United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Denver metropolitan area
Denver is the central city of a conurbation region in the U. S. state of Colorado. The conurbation includes one continuous region consisting of the six central counties of Adams, Broomfield, Denver and Jefferson; the Denver region is part of the Front Range Urban Corridor. The United States Office of Management and Budget has delineated the Denver–Aurora–Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area consisting of ten Colorado counties: the City and County of Denver, Arapahoe County, Jefferson County, Adams County, Douglas County, the City and County of Broomfield, Elbert County, Park County, Clear Creek County, Gilpin County; the United States Census Bureau estimates that the population was 2,888,227 as of July 1, 2017, an increase of +13.55% since the 2010 United States Census, ranking as the 19th most populous metropolitan statistical area of the United States. The Office of Management and Budget delineated the more extensive Denver–Aurora combined statistical area comprising the Denver-Aurora-Lakewood Metropolitan Statistical Area, the Boulder Metropolitan Statistical Area, the Greeley Metropolitan Statistical Area.
The central part of the metropolitan statistical area includes Denver and three adjacent counties: Jefferson County to the west, Adams County to the north and east, Arapahoe County to the south and east. The continuously urbanized area extends northwest into the City and County of Broomfield, bordering Jefferson and Adams counties, south into Douglas County, adjoining Arapahoe County. Included in the federally defined MSA are four rural counties: Elbert County on the southeastern prairie and Clear Creek and Park counties in the Rocky Mountains; the Denver-Aurora-Lakewood Metropolitan Statistical Area comprises ten counties. The sortable table below includes the following information: The official name of the county, The county population as of July 1, 2017, as estimated by the United States Census Bureau, The county population as of April 1, 2010, as enumerated by the 2010 United States Census, The percent population change from April 1, 2010, to July 1, 2017. Arvada Aurora Centennial Denver Lakewood Thornton Westminster Berkley Brighton Broomfield Castle Rock Columbine Commerce City Englewood Federal Heights Golden Greenwood Village Highlands Ranch Ken Caryl Littleton Northglenn Parker Sherrelwood Welby Wheat Ridge Acres Green Applewood Alma Aspen Park Bailey Black Hawk Byers Carriage Club Pines Castle Pines North Central City Cherry Hills Village Coal Creek Columbine Valley Cottonwood Deer Trail Derby Downieville-Lawson-Dumont East Pleasant View Edgewater Elizabeth Empire Evergreen Fairplay Foxfield Franktown Genesee Georgetown Glendale Grand View Estates Heritage Hills Idaho Springs Indian Hills Kiowa Kittredge Lakeside Larkspur Lochbuie Lone Tree Louviers Meridian Montbello Morrison Mountain View North Washington Perry Park Ponderosa Park Roxborough Park Sedalia Sheridan Silver Plume Simla St. Mary's Stonegate Strasburg The Pinery Todd Creek Twin Lakes Westcreek West Pleasant View Boulder Longmont Lafayette Louisville Superior Dacono Firestone Fort Lupton Frederick The Denver Regional Council of Governments is a regional planning and inter-governmental coordination organization in a nine-county region.
The Scientific and Cultural Facilities District provides funding for scientific and cultural facilities in a seven-county region including: The Denver Museum of Nature and Science The Denver Zoo The Denver Art Museum The Denver Center for the Performing Arts The Denver Botanic GardensIn addition, the Regional Transportation District provides mass transit, including a light rail system. In 2005 the RTD developed a twelve-year comprehensive plan, called "FasTracks", to build and operate rail transit lines and expand and improve bus service throughout the region; the most prosperous parts of the area are in the south, while the most industrialized areas are in the northeast in the northern part of Denver proper and extending to areas such as Commerce City in Adams County. Changes in house prices for the area are publicly tracked on a regular basis using the Case–Shiller index. Electricity is provided by Xcel Energy. Cable television is provided by Comcast; the following table shows sports teams in the Denver metropolitan area that average more than 12,000 fans per game: The center of the metropolitan area sits in a valley, the Denver Basin, suffers from air pollution known colloquially as the brown cloud, building up if the air is stagnant as it is in the winter.
Severity of pollution in this area has varied enormously over the years. In the late 1980s the area was in violation of multiple National Ambient Air Quality Standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency; the Regional Air Quality Council was formed in 1989 to create plans to address the problem. Through a variety of measures the area's air quality was improved and in 2002 the EPA designated the area in compliance with all federal health-based air quality standards. Denver was the first major city in the United States to reach compliance with all six of these standards after violating five of them. Since the EPA introduced a new standard for small particulates and made the existing ozone standard stricter. In 2003 the new ozone standard was exceeded in the area and was exceeded as far away as
Colorado's 2nd congressional district
Colorado's 2nd congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Colorado. The district is located in the north-central part of the state and encompasses the northwestern suburbs of Denver including Boulder, Northglenn and Westminster; the district includes the mountain towns of Vail, Grand Lake and Idaho Springs. Redistricting in 2011 has moved Larimer County, including the cities of Fort Collins and Loveland, to the 2nd from the 4th district for the 2012 election; the district is represented by Democrat Joe Neguse. He was elected in 2018 to replace Jared Polis. While there are some towns in the rural parts of the district that tilt Republican, the growing Democratic trend in areas closer to Denver keeps the 2nd as a safe seat for the Democrats. Following the 1990 U. S. Census and associated realignment of Colorado congressional districts, the 2nd Congressional District consisted of Boulder, Clear Creek, Gilpin counties, as well as portions of Adams, Jefferson counties. Following the 2000 U.
S. Census and associated realignment of Colorado congressional districts, the 2nd Congressional District consisted of Broomfield, Clear Creek, Gilpin and Summit counties, as well as portions of Adams, Boulder and Weld counties. Following the 2010 U. S. Census and associated realignment of Colorado congressional districts, the 2nd Congressional District consisted of Broomfield, Clear Creek, Grand and Summit counties. Following the census, the 2nd district stretched further north to the Wyoming border while losing the western portion of Eagle County; this district is anchored in Boulder and Larimer counties which have the bulk of population in the district. As of January 2019, there are four former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Colorado's 2nd congressional district who are living at this time. Colorado's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
The City of Englewood is a Home Rule Municipality located in Arapahoe County, United States. As of 2010, the population was 30,255. Englewood is part of the Denver-Aurora Metropolitan Area. Englewood is located in the South Platte River Valley east of the Front Range and south of central Denver. Downtown is located east of the confluence of Little Dry Creek and the South Platte River, between Santa Fe Drive and Broadway. Englewood is the fourth most populous city in Arapahoe County and, in 2010, was the twenty-third most populous city in Colorado; the history of Englewood begins in 1858, when gold was discovered on what came to be called Little Dry Creek by William Green Russell, an early settler of the high plains. Two years Thomas Skerritt, considered to be the founder of the city, established a home in the area, called Orchard Place. Four years the first road connecting Denver and Orchard Place was created by Skerritt himself using his own plough. In 1879 the first telephone arrived in the area.
1883 was an important year. The Cherrelyn trolley was and is an important city icon, being carried up Broadway by horse and down by gravity. 1903 brought incorporation, but Skerritt was edged out by J. C. Jones as the first city mayor. Jones was a prominent landowner, having owned all of what is now north Englewood; the next two years brought the establishment of the first newspaper in the city, soon to be named the Herald. In 1905 Swedish National Sanitorium was founded, soon to become the massive present-day Swedish Medical Center. 1906 brought the first pavement and street lights, a year the police and fire departments were established. In 1908 the famed Cherrelyn horse trolley stopped running. 1948 was the start of a great period of change for the city. 2,500 acres on the Platte Canyon were purchased, soon McLellan Reservoir was created. This ensured water independence from the powerful Denver Water, in fact, Englewood provides water to most of the south metro area now due to its vast, early-established water rights.
Soon after the city embarked on a huge building boom. In 1965 City Park was sold to make way for Cinderella City, the largest mall west of the Mississippi River and one of the largest in the world when it opened in 1968; the developer provided the funds to create a vast city park network to replace the single City Park that the mall was built on. Thirty years the city demolished the defunct mall in order to make way for a new, transit-oriented development that would contain a new Civic Center and the relocated city hall; the RTD completed its southwest light rail corridor in 2000, established passenger rail transit in Englewood. In 2004 Englewood opened the Pirates Cove water park as part of a multimillion-dollar improvement package for the city parks system. In addition to Pirates Cove many improvements were made to the South Platte River trail system and to the Englewood Recreation Center constructed in 1975. Englewood is a full-service city with its own, independent park and public works systems.
Englewood provides snowplow service to neighboring municipalities and water to a large portion of the metro area. Englewood is located at 39°38′49″N 104°59′31″W; the city is 5,371 feet above sea level, higher than Denver. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.6 square miles, of which, 6.6 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. Englewood features a climate similar to that of Denver, but is milder and more stable due to the city's establishment in a low part of the South Platte River valley. Winds are sparse throughout the city; the Köppen Climate Classification system labels Englewood as having a cold semi-arid climate, abbreviated as BSk. Central Englewood can be divided into quadrants, with the x-axis being Hampden Avenue and the y-axis being Broadway; the northwest is the oldest section of the city, containing the new CityCenter and housing stock dating to the 1910s. This is where the massive General Iron metal fabrication plant was located, which closed in the 1990s and has now been demolished, awaiting redevelopment and a new proposed light rail station at Bates Avenue.
The southwest section is home to a newer housing stock as well as a significant percentage of Englewood's industrial and production facilities. The southwest side features Englewood's largest park, Belleview Park, a small reservoir; the southeast section is purely residential and is newer than the north and southwest sides. Northeast Englewood is home to one of the largest hospital complexes in the metro area. Swedish Medical Center and Craig Hospital, a top-ten nationally ranked rehabilitation hospital for spinal cord and traumatic brain injury rehabilitation, comprise the hospital district, the backbone of the city economy; the Hampden Hills neighborhood hosts one of the largest conglomeration of apartment complexes in the metro area, is the newest developed part of the city as well as the wealthiest. Englewood features some large annexed areas, such as the northwest annex that extends to Evans Avenue in Denver, chiefly manufacturing and industry. Englewood extends southeast to the Highline Canal, southwest past Federal Blvd.
Approaching the Town of Bow Mar. As of the census of 2000, there were 31,727 people, 14,392 households, 7,469 families residing in the city; the population density was 4,843.8 people per square mile. There were 14,916 housing units at an average density of
Colorado School of Mines
Colorado School of Mines referred to as "Mines", is a public teaching and research university in Golden, devoted to engineering and applied science, with special expertise in the development and stewardship of the Earth's natural resources. Mines placed 82nd in the 2017 U. S. News & World Report "Best National Universities" ranking. In the 2016–17 QS World University Rankings by subject, the university was ranked as the top institution in the world for mineral and mining engineering. Golden, established in 1859 as Golden City, served as a supply center for miners and settlers in the area. In 1866, Bishop George M. Randall of Massachusetts arrived in the territory and, seeing a need for higher education facilities in the area, began planning for a university which would include a school of mines. In 1870, he opened the Jarvis Hall Collegiate School in the central building of the Colorado University Schools campus just south of the town of Golden, accompanied it with Matthews Hall divinity school in 1872, in 1873 the School of Mines opened under the auspices of the Episcopal Church.
In 1874 the School of Mines, supported by the territorial government since efforts began in 1870, was acquired by the territory and has been a state institution since 1876 when Colorado attained statehood. Tuition was free to residents of Colorado; the school's logo was designed by prominent architect Jacques Benedict. The first building on the current site of the school was built in 1880 with additions completed in 1882 and 1890; the building, known as "Chemistry Hall," stood. The next building to be added to the campus was Engineering Hall, built in 1894, still in use today by the Economics and Business Division. Other firsts include the first Board of Trustees meeting held in 1879. In 1906, Mines became the first school of its kind in the world to own and operate its own experimental mine, designed for practical teaching of the students, located on Mt. Zion and succeeded in the 1930s by the Edgar Mine. In 1879, there was some discussion about merging School of Mines and the State University in Boulder.
Because of the specialized focus of School of Mines, it was decided that such a merger would not be appropriate. During the early years of the institution, the chief administrator was the "Professor in Charge"; the designation "President" was first used in 1880. The "M" on Mt. Zion, a prominent feature in the Golden area, was constructed in 1908 and lighted in 1932. Early academic departments were drafting, metallurgy and mining. In the 1920s, departments formed in petroleum engineering and geophysics. Petroleum refining was added in 1946; the Humanities and Social Sciences Division and the Department of Physical Education and Athletics provide nontechnical educational opportunities for Mines students. Other facilities include: Ben Parker Student Center, Arthur Lakes Library, Green Center and the Edgar Mine, located in Idaho Springs; the Colorado School of Mines is a public research university devoted to engineering and applied science. In August 2007, a new student recreation center was completed.
In 2008, the school finished expanding its main computer center, the Center for Technology and Learning Media. In May 2008 the school completed construction and installation of a new supercomputer nicknamed "Ra" in the CTLM managed by the Golden Energy Computing Organization, a partnership among the Colorado School of Mines, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the National Center for Atmospheric Research and the National Science Foundation; the school operates the Colorado School of Mines Geology Museum, which displays rock and mineral specimens collected from Colorado's numerous mining districts as well as around the world. The museum's exhibits include specimens from the Frank Allison gold and silver collection, part of the famous Nininger meteorite collection, Sweet Home Mine rhodochrosite, as well as a model uranium mine and various pieces of mining related art. Mines is the host of the annual Colorado State Science Olympiad, which draws teams from both the northern regional and southern regional competitions.
One or two teams advance to the national finals, depending on the number of teams registered to compete. Mines hosts the Colorado Regional Science Bowl, shares hosting of the Colorado State MathCounts Competition with University of Denver, alternating biennially. Since 1964, the Colorado School of Mines has hosted the annual oil shale symposium, one of the most important international oil shale conferences. Although the series of symposia stopped after 1992, the tradition was restored in 2006; the design of the university's buildings have varied over time, spanning a spectrum of styles from Second Empire to Postmodernist, created by noted Colorado architectural masters including Robert S. Roeschlaub, Jacques Benedict, Temple Hoyne Buell. To date, three main academic buildings are gone, while the present campus includes: Major open-air athletic facilities of the Colorado School of Mines include historic Campbell Field and Darden Field; the honorary named Colorado School of Mines buildings commemorate Dr. Victor C.
Alderson, Edward L. Berthoud, George R. Brown, Dr. Regis Chauvenet, Dr. Melville F. Coo
Geology is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, the processes by which they change over time. Geology can include the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science. Geology describes the structure of the Earth on and beneath its surface, the processes that have shaped that structure, it provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, the Earth's past climates. Geologists use a wide variety of methods to understand the Earth's structure and evolution, including field work, rock description, geophysical techniques, chemical analysis, physical experiments, numerical modelling.
In practical terms, geology is important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, evaluating water resources, understanding of natural hazards, the remediation of environmental problems, providing insights into past climate change. Geology is a major academic discipline, it plays an important role in geotechnical engineering; the majority of geological data comes from research on solid Earth materials. These fall into one of two categories: rock and unlithified material; the majority of research in geology is associated with the study of rock, as rock provides the primary record of the majority of the geologic history of the Earth. There are three major types of rock: igneous and metamorphic; the rock cycle illustrates the relationships among them. When a rock solidifies or crystallizes from melt, it is an igneous rock; this rock can be weathered and eroded redeposited and lithified into a sedimentary rock. It can be turned into a metamorphic rock by heat and pressure that change its mineral content, resulting in a characteristic fabric.
All three types may melt again, when this happens, new magma is formed, from which an igneous rock may once more solidify. To study all three types of rock, geologists evaluate the minerals; each mineral has distinct physical properties, there are many tests to determine each of them. The specimens can be tested for: Luster: Measurement of the amount of light reflected from the surface. Luster is broken into nonmetallic. Color: Minerals are grouped by their color. Diagnostic but impurities can change a mineral’s color. Streak: Performed by scratching the sample on a porcelain plate; the color of the streak can help name the mineral. Hardness: The resistance of a mineral to scratch. Breakage pattern: A mineral can either show fracture or cleavage, the former being breakage of uneven surfaces and the latter a breakage along spaced parallel planes. Specific gravity: the weight of a specific volume of a mineral. Effervescence: Involves dripping hydrochloric acid on the mineral to test for fizzing. Magnetism: Involves using a magnet to test for magnetism.
Taste: Minerals can have a distinctive taste, like halite. Smell: Minerals can have a distinctive odor. For example, sulfur smells like rotten eggs. Geologists study unlithified materials, which come from more recent deposits; these materials are superficial deposits. This study is known as Quaternary geology, after the Quaternary period of geologic history. However, unlithified material does not only include sediments. Magmas and lavas are the original unlithified source of all igneous rocks; the active flow of molten rock is studied in volcanology, igneous petrology aims to determine the history of igneous rocks from their final crystallization to their original molten source. In the 1960s, it was discovered that the Earth's lithosphere, which includes the crust and rigid uppermost portion of the upper mantle, is separated into tectonic plates that move across the plastically deforming, upper mantle, called the asthenosphere; this theory is supported by several types of observations, including seafloor spreading and the global distribution of mountain terrain and seismicity.
There is an intimate coupling between the movement of the plates on the surface and the convection of the mantle. Thus, oceanic plates and the adjoining mantle convection currents always move in the same direction – because the oceanic lithosphere is the rigid upper thermal boundary layer of the convecting mantle; this coupling between rigid plates moving on the surface of the Earth and the convecting mantle is called plate tectonics. The development of plate tectonics has provided a physical basis for many observations of the solid Earth. Long linear regions of geologic features are explained as plate boundaries. For example: Mid-ocean ridges, high regions on the seafloor where hydrothermal vents and volcanoes exist, are seen as divergent boundaries, where two plates move apart. Arcs of volcanoes and earthquakes are theorized as convergent boundaries, where one plate subducts, or moves, under another. Transform boundaries, such as the San Andreas Fault system, resulted in widespread powerful earthquakes.
Plate tectonics has provided a mechan
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol