount Vernon as the new county seat. The county line between Telfair County and Montgomery was adjusted once again in 1820 by the Georgia Genera Assembly; the new line differed in the upstream portion of the Little Ocmulgee River and better defined the line and gave Montgomery a small border with Pulaski County and Telfair County some land on the northeast side of the Little Ocmulgee River. The line was to go upstream to its fork to Browning's mill, a straight line to the mouth of Joiner's Creek at the second fork of the Little Ocmulgee River, up the second prong to Pulaski County Line; the land gained by Telfair County from Montgomery County on the northeast side of the Little Ocmulgee River was reversed by the Georgia General Assembly on December 18, 1833. At the time of the 1850 United States Census, Montgomery had 613 slaves. By the 1860 census, there were 2,014 whites, 977 slaves, 6 Free people of color; the pine barrens and soil quality outside of the river lands made the area unsuitable for slave-heavy cotton producing plantation culture.
Montgomery's status as a majority white county led the region developing different attitudes about secession from other areas of Georgia. On January 22, 1861, Montgomery County representatives, Thomas M. McRae and Solon Homer Latimer, were among the 89 delegates who voted no to Georgia's immediate secession from the Union at the state secession convention. In addition, McRae and Latimer were among the 6 delegates who voiced their protest by against the Ordinance of Secession in the published document. In the interior of the county around Gum Swamp near the Pulaski County, Telfair County, Montgomery County lines a deserter gang fought against Confederate forces. On August 18, 1905, Montgomery County gained and lost some territory during the creation of Toombs County. On August 14, 1912, the parts of Montgomery County between the Little Ocmulgee River and the Oconee River became Wheeler County. On August 21, 1917, Montgomery lost additional territory during the creation of Treutlen County, Georgia.
More the county was noted for its practice of organizing segregated proms, a practice that had continued since integration of its schools in the 1970s. Following publicity about this practice, Montgomery County students took the initiative to integrate the prom in 2010. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 245 square miles, of which 240 square miles is land and 5.2 square miles is water. The southeastern quarter of Montgomery County is located in the Altamaha River sub-basin of the larger river basin by the same name; the western half of the county, from Tarrytown south, is located in the Lower Oconee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin. The northeastern quarter of Montgomery County, northeast of a line from Tarrytown to Higgston, is located in the Ohoopee River sub-basin of the same Altamaha River basin. Treutlen County Toombs County Jeff Davis County Wheeler County As of the census of 2000, there were 8,270 people, 2,919 households, 2,063 families residing in the county.
The population density was 13/km². There were 3,492 housing units at an average density of 6/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 69.72% White, 27.24% Black or African American, 0.07% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 2.13% from other races, 0.62% from two or more races. 3.28% of the population were
Georgia State Route 107
Georgia State Route 107 is a 61.8-mile-long state highway that exists in the southern part of the U. S. state of Georgia. It travels from Interstate 75 in Ashburn to U. S. Route 221 in rural Jeff Davis County. SR 107 begins at an interchange with Interstate 75 in Ashburn, it travels to the east toward Fitzgerald, concurrent with SR 112 for 3 miles before departing. The highway goes through rural Turner and Irwin counties before an intersection with SR 125 just west of Fitzgerald. Once in Fitzgerald, SR 107 has an intersection with U. S. Route 129 and US 319, it shares a concurrency with US 319 as the highway leaves Fitzgerald and goes through rural Ben Hill County. The highway has intersections with SR 182 before entering Coffee County. Soon after entering Coffee County, the highway intersects US 441 and leaves its concurrency with US 319. SR 107 shares a brief concurrency with US 441 before turning east into rural Coffee and Jeff Davis counties. SR 107 has an intersection with SR 268 in Snipesville before reaching its eastern terminus with US 221 north of Denton.
Georgia portal U. S. Roads portal Media related to Georgia State Route 107 at Wikimedia Commons
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti