Crestwood is a home rule-class city in Oldham County, United States just outside Louisville's Northeast End. The population was 1,999 at the 2000 census. CNN listed it as the 52nd best place to live in America in 2005, it was first settled in the early 19th century and renamed Crestwood in 1909. Crestwood is located at 38°19′28″N 85°29′0″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.6 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,999 people, 811 households, 548 families residing in the city; the population density was 554.5 people per square mile. There were 860 housing units at an average density of 238.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.80% White, 2.15% African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.60% Asian, 1.10% from other races, 1.00% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.15% of the population. There were 811 households out of which 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.4% were non-families.
26.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.02. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 32.6% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, 9.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $42,619, the median income for a family was $55,000. Males had a median income of $37,250 versus $23,984 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,569. About 6.6% of families and 7.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.6% of those under age 18 and 8.7% of those age 65 or over. Crestwood was ranked 52nd overall on a CNNMoney.com survey for "The Best Places to Live, 2005." This was the highest ranking given to any city in the state of Kentucky.
The report revealed that Crestwood had one of the lowest crime rates among the places studied. Mary Spencer Nay and printmaker, born in Crestwood "Crestwood: Rails Put Farming Community on the Track to Commercial and Residential Development" — Article by Kim Chappell of The Courier-Journal
Morgan Murphy (food critic)
Morgan Murphy is an American Southern food critic, humorist and Lieutenant Commander in the United States Navy Reserve. Murphy began his career at Vanity Fair; as a reporter for Forbes under Jim Michaels, Murphy served as the magazine's food critic, travel editor, national spokesman. He has appeared on the Travel Channel's American Grilled, the Today Show, Fox & Friends, Fox News, CNN, Sirius XM, Food Talk, Car Talk, NPR, the Speed Channel, QVC. Murphy joined the United States Naval Reserve in 1999, has since served on four continents. In 2010, Murphy was called to Afghanistan, where he served in Operation Enduring Freedom as the Director of Media Outreach for the International Security Assistance Force and briefed General David R. Petraeus, 40 general officers, two ambassadors on a daily basis; as of December 2010, he held the rank of Lieutenant Commander and had served in Morocco and South Korea. He has been awarded the NATO Freedom Medal, Afghanistan Campaign Medal, Defense Meritorious Service Medal Navy Achievement Medal, National Defense Service Medal, Global War on Terrorism Medal, Overseas Service Ribbon, Outstanding Volunteer Service Medal.
In November 2012, he was assigned to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Murphy's first book, I Love You – Now Hush, co-authored with author Melinda Rainey Thompson and released in 2010, was named the gold humor book of the year by the American Library Association. Murphy's cookbook Off the Eaten Path: Favorite Southern Dives and 150 Recipes that Made Them Famous is a collection of his favorite restaurants and their most famous recipes from the American South. A sequel Off the Eaten Path: Second Helpings: Tasty eats and delicious stories from the South's less-traveled trails followed in 2013, In 2014 he published Bourbon & Bacon: The Ultimate Guide to the South's Favorite Food Groups, featuring recipes using bourbon, bacon, or a combination of the two; the book includes a history of tasting notes for 75 of his favorite whiskies. In 2015, he published Off the Eaten Path: On the Road Again: More Unforgettable Foods and Characters from the South's Back Roads and Byways, a third entry in his "Off the Eaten Path" series.
Murphy is a classic car enthusiast with a special focus on vintage Cadillacs. In 2005, Murphy discovered "The Duchess" – a 1941 Cadillac limousine created for the abdicated king Edward VIII and his consort Wallis Simpson – in a barn in Fort Worth, Texas; the car was a one-of-a-kind creation by General Motors' chief designer Harley Earl, under the direction of the company's chairman and chief executive officer, Alfred P. Sloan; when Murphy purchased the car, it was in disrepair and its provenance was unproven. Murphy conducted a three-year restoration effort, in November 2013, he offered the car for sale through an RM Auctions and Sotheby's "Art of the Automobile" sale; the auction houses called it "one of the most famous and iconic cars of both American and English society", suggested the car should sell for between $500,000 and $800,000. In 2007, Murphy left Southern Living and founded Motorpool.com, claimed to be the world's first social network for classic car enthusiasts. The launch was backed by more than $1 million in venture capital.
In late 2010, Murphy had toured the country in a vintage Cadillac to promote the site's launch. However, as of March 2015, the Motorpool.com domain name was no longer operating as a distinct website and was a redirect to Murphy's personal site. Murphy was born in Mountain Brook and grew up in Birmingham, where he resides, he received a Bachelor's degree in 1994 from Birmingham-Southern College. He received an MBA from the University of Oxford, where he was a member of Exeter College and was elected by the university as its "MBA of the Year". Official website of Morgan Murphy Morgan Murphy on IMDb Morgan Murphy on Amazon
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by using selective boiling and condensation. Distillation may result in complete separation, or it may be a partial separation that increases the concentration of selected components in the mixture. In either case, the process exploits differences in the volatility of the mixture's components. In industrial chemistry, distillation is a unit operation of universal importance, but it is a physical separation process, not a chemical reaction. Distillation has many applications. For example: Distillation of fermented products produces distilled beverages with a high alcohol content or separates out other fermentation products of commercial value. Distillation is an traditional method of desalination. In the fossil fuel industry, oil stabilization is a form of partial distillation that reduces vapor pressure of crude oil, thereby making it safe for storage and transport as well as reducing the atmospheric emissions of volatile hydrocarbons.
In midstream operations at oil refineries, distillation is a major class of operation for transforming crude oil into fuels and chemical feed stocks. Cryogenic distillation leads to the separation of air into its components – notably oxygen and argon – for industrial use. In the field of industrial chemistry, large amounts of crude liquid products of chemical synthesis are distilled to separate them, either from other products, from impurities, or from unreacted starting materials. An installation used for distillation of distilled beverages, is called a distillery; the distillation equipment at a distillery is a still. In 1975 Paolo Rovesti a chemist and pharmacist who became known as"father of Phytocosmetics" discovered a terracota distillation apparatus in the Indus valley in West Pakistan which dates from around 3000 BC. Early evidence of distillation was found on Akkadian tablets dated circa 1200 BC describing perfumery operations; the tablets provided textual evidence that an early primitive form of distillation was known to the Babylonians of ancient Mesopotamia.
Early evidence of distillation was found related to alchemists working in Alexandria in Roman Egypt in the 1st century. Distilled water has been in use since at least c. 200, when Alexander of Aphrodisias described the process. Work on distilling other liquids continued in early Byzantine Egypt under Zosimus of Panopolis in the 3rd century. Distillation was practiced in the ancient Indian subcontinent, evident from baked clay retorts and receivers found at Taxila and Charsadda in modern Pakistan, dating back to the early centuries of the Common Era; these "Gandhara stills" were only capable of producing weak liquor, as there was no efficient means of collecting the vapors at low heat. Distillation in China may have begun during the Eastern Han dynasty, but the distillation of beverages began in the Jin and Southern Song dynasties, according to archaeological evidence. Clear evidence of the distillation of alcohol comes from the Arab chemist Al-Kindi in 9th-century Iraq; the process spread to Italy, where it was described by the School of Salerno in the 12th century.
Fractional distillation was developed by Tadeo Alderotti in the 13th century. A still was found in an archaeological site in Qinglong, Hebei province, in China, dating back to the 12th century. Distilled beverages were common during the Yuan dynasty. In 1500, German alchemist Hieronymus Braunschweig published Liber de arte destillandi, the first book dedicated to the subject of distillation, followed in 1512 by a much expanded version. In 1651, John French published The Art of Distillation, the first major English compendium on the practice, but it has been claimed that much of it derives from Braunschweig's work; this includes diagrams with people in them showing the industrial rather than bench scale of the operation. As alchemy evolved into the science of chemistry, vessels called retorts became used for distillations. Both alembics and retorts are forms of glassware with long necks pointing to the side at a downward angle to act as air-cooled condensers to condense the distillate and let it drip downward for collection.
Copper alembics were invented. Riveted joints were kept tight by using various mixtures, for instance a dough made of rye flour; these alembics featured a cooling system around the beak, using cold water, for instance, which made the condensation of alcohol more efficient. These were called pot stills. Today, the retorts and pot stills have been supplanted by more efficient distillation methods in most industrial processes. However, the pot still is still used for the elaboration of some fine alcohols, such as cognac, Scotch whisky, Irish whiskey and some vodkas. Pot stills made of various materials are used by bootleggers in various countries. Small pot stills are sold for use in the domestic production of flower water or essential oils. Early forms of distillation involved batch processes using one condensation. Purity was improved by further distillation of the condensate. Greater volumes were processed by repeating the distillation. Chemists carried out as many as 500 to 600 distillations in order to obtain a pure compound.
In the early 19th century, the basics of modern techniques, including pre-heating and reflux, were developed. In 1822, Anthony Perrier developed one of the first continuous stills, in 1826, Robert Stein improved that design to make his patent still. In 1830, Aeneas Coffey got a patent for improving the design f
Rye whiskey can refer to two different, but related, types of whiskey: American rye whiskey, which must be distilled from at least 51 percent rye. In the United States, "rye whiskey" is, by law, it is distilled to no more than 160 U. S. aged in charred, new oak barrels. The whiskey must be put in the barrels at no more than 125 proof. Rye whiskey, aged for at least two years and has not been blended with other spirits may be further designated as "straight", as in "straight rye whiskey". Rye whiskey was the prevalent whiskey in the northeastern states Pennsylvania and Maryland. Pittsburgh was the center of rye whiskey production in the late early 1800s. By 1808, Allegheny County farmers were selling one half barrel for each man and child in the country. By the 1880s, Joseph F. Sinnott's distillery and Sinnott, located in Monongahela, was the single largest producer of rye whiskey, with a capacity of 30,000 barrels a year. Rye whiskey disappeared after Prohibition. A few brands, such as Old Overholt, although by the late 1960s former Pennsylvania brands like Old Overholt were being distilled in Kentucky.
Today, an expanding number of brands are produced by Campari Group, Heaven Hill, Beam Suntory, The Sazerac Company, various smaller companies. One notable producer is MGP of Indiana, a distiller for many brands marketed by others. Rye is undergoing a small but growing revival in the United States. Since the beginning of the 21st century, more producers have been experimenting with rye whiskey, several now market aged rye whiskey. For example, Brown-Forman began production of a Jack Daniel's rye whiskey and released unaged and aged versions as limited editions. A distillery at Mount Vernon, the homestead of George Washington, sells a rye, said to be like the whiskey Washington made. In October 2017, seven New York State distilleries announced a new whiskey variety unique to the state called "Empire Rye". To qualify as Empire Rye, the whiskeys must be made from at least 75% New York State–grown rye, be distilled at a single New York State distillery, be at least two years old and be aged at the low barrel entry proof of 115 or lower.
The original distilleries to produce Empire Rye were Black Button Distilling, Coppersea Distilling, Finger Lakes Distilling, Kings County Distillery, New York Distilling Co. Tuthilltown Spirits/Hudson Whiskey, Van Brunt Stillhouse. Rye grain is known for imparting what many call a fruity flavor to the whiskey. Bourbon, distilled from at least 51% corn, is noticeably sweeter and tends to be more full-bodied than rye; as bourbon gained popularity beyond the southern United States, bartenders substituted it for rye in cocktails like whiskey sours and Old Fashioneds, which were made with rye. All other things being equal, the character of the cocktail will be drier with rye. Canadian whisky is referred to as "rye whisky" because much of the content was from rye. There is no requirement for rye to be used to make Canadian whisky, the labels "Canadian whisky", "Canadian rye whisky" and "Rye whisky" are all permitted, regardless of the actual composition, provided it "possess the aroma and character attributed to Canadian whisky".
In modern practice, most Canadian whiskies are blended to achieve this character consisting of a high-proof base whisky made from corn or wheat and aged in used barrels combined with a small amount of flavoring whisky made from a rye mash and distilled to a lower proof. In some cases, the corn-to-rye ratio may be as high as 9:1. Most contemporary Canadian whiskies contain only a fraction of rye, with the exception of a few brands, such as Alberta Premium and Canadian Club Chairman's Select, which are made from 100% rye mash. Canadian whisky must be aged in wooden barrels that are not larger than 700 litres, 150 imp gal, 180 US gal for at least 3 years, the barrels do not have to be new oak or charred; this requirement differs from regulations for U. S. blended whiskey. List of whisky brands
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Bourbon whiskey is a type of American whiskey, a barrel-aged distilled spirit made from corn. The name derives from the French Bourbon dynasty, although the precise inspiration for the whiskey's name is uncertain. Bourbon has been distilled since the 18th century; the use of the term "bourbon" for the whiskey has been traced to the 1820s, with consistent use beginning in Kentucky in the 1870s. Although bourbon may be made anywhere in the United States, it is associated with the American South and with Kentucky in particular; as of 2014, distillers' wholesale market revenue for bourbon sold within the U. S. was about $2.7 billion, bourbon made up about two-thirds of the $1.6 billion of U. S. exports of distilled spirits. It was recognized in 1964 by the United States Congress as a "distinctive product of the United States". Bourbon sold in the United States must be produced in America from at least 51% corn and stored in a new container of charred oak. Distilling was most brought to present-day Kentucky in the late 18th century by Scots, Scots-Irish, other settlers who began to farm the area in earnest.
The origin of bourbon as a distinct form of whiskey is not well documented. There are many conflicting legends and claims, some more credible than others. For example, the invention of bourbon is attributed to Elijah Craig, a Baptist minister and distiller credited with many Kentucky firsts, said to have been the first to age the product in charred oak casks, a process that gives bourbon its reddish color and distinctive taste. Across the county line in Bourbon County, an early distiller named Jacob Spears is credited with being the first to label his product as Bourbon whiskey. Although still popular and repeated, the Craig legend is apocryphal; the Spears story is a local favorite but is repeated outside the county. There was no single "inventor" of bourbon, which developed into its present form in the late 19th century. Any type of grain can be used to make whiskey, the practice of aging whiskey and charring the barrels for better flavor had been known in Europe for centuries; the late date of the Bourbon County etymology has led Louisville historian Michael Veach to dispute its authenticity.
He proposes the whiskey was named after Bourbon Street in New Orleans, a major port where shipments of Kentucky whiskey sold well as a cheaper alternative to French cognac. Another proposed origin of the name is the association with the geographic area known as Old Bourbon, consisting of the original Bourbon County in Virginia organized in 1785; this region included much of today's Eastern Kentucky, including 34 of the modern counties. It included the current Bourbon County in Kentucky, which became a county when Kentucky separated from Virginia as a new state in 1792; when American pioneers pushed west of the Allegheny Mountains following the American Revolution, the first counties they founded covered vast regions. One of these original, huge counties was Bourbon, established in 1785 and named after the French royal family. While this vast county was being carved into many smaller ones, early in the 19th century, many people continued to call the region Old Bourbon. Located within Old Bourbon was the principal port on the Ohio River, Kentucky, from which whiskey and other products were shipped.
"Old Bourbon" was stencilled on the barrels to indicate their port of origin. Old Bourbon whiskey was different because it was the first corn whiskey most people had tasted. In time, bourbon became the name for any corn-based whiskey. Although many distilleries operated in Bourbon County no distilleries operated there between 1919, when Prohibition began in Kentucky, late 2014, when a small distillery opened – a period of 95 years. Prohibition was devastating to the bourbon industry. With the ratification of the 18th amendment in 1919, all distilleries were forced to stop operating, although a few were granted permits to bottle existing stocks of medicinal whiskey. A few were allowed to resume production when the stocks ran out. Distilleries that were granted permits to produce or bottle medicinal whiskey included Brown-Forman, Frankfort Distillery, James Thompson and Brothers, American Medical Spirits, the Schenley Distillery, the A. Ph. Stitzel Distillery. A refinement dubiously credited to James C.
Crow is the sour mash process, which conditions each new fermentation with some amount of spent mash. Spent mash is known as spent beer, distillers' spent grain and slop or feed mash, so named because it is used as animal feed; the acid introduced when using the sour mash controls the growth of bacteria that could taint the whiskey and creates a proper pH balance for the yeast to work. A concurrent resolution adopted by the United States Congress in 1964 declared bourbon to be a "distinctive product of the United States" and asked "the appropriate agencies of the United States Government... take appropriate action to prohibit importation into the United States of whiskey designated as'Bourbon Whiskey'." Federal regulation now defines bourbon whiskey to only include bourbon produced in the United States. In recent years and Tennessee whiskey, sometimes regarded as a different type of spirit but meets the legal requirements to be called bourbon, have enjoyed significant growth in popularity; the industry trade group Distilled Spirits Council of the United States tracks sales of bourbon and Tennessee whiskey together.
According to the Distilled Spirits Counci
Castle Brands is a developer and international marketer of premium and super premium beverage alcohol brands. Its core spirits include rum, whiskey/bourbon, liqueurs and tequila, which are marketed and sold in the United States, Europe, Latin America and Asia. In 1998, Castle Brands Inc. was founded by its current Chairman of the Board. Castle Brands Inc. is one of the few pure-play microcap, publicly traded spirits companies on the NYSE MKT. The company has built its portfolio with both wide market and niche liquor products, including Jefferson's Presidential Collection whiskies, it distributes its products in all 50 states in the United States and the District of Columbia, in thirteen primary international markets, including Ireland, Great Britain, Northern Ireland, Canada, South Africa, France, Finland, Sweden and the Duty Free markets, in a number of other countries in continental Europe and Latin America. The company was founded in 1998 by Mark Andrews, Chairman of the Board, under the name Great Spirits LLC, through Mr. Andrews’ contribution of family-owned Knappogue Castle Irish Whiskey.
Castle Brands Inc, was established in 2003 and Great Spirits LLC was merged into Castle Brands. Between 2003 and 2006, Castle Brands acquired Roaring Water Bay Spirits acquired McLain & Kyne, established Gosling-Castle Partners and signed a distribution agreement with I. L. A. R; these four deals expanded the portfolio with Jefferson’s Bourbon, Boru Vodka, Clontarf Irish Whiskey, Brady’s Irish Cream Liqueur and provided exclusive distribution rights to Gosling’s rums and Pallini Limoncello. Castle completed its IPO in April 2006, at $9.00 per share, raised net $29.3 million on 3.5 million shares. Proceeds were used to fund product expansion with the October 2006 acquisition of McLain & Kyne as well as an increase in sales and marketing efforts. Additional private financing in years allowed the company to add more product lines. Since 2014, the company management is focused on growing its current brands across four categories. Castle Brands’ current portfolio contains the following brands: Gosling’s Rum and Stormy Ginger Beer Jefferson’s Bourbons and Rye Pallini Liqueurs Knappogue Castle Single Malt Irish Whiskies Clontarf 1014 Irish Whiskey Brady's Irish Cream Castello Mio Sambuca Boru Irish Vodka Celtic Honey Liqueur Gozio Amaretto Tierras Tequila