A social movement is a type of group action. There is no single consensus definition of a social movement, they are large, sometimes informal, groupings of individuals or organizations which focus on specific political or social issues. In other words, they resist, or undo a social change, they provide a way of social change from the bottom within nations. Social movements can be defined as "organizational structures and strategies that may empower oppressed populations to mount effective challenges and resist the more powerful and advantaged elites". Political science and sociology have developed a variety of theories and empirical research on social movements. For example, some research in political science highlights the relation between popular movements and the formation of new political parties as well as discussing the function of social movements in relation to agenda setting and influence on politics. Sociologists distinguish between several types of social movement examining things such as scope, type of change, method of work, type of change and timeframe.
Modern Western social movements became possible through education and increased mobility of labor due to the industrialization and urbanization of 19th-century societies. It is sometimes argued that the freedom of expression and relative economic independence prevalent in the modern Western culture are responsible for the unprecedented number and scope of various contemporary social movements. Many of the social movements of the last hundred years grew up, like the Mau Mau in Kenya, to oppose Western colonialism. Social movements have been and continue to be connected with democratic political systems. Social movements have been involved in democratizing nations, but more they have flourished after democratization. Over the past 200 years, they have become part of a global expression of dissent. Modern movements utilize technology and the internet to mobilize people globally. Adapting to communication trends is a common theme among successful movements. Research is beginning to explore how advocacy organizations linked to social movements in the U.
S. and Canada use social media to facilitate collective action. The systematic literature review of Buettner & Buettner analyzed the role of Twitter during a wide range of social movements. Mario Diani argues that nearly all definitions share three criteria: "a network of informal interactions between a plurality of individuals, groups and/or organizations, engaged in a political or cultural conflict, on the basis of a shared collective identity" Sociologist Charles Tilly defines social movements as a series of contentious performances and campaigns by which ordinary people make collective claims on others. For Tilly, social movements are a major vehicle for ordinary people's participation in public politics, he argues that there are three major elements to a social movement: Campaigns: a sustained, organized public effort making collective claims of target authorities. Sidney Tarrow defines a social movement as "collective challenges by people with common purposes and solidarity in sustained interactions with elites and authorities."
He distinguishes social movements from political parties and advocacy groups. The sociologists John McCarthy and Mayer Zald define as a social movement as "a set of opinions and beliefs in a population which represents preferences for changing some elements of the social structure and/or reward distribution of a society." According to Paul van Seeters and Paul James defining a social movement entails a few minimal conditions of ‘coming together’: the formation of some kind of collective identity. Thus we define a social movement as a form of political association between persons who have at least a minimal sense of themselves as connected to others in common purpose and who come together across an extended period of time to effect social change in the name of that purpose; the early growth of social movements was connected to broad economic and political changes in England in the mid-18th century, including political representation, market capitalization, proletarianization. The first mass social movement catalyzed around the controversial political figure John Wilkes.
As editor of the paper The North Briton, Wilkes vigorously attacked the new administration of Lord Bute and the peace terms that the new government accepted at the 1763 Treaty of Paris at the end of the Seven Years' War. Charged with seditious libel, Wilkes was arrested after the issue of a general warrant, a move that Wilkes denounced as unlawful - the L
Economic inequality covers a wide variety of topics. It can refer to the distribution of wealth. Besides economic inequality between countries or states, there are important types of economic inequality between different groups of people. Important types of economic measurements focus on wealth and consumption. There are many methods for measuring economic inequality, with the Gini coefficient being a used one. Another type of measure is the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, a statistic composite index that takes inequality into account. Important concepts of equality include equity, equality of outcome, equality of opportunity. Research suggests. Whereas globalization has reduced global inequality, it has increased inequality within nations. In 1820, the ratio between the income of the top and bottom 20 percent of the world's population was three to one. By 1991, it was eighty-six to one. A 2011 study titled "Divided we Stand: Why Inequality Keeps Rising" by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development sought to explain the causes for this rising inequality by investigating economic inequality in OECD countries.
Single-headed households in OECD countries have risen from an average of 15% in the late 1980s to 20% in the mid-2000s, resulting in higher inequality. Assortative mating refers to the phenomenon of people marrying people with similar background, for example doctors marrying doctors rather than nurses. OECD found out that 40% of couples where both partners work belonged to the same or neighbouring earnings deciles compared with 33% some 20 years before. In the bottom percentiles number of hours worked; the main reason for increasing inequality seems to be the difference between the demand for and supply of skills. Income inequality in OECD countries is at its highest level for the past half century; the ratio between the bottom 10 % and the top 10 % has increased to 1:9 in 25 years. There are tentative signs of a possible convergence of inequality levels towards a common and higher average level across OECD countries. With few exceptions, the wages of the 10% best-paid workers have risen relative to those of the 10% lowest paid.
A 2011 OECD study investigated economic inequality in Argentina, China, Indonesia and South Africa. It concluded that key sources of inequality in these countries include "a large, persistent informal sector, widespread regional divides, gaps in access to education, barriers to employment and career progression for women."A study by the World Institute for Development Economics Research at United Nations University reports that the richest 1% of adults alone owned 40% of global assets in the year 2000. The three richest people in the world possess more financial assets than the lowest 48 nations combined; the combined wealth of the "10 million dollar millionaires" grew to nearly $41 trillion in 2008. A January 2014 report by Oxfam claims that the 85 wealthiest individuals in the world have a combined wealth equal to that of the bottom 50% of the world's population, or about 3.5 billion people. According to a Los Angeles Times analysis of the report, the wealthiest 1% owns 46% of the world's wealth.
In January 2015, Oxfam reported that the wealthiest 1 percent will own more than half of the global wealth by 2016. An October 2014 study by Credit Suisse claims that the top 1% now own nearly half of the world's wealth and that the accelerating disparity could trigger a recession. In October 2015, Credit Suisse published a study which shows global inequality continues to increase, that half of the world's wealth is now in the hands of those in the top percentile, whose assets each exceed $759,900. A 2016 report by Oxfam claims that the 62 wealthiest individuals own as much wealth as the poorer half of the global population combined. Oxfam's claims have however been questioned on the basis of the methodology used: by using net wealth, the Oxfam report, for instance, finds that there are more poor people in the United States and Western Europe than in China. Anthony Shorrocks, the lead author of the Credit Suisse report, one of the sources of Oxfam's data, considers the criticism about debt to be a "silly argument" and "a non-issue … a diversion."
Oxfam's 2017 report says the top eight billionaires have as much wealth as the bottom half of the global population, that rising inequality is suppressing wages, as businesses are focused on delivering higher returns to wealthy owners and executives. In 2018, the Oxfam report said that the wealth gap continued to widen in 2017, with 82% of global wealth generated going to the wealthiest 1%; the 2019 Oxfam report said that the poorest half of the human population has been losing wealth at the same time that a billionaire is minted every two days. According to PolitiFact, the top 400 richest Americans "have more wealth than half of all Americans combined." According to The New York Times on July 22, 2014, the "richest 1 percent in the United States now own more wealth than the bottom 90 percent". Inherited wealth may help explain why many Americans who have become rich may have had a "substantial head start". In September 2012, according to the Institute for Policy Studies (I
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Gary Leonard Ackerman is a retired American politician and former U. S. Representative from New York, serving from 1983 to 2013, he is a member of the Democratic Party. On March 15, 2012, Ackerman announced that he would retire at the end of the 112th Congress on January 3, 2013 after fifteen terms, would not seek re-election in November 2012. Ackerman was born in the son of Eva and Max Ackerman, his grandparents were Jewish immigrants from Poland. He was raised in Queens, he attended local public schools, Brooklyn Technical High School and graduated from Queens College in 1965. After college, Ackerman became a New York City School teacher where he taught social studies and journalism to junior high school students in Queens. Following the birth of his first child in 1969, Ackerman petitioned the New York City Board of Education for an unpaid leave of absence to spend time with his newborn daughter but his request was denied, under existing policy which reserved unpaid "maternity-child care" leave to women only.
In what was to be a forerunner of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 teacher Ackerman sued the Board in a landmark case which established the right of either parent to receive unpaid leave for child care. A quarter of a century now a Congressman, Ackerman in the House–Senate Conference Committee, signed the report of the Family and Medical Leave Act which became the law of the land. Ackerman's second career move occurred in 1970, when he left teaching to start a weekly community newspaper in Queens called The Flushing Tribune which soon became the Queens Tribune. Ackerman served as its publisher. Ackerman was a member of the New York State Senate from 1979 to 1983, sitting in the 183rd, 184th and 185th New York State Legislatures. Incumbent Democrat U. S. Congressman Benjamin Rosenthal died on January 4, 1983. Ackerman won the special election with a plurality of 49%. In 1984, he won re-election to a full term with 69% of the vote. In 1986, he won re-election with 77%, was unopposed in 1988 and 1990.
After redistricting, he ran in New York's 5th congressional district. He won the Democratic primary with 60%, the general election with 52% against Republican county legislator Allan E. Binder. In 1994, he won re-election with 55% of the vote. Since he has won re-election with at least 63% of the vote. Ackerman was the Congressional delegate to the United Nations. In addition, he was the ranking Democrat on the Congressional Caucus on Indian Americans. In 2002, he was awarded India's third highest civilian award, the Padma Bhushan for his contributions as member of the India Caucus in the Congress. Ackerman was one of only 22 Congressman and one of 2 Democrats from New York to vote against a resolution calling for the protection of the symbols and traditions of Christmas; the resolution, which did not include language that would protect the symbols of other religious holidays, passed 401–22 in the House in December 2005. In April 2003 the Catholic League for religious and civil rights attacked Ackerman for voting against a non-binding resolution that would have declared a day of prayer in recognition of the U.
S. war in Iraq. Ackerman received an "A" on the Drum Major Institute's 2005 Congressional Scorecard on middle-class issues. Ackerman was a member of the Cuba Democracy Caucus and is the head of the International Council of Jewish Parliamentarians. Ackerman has missed voting on 80 occasions pertaining to a variety of issues, including the Pension Protection Act, the Tax Relief Extension Reconciliation Act, the Honoring the Contributions of Catholic Schools. In June 2001, Ackerman honored King Christian X of Denmark for his wearing a yellow badge armband during World War II in support of the Danish Jews, ordered by the Nazi occupation to wear yellow badges, although Jews in Denmark were never forced to wear an armband, the story is a legend. Among Ackerman's significant legislative undertakings, was the passage of his Baby AIDS amendment to the Ryan White Care Act; the measure requires mandatory HIV testing of newborns and disclosure of the results to the mother. Ackerman championed the issue of newborn testing after discovering that 45 states, including New York, tested babies for HIV but used the data to track the prevalence of the disease in the population, did not disclose the results to the mothers.
As a result, thousands of mothers brought their infants home from the hospital, never aware that their children had tested positive for HIV. Ackerman stopped the anonymous testing from being reinstated in years that followed. Ackerman scored a victory in his efforts to ban downed animals from being sold as meat in supermarkets and butcher stores. For a decade, Ackerman warned that use of such livestock was not only inhumane treatment of animals but risked causing a Mad Cow disaster in the United States, his legislation fell on deaf ears until December 2003, when his warning became prophetic and the Bush Administration—among those who had opposed the bill—finally imposed his ban through regulation. Ackerman was successful in getting Medicare to cover testing for prostate cancer. In addition, Ackerman sponsored the first federal legislation to ban the use of handheld cell phones while driving. Law of the land is Ackerman's measure requiring banks and financial companies to notify consumers when negative information is placed on their credit reports.
Ackerman sponsored legislation, now law that in the wake of the Enron, WorldCom and other corporate scandals, prohibits accounting firms from consulting for the companies they audit. On October 3, 2008, Ackerman voted in favor of the Troubled Asset Relief Program. On January 8, 20