United States Declaration of Independence
The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on July 4, 1776. The Declaration announced that the Thirteen Colonies at war with the Kingdom of Great Britain would regard themselves as thirteen independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. With the Declaration, these new states took a collective first step toward forming the United States of America; the declaration was signed by representatives from New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia. The Lee Resolution for independence was passed on July 2 with no opposing votes; the Committee of Five had drafted the Declaration to be ready. John Adams, a leader in pushing for independence, had persuaded the committee to select Thomas Jefferson to compose the original draft of the document, which Congress edited to produce the final version.
The Declaration was a formal explanation of why Congress had voted to declare independence from Great Britain, more than a year after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War. Adams wrote to his wife Abigail, "The Second Day of July 1776, will be the most memorable Epocha, in the History of America" – although Independence Day is celebrated on July 4, the date that the wording of the Declaration of Independence was approved. After ratifying the text on July 4, Congress issued the Declaration of Independence in several forms, it was published as the printed Dunlap broadside, distributed and read to the public. The source copy used for this printing has been lost and may have been a copy in Thomas Jefferson's hand. Jefferson's original draft is preserved at the Library of Congress, complete with changes made by John Adams and Benjamin Franklin, as well as Jefferson's notes of changes made by Congress; the best-known version of the Declaration is a signed copy, displayed at the National Archives in Washington, D.
C. and, popularly regarded as the official document. This engrossed copy was ordered by Congress on July 19 and signed on August 2; the sources and interpretation of the Declaration have been the subject of much scholarly inquiry. The Declaration justified the independence of the United States by listing 27 colonial grievances against King George III and by asserting certain natural and legal rights, including a right of revolution, its original purpose was to announce independence, references to the text of the Declaration were few in the following years. Abraham Lincoln made it the centerpiece of his policies and his rhetoric, as in the Gettysburg Address of 1863. Since it has become a well-known statement on human rights its second sentence: We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life and the pursuit of Happiness; this has been called "one of the best-known sentences in the English language", containing "the most potent and consequential words in American history".
The passage came to represent a moral standard. This view was notably promoted by Lincoln, who considered the Declaration to be the foundation of his political philosophy and argued that it is a statement of principles through which the United States Constitution should be interpreted; the Declaration of Independence inspired many similar documents in other countries, the first being the 1789 Declaration of United Belgian States issued during the Brabant Revolution in the Austrian Netherlands. It served as the primary model for numerous declarations of independence in Europe and Latin America, as well as Africa and Oceania during the first half of the 19th century. Believe me, dear Sir: there is not in the British empire a man who more cordially loves a union with Great Britain than I do. But, by the God that made me, I will cease to exist before I yield to a connection on such terms as the British Parliament propose. By the time that the Declaration of Independence was adopted in July 1776, the Thirteen Colonies and Great Britain had been at war for more than a year.
Relations had been deteriorating between the colonies and the mother country since 1763. Parliament enacted a series of measures to increase revenue from the colonies, such as the Stamp Act of 1765 and the Townshend Acts of 1767. Parliament believed that these acts were a legitimate means of having the colonies pay their fair share of the costs to keep them in the British Empire. Many colonists, had developed a different conception of the empire; the colonies were not directly represented in Parliament, colonists argued that Parliament had no right to levy taxes upon them. This tax dispute was part of a larger divergence between British and American interpretations of the British Constitution and the extent of Parliament's authority in the colonies; the orthodox British view, dating from the Glorious Revolution of 1688, was that Parliament was the supreme authority throughout the empire, so, by definition, anything that Parliament did was constitutional. In the colonies, the idea had developed that the British Constitution recognized certain fundamental rights that no government could violate, not Parliament.
After the Townshend Acts, some essayists began to question whether Parliament had any legitimate jurisdiction in the colonies at all. Anticipating the arrangement of the British Commonwealth, by 1774 American writers such as
History of the United States Military Academy
The history of the United States Military Academy can be traced to fortifications constructed on the West Point of the Hudson River during the American Revolutionary War in 1778. Following the war, President Thomas Jefferson signed legislation establishing the United States Military Academy on the site in 1802. In 1817 the Academy was transformed by the appointment of Sylvanus Thayer who drastically reformed the curriculum; the harsh winter of 1777–1778 froze the Hudson River, allowing elements of the Connecticut militia under the command of General Samuel Holden Parsons to march westward across the river. They first occupied West Point on 27 January 1778, making it the longest continually occupied post in the United States. George Washington considered West Point to be the most important military position in America. Stationing his headquarters there in the summer and fall of 1779. After his victory over the British Army at the Battle of Yorktown, Washington kept the Continental Army garrisoned nearby at New Windsor at the New Windsor Cantonment until the official end of the war.
The original owner of the land at West Point was a General Stephen Moore of North Carolina. The Continental Army occupied his land for twelve years until Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton authorized the purchase of the land for $11,085 in 1790. Between 1778 and 1780, Polish engineer and military hero Tadeusz Kościuszko oversaw the construction of the garrison's defenses. Kościuszko's small garden retreat still stands today as Kosciuszko's Garden; the Great Chain and high ground above the narrow "S" curve in the Hudson River enabled the Continental Army to prevent British ships from sailing up river and dividing the Colonies. Because of the unique bend in the river, ships of the day had to slow down to a near complete stop to navigate the turn. Though never tested, the chain performed its purpose by preventing British movement up river. Several forts and redoubts were constructed to defend this turn in the river; the closest to the river was Fort Clinton named Fort Arnold for his victory at Saratoga in 1777.
The remains of this fort can be seen on the western edge of the Plain between Thayer Road and the Hudson River. A few hundred feet higher in elevation was Fort Putnam, near the site of the present day Michie Stadium. A series of smaller redoubts protected these two forts. Several are still visible, including Redoubt Four, at the highest point on the academy, Redoubt Seven, across the river on Constitution Island, it was as commander of the fortifications at West Point that Benedict Arnold committed his infamous act of treason when he attempted to sell the fort to the British. The academy can trace its earliest roots to the 1776 Continental Congress authorization of the establishment of a "Corps of Invalids"; this organization would "give service to disabled officers" with one its missions being to impart "military knowledge to'young gentlemen'". This "Corps" moved to the garrison at West Point in 1781, but few officers reported for duty and it was disbanded after the end of the war in 1783. In the years following the Revolutionary War, West Point was the largest post in the army, with more than half of the 100 authorized men in the entire army stationed there.
During his presidency, George Washington realized a need for a national military academy to teach the art and science of war, but his Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson argued that there was no provision in the Constitution that allowed for the creation of a military academy. Many in the Congress feared establishing a Military Academy as too aristocratic. In 1794, Congress authorized the establishment of a "Corps of Artillerist and Engineers" at West Point, though an official course of study was not established until well after the formal founding of the Academy in 1802. Despite Washington's support for the founding of an academy, his presidency, that of his successor, failed to produce a formal academy. American military failures in frontier-fighting such as the Battle of the Wabash and the Quasi-War with France motivated Congress to authorize president John Adams to improve the instruction at West Point, but little resulted due to a lack of qualified instructors. By the time Adams left office in 1801, the Corps consisted of only twelve cadets and one instructorDespite his earlier misgivings, when Jefferson became president, he called for and signed legislation establishing a "Corps of Engineers" which "shall be stationed at West Point and constitute a Military Academy" on 16 March 1802.
Jefferson wanted a "national university" that focused on science and engineering and was looking for an American with a strong scientific background to command the academy. In 1801, he found his man in Jonathan Williams. Though he had no previous military experience, Williams was a well-known scientist of his day, a relative of Benjamin Franklin. Williams accepted Jefferson's appointment to the rank of Colonel and arrived to assume his post on 14 Dec 1801; the first graduates of the academy were Joseph Gardner Swift and Simeon Magruder Levy, who graduated on 12 October 1802. Swift would return as Superintendent from 1812–1814. Alden Partridge, an 1806 graduate, served as Professor of Mathematics and Engineering, was Acting Superintendent on occasions from 1808 to 1813. Partridge served as Superintendent from 1814 to 1817, was responsible for selecting the gray uniforms students still wear today; the early years of the academy were a tumultuous time, with few standards for admission or length of study.
Cadets attended between 6 months to 6 years. The impending War of 1812 caused Congress to authorize a more formal system of education at the academy, increased the size of the Corps of Cadets to 250. By the War of 1812
The National Road was the first major improved highway in the United States built by the federal government. Built between 1811 and 1837, the 620-mile road connected the Potomac and Ohio Rivers and was a main transport path to the West for thousands of settlers; when rebuilt in the 1830s, it became the second U. S. road surfaced with the macadam process pioneered by Scotsman John Loudon McAdam. Construction began heading west in 1811 at Maryland, on the Potomac River. After the Financial Panic of 1837 and the resulting economic depression, congressional funding ran dry and construction was stopped at Vandalia, the capital of the Illinois, 63 miles northeast of St. Louis across the Mississippi River; the road has been referred to as the Cumberland Turnpike, the Cumberland–Brownsville Turnpike, the Cumberland Pike, the National Pike, the National Turnpike. Today, much of the alignment is followed by U. S. Route 40, with various portions bearing the Alternate U. S. Route 40 designation, or various state-road numbers.
In 2002, the full road, including extensions east to Baltimore and west to St. Louis, was designated the Historic National Road, an All-American Road; the Braddock Road had been opened by the Ohio Company in 1751 between Fort Cumberland, the limit of navigation on the upper Potomac River, the French military station at Fort Duquesne at the forks of the Ohio River, an important trading and military point where the city of Pittsburgh now stands. It received its name during the colonial-era French and Indian War of 1753–63, when it was constructed by British General Edward Braddock, accompanied by Colonel George Washington of the Virginia militia regiment in the ill-fated July 1755 Braddock expedition, an attempt to assault the French-held Fort Duquesne. Construction of the Cumberland Road was authorized on March 1806, by President Thomas Jefferson; the new Cumberland Road would replace the wagon and foot paths of the Braddock Road for travel between the Potomac and Ohio Rivers, following the same alignment until just east of Uniontown, Pennsylvania.
From there, where the Braddock Road turned north towards Pittsburgh, the new National Road/Cumberland Road continued west to Wheeling, Virginia on the Ohio River. The contract for the construction of the first section was awarded to Henry McKinley on May 8, 1811, construction began that year, with the road reaching Wheeling on August 1, 1818. For more than 100 years, a simple granite stone was the only marker of the road's beginning in Cumberland, Maryland. In June 2012, a monument and plaza were built in that town's Riverside Park, next to the historic original starting point. Beyond the National Road's eastern terminus at Cumberland and toward the Atlantic coast, a series of private toll roads and turnpikes were constructed, connecting the National Road with Baltimore the third-largest city in the country, a major maritime port on Chesapeake Bay. Completed in 1824, these feeder routes formed what is referred to as an eastern extension of the federal National Road. On May 15, 1820, Congress authorized an extension of the road to St. Louis, on the Mississippi River, on March 3, 1825, across the Mississippi and to Jefferson City, Missouri.
Work on the extension between Wheeling and Zanesville, used the pre-existing Zane's Trace of old Ebenezer Zane, was completed in 1833 to the new state capital of Columbus, in 1838 to the college town of Springfield, Ohio. In 1849, a bridge was completed to carry the National Road across the Ohio River at Wheeling; the Wheeling Suspension Bridge, designed by Charles Ellet Jr. was at the time the world's longest bridge span at 1,010 feet from tower to tower. Maintenance costs on the Cumberland Road were becoming more. In agreements with Maryland and Pennsylvania, the road was to be reconstructed and resurfaced; the section that ran over Haystack Mountain, just west of Cumberland, was abandoned and a new road was built through the Cumberland Narrows. On April 1, 1835, the section from Wheeling to Cumberland was transferred to Maryland and Virginia; the last congressional appropriation was made May 25, 1838, in 1840, Congress voted against completing the unfinished portion of the road, with the deciding vote being cast by Henry Clay.
By that time, railroads were proving a better method of long-distance transportation, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was being built west from Baltimore to Cumberland along the Potomac River, by a more direct route than the National Road across the Allegheny Plateau of West Virginia to Wheeling. Construction of the National Road stopped in 1839. Much of the road through Indiana and Illinois remained unfinished and was transferred to the states. In 1912, the Cumberland National Road was chosen to become part of the National Old Trails Road, which would extend further east to New York City and west to Los Angeles, California. Five Madonna of the Trail monuments, donated by the Daughters of the American Revolution, were erected along the old National Road. In 1927, the National Road was designated as the eastern part of U. S. Highway 40, which still follows the National Road's alignment with occasional bypasses and newer bridges; the parallel Interstate 70 now provides a faster route for through t
Olive Branch Petition
The Olive Branch Petition was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 5, 1775 and signed on July 8 in a final attempt to avoid war between Great Britain and the Thirteen Colonies in America. The Congress had authorized the invasion of Canada more than a week earlier, but the petition affirmed American loyalty to Great Britain and beseeched King George III to prevent further conflict, it was followed by the July 6 Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms, which made its success unlikely in London. In August 1775, the colonies were formally declared to be in rebellion by the Proclamation of Rebellion, the petition was rejected by Great Britain—even though King George had refused to read it before declaring the colonists traitors; the Second Continental Congress convened in May 1775, most delegates followed John Dickinson in his quest to reconcile with King George. However, a rather small group of delegates led by John Adams believed that war was inevitable, they decided that the wisest course of action was to remain quiet and wait for the opportune time to rally the people.
This allowed his followers to pursue their own course for reconciliation. Dickinson was the primary author of the petition, though Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, John Rutledge, Thomas Johnson served on the drafting committee. Dickinson claimed that the colonies did not want independence but wanted more equitable trade and tax regulations, he suggested that the King devise a plan to settle trade disputes and give the colonists either free trade and taxes equal to those levied on the people of Great Britain or strict trade regulation in lieu of taxes. The introductory paragraph of the letter named twelve of all except Georgia; the letter was approved on July 5 and signed by John Hancock, President of the Second Congress, by representatives of the named twelve colonies. It was sent to London on July 1775 in the care of Richard Penn and Arthur Lee. Dickinson hoped that news of the Battles of Lexington and Concord combined with the "humble petition" would persuade the King to respond with a counter-proposal or open negotiations.
Adams wrote to a friend that the petition served no purpose, that war was inevitable, that the colonies should have raised a navy and taken British officials prisoner. The letter was intercepted by British officials and news of its contents reached Great Britain at about the same time as the petition itself. British advocates of a military response used Adams' letter to claim that the petition itself was insincere. Penn and Lee provided a copy of the petition to colonial secretary Lord Dartmouth on August 21, followed with the original on September 1, they reported back on September 2: "we were told that as his Majesty did not receive it on the throne, no answer would be given." The King had issued the Proclamation of Rebellion on August 23 in response to news of the Battle of Bunker Hill, declaring the American colonies to be in a state of rebellion and ordering "all Our officers… and all Our obedient and loyal subjects, to use their utmost endeavours to withstand and suppress such rebellion".
The hostilities which Adams had foreseen undercut the petition, the King had answered it before it reached him. The King's refusal to consider the petition gave Adams and others the opportunity to push for independence, it characterized the King as intransigent and uninterested in addressing the colonists' grievances, it polarized the issue in the minds of many colonists, who realized that the choice from that point forward was between complete independence and complete submission to British rule, a realization crystallized a few months in Thomas Paine's read pamphlet Common Sense. Works related to Olive Branch Petition at Wikisource
United States Secretary of State
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, as head of the United States Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U. S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs. The Secretary of State is nominated by the President of the United States and, following a confirmation hearing before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, is confirmed by the United States Senate; the Secretary of State, along with the Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of Defense, Attorney General, are regarded as the four most important Cabinet members because of the importance of their respective departments. Secretary of State is a Level I position in the Executive Schedule and thus earns the salary prescribed for that level; the current Secretary of State is Mike Pompeo, who served as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. Pompeo replaced Rex Tillerson whom President Trump dismissed on March 13, 2018.
Tillerson's last day at the State Department was March 31, 2018. Pompeo was confirmed by the Senate on April 26, 2018 and was sworn in that day; the stated duties of the Secretary of State are as follows: "Supervises the United States Foreign Service" and "administers the Department of State" Advises the President on matters relating to U. S. foreign policy including the appointment of diplomatic representatives to other nations and on the acceptance, recall, or dismissal of representatives from other nations "Negotiates, interprets, or terminates treaties and agreements" and "conducts negotiations relating to U. S. foreign affairs" "Personally participates in or directs U. S. representatives to international conferences and agencies" Provides information and services to U. S. citizens living or traveling abroad such as providing credentials in the form of passports Ensure the protection of the U. S. government to U. S. citizens and interests in foreign countries "Supervises the administration of the U.
S. immigration policy abroad" Communicates issues relating the U. S. foreign policy to Congress and to U. S. citizens "Promotes beneficial economic intercourse between the U. S. and other countries"The original duties of the Secretary of State include some domestic duties such as: Receipt, publication and preservation of the laws of the United States Preparation and recording of the commissions of Presidential appointees Preparation and authentication of copies of records and authentication of copies under the Department's seal Custody of the Great Seal of the United States Custody of the records of former Secretary of the Continental Congress except for those of the Treasury and War departmentsMost of the domestic functions of the Department of State have been transferred to other agencies. Those that remain include storage and use of the Great Seal of the United States, performance of protocol functions for the White House, the drafting of certain proclamations; the Secretary negotiates with the individual States over the extradition of fugitives to foreign countries.
Under Federal Law, the resignation of a president or of a vice president is only valid if declared in writing, in an instrument delivered to the office of the secretary of state. Accordingly, the resignations in disgrace of President Nixon and of Vice-President Spiro Agnew, domestic issues, were formalized in instruments delivered to the Secretary of State; as the highest-ranking member of the cabinet, the secretary of state is the third-highest official of the executive branch of the Federal Government of the United States, after the president and vice president, is fourth in line to succeed the presidency, coming after the vice president, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the President pro tempore of the Senate. Six secretaries of state have gone on to be elected president. Others, including Henry Clay, William Seward, James Blaine, William Jennings Bryan, John Kerry, Hillary Clinton have been unsuccessful presidential candidates, either before or after their term of office as Secretary of State.
The nature of the position means. The record for most countries visited in a secretary's tenure is 112 by Hillary Clinton. Second is Madeleine Albright with 96; the record for most air miles traveled in a secretary's tenure is 1,417,576 miles by John Kerry. Second is Condoleezza Rice's 1,059,247 miles, third is Clinton's 956,733 miles. Official website
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom was drafted in 1777 by Thomas Jefferson in the city of Fredericksburg, Virginia. On January 16, 1786, the Assembly enacted the statute into the state's law; the statute disestablished the Church of England in Virginia and guaranteed freedom of religion to people of all religious faiths, including Christians of all denominations, Jews and Hindus. The statute was a notable precursor of the Establishment Clause and Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution; the Statute for Religious Freedom is one of only three accomplishments Jefferson instructed be put in his epitaph. An Act for establishing religious Freedom. Whereas, Almighty God hath created the mind free, and though we well know that this Assembly elected by the people for the ordinary purposes of Legislation only, have no power to restrain the acts of succeeding Assemblies constituted with powers equal to our own, that therefore to declare this act irrevocable would be of no effect in law.
First Freedom Center Jefferson Bible National Religious Freedom Day Separation of church and state in the United States United States Bill of Rights The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom public domain audiobook at LibriVox
The Chesapeake–Leopard affair was a naval engagement that occurred off the coast of Norfolk, Virginia, on June 22, 1807, between the British warship HMS Leopard and the American frigate USS Chesapeake. The crew of Leopard pursued and boarded the American frigate, looking for deserters from the Royal Navy. Chesapeake was caught unprepared and after a short battle involving broadsides received from Leopard, the commander of Chesapeake, James Barron, surrendered his vessel to the British. Chesapeake had fired only one shot. Four crew members were removed from the American vessel and were tried for desertion, one of whom was subsequently hanged. Chesapeake was allowed to return home, where James Barron was court martialed and relieved of command; the Chesapeake–Leopard Affair created an uproar among Americans. There were strident calls for war with Great Britain, but these subsided. President Thomas Jefferson attempted to use this widespread bellicosity to diplomatically threaten the British government into settling the matter.
The United States Congress backed away from armed conflict when British envoys showed no contrition for the Chesapeake affair, delivering proclamations reaffirming impressment. Jefferson's political failure to coerce Great Britain led him toward economic warfare: the Embargo of 1807. In the spring of 1807, during the Napoleonic Wars, several British naval vessels were on duty on the North American Station, blockading two French third-rate warships in the Chesapeake Bay. A number of Royal Navy seamen had deserted from their ships and local American authorities gave them sanctuary. One of the deserters, joined the crew of USS Chesapeake. Ratford had made himself conspicuous to British officers by shouting at them on the streets of Norfolk, Virginia. Other deserters were reported to be at the Gosport Navy Yard commanded by Stephen Decatur. Decatur received a letter from the British consul ordering him to turn over three men alleged to have deserted from HMS Melampus; the consul claimed the men had enlisted in the U.
S. Navy, recruiting a crew for Chesapeake at the Washington Navy Yard outfitting for a voyage to the Mediterranean. Vice-Admiral Sir George Berkeley dispatched his flagship, the fourth-rate warship HMS Leopard, with written orders authorizing him to board and search the United States warship to recover any deserters. Berkeley ordered Leopard's captain to search for deserters from HMS Belleisle, HMS Bellona, HMS Triumph, HMS Chichester, HMS Halifax, the cutter HMS Zenobia. Chesapeake was off the coast of Norfolk, commanded by Commodore James Barron, when Leopard, under Captain Salusbury Pryce Humphreys and hailed her. Barron was not alarmed, received Lieutenant John Meade on board, who presented Barron with the search warrant. After an inconclusive discussion, Meade returned to Leopard. Captain Humphreys, using a hailing trumpet, ordered the American ship to submit; when Chesapeake did not, Humphreys fired a round across her bow. This was followed by Leopard firing broadsides into the American ship.
Her guns unloaded and her decks cluttered with stores in preparation for a long cruise, Chesapeake managed to fire only a single gun in reply. The humiliated Barron surrendered. Three of Chesapeake's crew had been killed and 18 wounded, including Barron, by the attack. However, Humphreys refused the surrender and sent a boarding party to Chesapeake to search for deserters. Scores of British nationals had signed on as crewmen of Chesapeake, but Humphreys seized only the four Royal Navy deserters: Daniel Martin, John Strachan and William Ware, all from HMS Melampus, Jenkin Ratford on HMS Halifax. Only Ratford was British-born; the others were American citizens — two of them demonstrably non-British because they were African-Americans, but they had been serving on British warships. The brig Columbine brought the first dispatches to Halifax in early July. Leopard followed with her prisoners for trial. Jenkin Ratford, the sole British citizen, was sentenced to death and was hanged from the yardarm of Halifax on August 31, 1807.
The three American deserters received sentences of 500 lashes each, but the sentences were commuted. The bloody encounter caused a storm of protest from the United States government, the British government offered to return the three American citizens and to pay reparations for the damage to Chesapeake; the schooner HMS Bream returned the last two British deserters to Boston, one month after the outbreak of the War of 1812. The incident outraged the American sense of honor. Americans of every political stripe saw the need to uphold national honor, to reject the treatment of the United States by Britain as a third class nonentity. Americans talked incessantly about the need for force in response. President Thomas Jefferson noted: "Never since the Battle of Lexington have I seen this country in such a state of exasperation as at present, that did not produce such unanimity." James Monroe a foreign minister acting under instructions from U. S. Secretary of State James Madison, demanded British disavowal of the deed, the restoration of the four seamen, the recall of Admiral Berkeley, the exclusion of British warships from U.
S. territorial waters, the abolition of impressments from vessels under the United States flag. The event raised tensions between the two countries and, while not a direct cause, was one of the events leading up to the War of 1812. In fact, many Americans demanded war because of the attack, but President Jefferson turned to diplomacy and economic pressure in the form of the ill-fated Embargo Act of 1807; the Federal government began to be concerned about the lack of war material. Their concerns led to the e