To cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs. The term can be used to describe municipally owned corporations. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located; this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. A city charter or town charter or municipal charter is a legal document establishing a municipality, such as a city or town. In Canada, charters are granted by provincial authorities; the Corporation of Chennai is the oldest Municipal Corporation in the world after UK. The title "corporation" was used in boroughs from soon after the Norman conquest until the Local Government Act 2001. Under the 2001 act, county boroughs were renamed "cities" and their corporations became "city councils". After the Partition of Ireland, the corporations in the Irish Free State were Dublin, Cork and Waterford and Drogheda, Sligo and Wexford. Dún Laoghaire gained borough status in 1930 as “The Corporation of Dun Laoghaire".
Galway's borough status, lost in 1840, was restored in 1937. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 allowed municipal corporations to be established within the new Provinces of New Zealand; the term fell out of favour following the abolition of the Provinces in 1876. In the United States, such municipal corporations are established by charters that are granted either directly by a state legislature by means of local legislation, or indirectly under a general municipal corporation law after the proposed charter has passed a referendum vote of the affected population. Under the enterprise meaning of the term, municipal corporations are "organisations with independent corporate status, managed by an executive board appointed by local government officials, with majority public ownership"; some MOCs rely on revenue from user fees, distinguishing them from agencies and special districts funded through taxation, although this is not always the case. Municipal corporation follows a process of externalization that requires new skills and orientations from the respective local governments, follow common changes in the institutional landscape of public services.
They are argued to be more efficient than bureaucracy but have higher failure rates because of their legal and managerial autonomy. Unincorporated area German town law Municipal incorporationA Brief Summary of Municipal Incorporation Procedures by State - University of Georgia Characteristics and State Requirements for Incorporated Places - United States CensusMunicipal disincorporation / dissolutionDissolving Cities - University of California, Berkeley Municipal Disincorporation in California - California City Finance
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Waxhaw, North Carolina
Waxhaw is a town in Union County, North Carolina, United States. The population was 9,859 according to the 2010 Census. Waxhaw is located at 34°55′42″N 80°44′41″W. Stephen Maher is the current mayor of the Town of Waxhaw. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 11.54 square miles. Waxhaw is located north of Lancaster, South Carolina and lies about twelve miles south of the Charlotte city limit. Waxhaw is located in the historic region called the Waxhaws and named after the indigenous Native American tribe that lived there prior to colonial settlement. Waxhaw is in the Piedmont region of North Carolina, a wooded area with rolling hills; this region is. The Howie Gold Mine is not far from the city limits; the original inhabitants of the region were a Native American people group known alternately as either the Wysacky or the Waxhaws. The first European to record contacting the group was the Spanish conquistador Juan Pardo. In 1711 the Waxhaw aided the colonists of North Carolina in their war against the Tuscarora, a decision which antagonized the Tuscaroras Iroquoian allies in New York who subsequently began raiding the Waxhaw tribe.
These raids continued until 1715 when the Waxhaw joined the Yamasee war effort against the colony of South Carolina. The tribes involvement in the Yamasee War led to their destruction at the hands of South Carolina's Catawba allies and the freeing of their land for European settlement; the area was first settled by European-Americans in the mid-eighteenth century. Most settlers were of Scots-Irish origin. Settlers were known for being independent. Andrew Jackson, the seventh President of the United States, was born nearby in 1767. There is some disagreement as to which of the Carolinas was his birthplace because of the proximity of the border; the arrival of the railroad in 1888 created access to the markets of Atlanta and helped the town reach prosperity. The railroad tracks were laid through the center of town to show the importance of the railroad system to the community; the railroad remains in the center of town and is now bordered by a green grassy strip that divides the rows of stores on each side.
Beginning in the late 19th century, the community began to develop cotton mill factories for manufacturing textiles. The railroad helped increase access for its products. Cotton manufacturing was important to the region through the 1940s. Postwar changes in the economy, with shifts of the textile industry to jobs in other areas and out of the country, required the community to adapt to new conditions. Waxhaw has evolved as an fine dining center, its Small Town Main Street committee is working on an integrated approach to developing and marketing the historic center of town. Waxhaw has dozens of specialty shops and dining restaurants. Restaurants located in town range from pop restaurants to fine dining bistros; the Waxhaw Historic District is on the National Register of Historic Places. It includes retail businesses as well as architecturally significant houses near the center of town. Listed is the Pleasant Grove Camp Meeting Ground. Residents and town officials are working on additional improvement plans.
In the downtown area, there is a skate park for youths. New housing has been built along NC 75 to the west of town, as well as NC 16 to the north. Near Waxhaw is Cane Creek Park, a 1,050-acre park, featuring scenic areas and recreation activities; the facility, on Harkey Road south of Waxhaw, was a cooperative venture between Union County, the Union Conservation District, the Soil Conservation Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Waxhaw has a Board of Commissioners. All five members are elected to 4 year terms in non-partisan elections that take place on odd numbered years. Three seats are up one year and two years the other 2 seats come up for election at the same time as the mayor. There are no districts and the top vote recipients win the seats; as of the census of 2010, there were 9,859 people, 3,242 households, 2,626 families residing in the town. For the population density, there were 854.0 people per 3,517 housing units. As for the racial makeup of the town, there were 78.1% White, 11.00% African American, 2.1% from two or more races, 2.0% Asian, 0.04% Native American.
The Hispanic or Latino of any race was 6.4% of the population. There were 3,242 households out of which 41.8% had children under the age of eighteen living with them, 81.0% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.0% were non-families. The average household size was 3.04 and the average family size was 3.41. In the town, the population age range was from 34.6% under the age of 18, 3.1% from 20 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 21.2% from 45 to 64, 7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34.5 years. For every 100 females there were 93.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $73,188; the per capita income for the town was $27,949. The percentage of people below the poverty line was 8.9%. Kensington Elementary School Sandy Ridge Elementary School Waxhaw Elementary School Western Union Elementary School Newtown Elementary School Rea View Elementary School Wesley Chapel Elementary School Marvin Elementary School Prospect Elementary School Weddington Elementary Marvin Ridge Middle School Parkwood Middle school Cuthbertson Middle School Marvin Ridge High School South Providence High School Parkwood High School Cuthbertson High School Central Academy of Technology and Arts
Chesterfield County, South Carolina
Chesterfield County is a county located in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, its population was 46,734, its estimated 2015 population had declined a little to 46,017, its county seat is Chesterfield. The largest town in the county is Cheraw. Chesterfield County is part of the Charlotte Metropolitan Area, it is located north of the Midlands, on its border with North Carolina. The county was erected in 1785, but was part of what was known as Cheraws District until 1800, at which time Chesterfield became a district itself. Under the post-American Civil War state constitution of 1867, passed during the Reconstruction era, South Carolina districts became counties with home rule; the county is named for Chesterfield County in Virginia. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 806 square miles, of which 799 square miles is land and 6.7 square miles is water. Anson County, North Carolina - north Richmond County, North Carolina - northeast Union County, North Carolina - northwest Marlboro County - east Darlington County - southeast Kershaw County - southwest Lancaster County - west Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 42,768 people, 16,557 households, 11,705 families residing in the county.
The population density was 54 people per square mile. There were 18,818 housing units at an average density of 24 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 64.34% White, 33.22% Black or African American, 0.34% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.04% from other races, 0.75% from two or more races. 2.27% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 16,557 households out of which 33.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.60% were married couples living together, 16.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.30% were non-families. 25.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.05. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.60% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 23.90% from 45 to 64, 12.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years.
For every 100 females there were 93.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,483, the median income for a family was $36,200. Males had a median income of $30,205 versus $20,955 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,233. About 16.70% of families and 20.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.70% of those under age 18 and 24.20% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 46,734 people, 18,173 households, 12,494 families residing in the county; the population density was 58.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 21,482 housing units at an average density of 26.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 62.8% white, 32.6% black or African American, 0.5% American Indian, 0.4% Asian, 2.0% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 16.3% were American, 6.8% were English, 6.0% were German, 5.9% were Irish.
Of the 18,173 households, 34.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% were married couples living together, 18.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.2% were non-families, 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age was 39.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $32,979 and the median income for a family was $41,225. Males had a median income of $35,965 versus $26,881 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,162. About 17.6% of families and 22.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.6% of those under age 18 and 18.0% of those age 65 or over. In the South Carolina House of Representatives, Chesterfield County is located in South Carolina's 53rd House district and is represented by Republican Ritchie Yow. In the South Carolina Senate, Chesterfield is located in Senate district 27 and represented by Democrat, former 2010 candidate for governor, Vincent Sheheen.
In the US House of Representatives, Chesterfield County is located in South Carolina's 7th Congressional District. As of the 2012 House elections, it is represented by Republican Tom Rice, who comes from Horry County. Chesterfield County was located in South Carolina's 5th Congressional District, one of the seats that the Democrats lost to the Republicans during the 2010 election; the county's youth are provided with an education through the Chesterfield County School District. The South Point Christian School is a private school located in Pageland and offers Kindergarten through 12th grade. Northeastern Technical College has branches in Cheraw. Central High School, Pageland Cheraw High School, Cheraw Chesterfield High School, Chesterfield McBee High School, McBee Chesterfield/Ruby Middle School, Chesterfield/Ruby Long Middle School, Cheraw New Heights Middle School, Jefferson Cheraw Intermediate School, Cheraw Edwards Elementary School, Chesterfield Jefferson Elementary School, Jefferson McBee Elementary School, McBee Pageland Elementary School, Pageland Plainview Elementary School, Plainview Ruby Elementary School, Ruby Cheraw Primary School, Cheraw Pet