Illinois's 12th congressional district
The 12th Congressional District of Illinois is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Illinois, represented by Republican Rep. Mike Bost since 2015; the district covers parts of Madison county, all of Alexander, Jackson, Monroe, Pulaski, Randolph, St. Clair and Williamson counties, as of the 2011 redistricting which followed the 2010 census. All or parts of Belleville, Carbondale, East St. Louis, Granite City, Marion, Mt. Vernon, O'Fallon and Swansea are included; the representatives for these districts were elected in the 2012 primary and general elections, the boundaries became effective on January 5, 2013. As of May 2015, two former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Illinois's 12th congressional district are alive; the most recent representative to die was Phil Crane on November 8, 2014. Illinois's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present, bioguide.congress.gov. Washington Post page on the 12th District of Illinois U. S. Census Bureau - 5th District Fact Sheet
Southern Illinois is the southern third of the state of Illinois. The southern part of Illinois has a unique regional history. Part of downstate Illinois, the Southern Illinois region is bordered by the two most voluminous rivers in the United States: the Mississippi River and its connecting Missouri River to the west, the Ohio River to the east and south with the Wabash as tributary. Southern Illinois' most populated city is Belleville at 44,478. Other principal cities include Alton, Collinsville, Effingham, O'Fallon, Herrin, Mt. Vernon and Carbondale, where the main campus of Southern Illinois University is located. Residents may travel to amenities in St. Louis and Cape Girardeau, Missouri; the region is home to a major military installation. The area has a population of 1.2 million people, who live in rural towns and cities separated by extensive farmland and the Shawnee National Forest. The two higher density areas of population are Metro-East, the industrialized Illinois portion of the St. Louis Metropolitan Area, the Carbondale-Marion-Herrin, Illinois Combined Statistical Area, centered on Carbondale and Marion, a two-county area, home to 123,272 residents.
The first European settlers were French colonists in the part of their North American empire called Illinois Country. Settlers migrated from the Upland South of the United States, traveling by the Ohio River; the region was affiliated with the southern agricultural economy, based on enslaved African Americans as workers on major plantations, rural culture. Some settlers owned slaves before the territory was organized and slavery was prohibited. Many areas developed an economy based on coal mining. Except for the counties in the St. Louis MSA, much of Southern Illinois is still culturally affiliated with the Mid-South: Western Kentucky, Southwestern Indiana, West Tennessee, the Missouri Bootheel; the people speak with similar accents throughout this area. Southern Illinois, the earliest settled and once the wealthiest part of Illinois, is known for its rich history and the abundance of antebellum architecture remaining in its small towns and cities; the earliest inhabitants of Illinois are thought to have arrived about 12,000 BC.
They were indigenous hunter-gatherers, but they developed a primitive system of agriculture. After AD 1000, the production of agricultural surpluses resulted in the development of complex, hierarchical societies. With the rise of the Mississippian culture in the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys, tribal leaders organized thousands of workers to build complex urban areas featuring numerous large earthworks – pyramidal and conical mounds used for religious and ceremonial purposes. Cahokia, located within the boundaries of present-day Collinsville, was the major regional center of this culture, it contains the largest prehistoric earthworks in the Americas, has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The mound builders' culture seems to have collapsed between AD 1400–1500; the Mississippians had abandoned Cahokia long. The Illinois tribes, for whom the state is named, other historic tribes migrated to Southern Illinois around AD 1500. Archeologists say, they had migrated from eastern areas, where Algonquian-language tribes emerged along the Atlantic Coast and waterways.
The Illini left numerous artifacts, including burial sites, burned-out campfires along the bases of bluffs, flint implements, weapons. Structures built by them include stone forts or "pounds". Visitors can see a stone fort in Giant City State Park near Makanda. At least eight other such structures are known in the region. In about 1673, French explorers from Quebec became the first Europeans to reach Illinois; the French named the area Illinois after the Indians. The French explored the Mississippi River, establishing outposts and seeking a route to the Pacific Ocean and the Far East; as increasing Indian unrest and warfare began in Northern Illinois over the lucrative fur trade along the Great Lakes, the French concentrated on building outposts in Southern Illinois. The earliest European settlers were concentrated along the Mississippi and Wabash rivers, which provided easy routes for travel and trade; the settlements including Cahokia town and Chartres became important market villages and supply depots between Canada and the French ports on the lower Mississippi River.
Other important early outposts in Southern Illinois were at Old Shawneetown and Fort Massac on the Ohio River. After defeating the French in the French and Indian War and signing the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the English ruled the Great Lakes region. At the time, many French settlers moved from towns on the eastern side of the Mississippi to the western side, ruled by Spain after the war, it took over all the Louisiana Territory west of the river. During the American Revolutionary War, the Southern Illinois area was the scene of the best known campaign in what was the American west, when Virginians sought to occupy it against the British. European-American settlers were slow to arrive in Illinois after the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War. By 1800, fewer than 2,000 European Americans lived in Illinois. Soon more settlers came from the backwoods areas of Kentucky, Virginia and the Carolinas; these early settlers w
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Edwards County, Illinois
Edwards County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,721, its county seat is Albion. It is located in the southern portion known locally as "Little Egypt". Edwards County was named for Ninian Edwards, the governor of the Illinois Territory, governor of Illinois. Edwards County is subdivided into "Road Districts", rather than "Townships" as in most Illinois counties. Pursuant to the Land Ordinance of 1785, the Northwest Territory was surveyed and organized into townships that are six miles square. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 223 square miles, of which 222 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. It is the fourth-smallest county in Illinois by area; when Edwards County was formed in 1814, it comprised nearly half of the State of Illinois. New counties were formed from it until, in 1824, it assumed its present form from the creation of Wabash County; the two are the fifth smallest counties in Illinois.
In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Albion have ranged from a low of 21 °F in January to a high of 89 °F in July, although a record low of −20 °F was recorded in January 1982 and a record high of 109 °F was recorded in July 1954. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.57 inches in January to 5.13 inches in April. Illinois Route 1 Illinois Route 15 Illinois Route 130 Richland County Wabash County White County Wayne County As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 6,721 people, 2,840 households, 1,926 families residing in the county; the population density was 30.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,187 housing units at an average density of 14.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.0% white, 0.4% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% American Indian, 0.3% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 26.8% were German, 22.4% were English, 13.3% were American, 8.4% were Irish.
Of the 2,840 households, 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.8% were married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.2% were non-families, 28.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.86. The median age was 42.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $40,430 and the median income for a family was $51,337. Males had a median income of $40,183 versus $27,295 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,113. About 10.6% of families and 12.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.1% of those under age 18 and 12.3% of those age 65 or over. Albion Grayville Bone Gap Browns West Salem Black Blood Ellery Samsville Albion Albion No. 1 Albion No. 2 Albion No. 3 Bone Gap Browns Dixon Ellery French Creek Salem Salem No. 1 Salem No. 2 Shelby Shelby No. 1 Shelby No. 2 Edwards County is one of the most Republican counties in the nation.
It has voted for the Republican candidate in all Presidential elections from 1856 to present, except in 1912 when the party was divided and Theodore Roosevelt won the county as the “Bull Moose” Progressive candidate. In the last five Presidential elections no Democratic candidate has reached 34 percent of the county's vote. Edwards County holds the distinction of having the lowest percentage of any Illinois county of votes for governor Pat Quinn, a Democrat, in his failed 2014 reelection bid. While Quinn lost 101 of the 102 counties in Illinois, Quinn captured only 13.7% of the vote in Edwards County, as was typical of the rural white South, Hillary Clinton fared worse in 2016 with only 13.1 percent of the county’s ballots. In other positions the county has been not been Republican for as long, but has been so for many years; the last Democratic Senatorial candidate it backed was Alan J. Dixon in 1986 and the last Democratic gubernatorial candidate it supported was Glenn Poshard, who carried all of Southern Illinois in his failed 1998 bid.
Most of the county is in Illinois's 19th congressional district, which has a Cook Partisan Voting Index of R+9 and has been represented by John Shimkus since 2003. The rest of the county is in Illinois's 15th congressional district, which has Cook Partisan Voting Index of R+6 and has been represented by Republican Tim Johnson since 2001. In more local positions the county is in the 109th district of the Illinois House of Representatives so is represented by Republican David Reis and is in the Illinois Senate it lies in the 55th district and is represented by Republican Dale Righter. Edwards County is a dry county, with multiple referendums to allow alcohol sales failing in the mid-1990s; the portion of Grayville, Illinois that lies within Edwards County does allow alcohol sales per Grayville city ordinance. United States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States Board on Geographic Names United States National Atlas Edwards County precincts and their boundaries
Greater St. Louis
Greater St. Louis is a bi-state metropolitan area that surrounds and includes the independent city of St. Louis, it includes parts of both the U. S. states of Illinois. The city core is on the Mississippi Riverfront on the border with Illinois in the geographic center of the metro area; the Mississippi River bisects the metro area in half geographically between Missouri. St. Louis is the second largest in Illinois. St. Louis County is independent of the City of St. Louis and their two populations are tabulated separately; the St. Louis, MO-IL metropolitan statistical area —and the focus of this page—includes the City of St. Louis; the larger St. Louis–St. Charles–Farmington, MO–IL combined statistical area includes all of the aforementioned MSA, plus the Farmington, MO micropolitan statistical area, which includes all of St. Francois County and the Centralia, IL micropolitan statistical area, which includes Marion County, Illinois; as of 2017 data, the MSA is the 21st-largest in the country that year with a population of 2,807,338.
Due to nearly zero growth in St. Louis paired with rapid growth in the Sun Belt and Florida, the St. Louis MSA fell out of the Top 20 Largest MSAs in the United States in 2017 for the first time since 1840; as of 2018, Greater St. Louis is home to the headquarters of ten of Missouri's eleven Fortune 500 companies, six Fortune 1,000 companies, two of the top 30 Largest Private Companies in America, as ranked by Forbes; the area received the All-America City Award in 2008. The history of St. Louis, Missouri began with the settlement of the St. Louis area by Native American mound builders who lived as part of the Mississippian culture from the 9th century to the 15th century, followed by other migrating tribal groups. Starting in the late 17th century, French explorers arrived. Spain took over in 1763 and a trading company established the settlement of St. Louis in February 1764; the city became part of the U. S. through the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. The American Civil War saw St. Louis had a small skirmish on its outskirts, but was held under Union control.
After the war, the city expanded industrial activity. Franklin County MO: Berger, New Haven, Pacific, St. Clair, Union, Washington Jefferson County MO: Arnold, Byrnes Mill, Crystal City, De Soto, Herculaneum, Imperial, Pevely Lincoln County MO: Elsberry, Moscow Mills, Old Monroe, Winfield St. Francois County MO: Bonne Terre, Farmington, Park Hills St. Charles County MO: Cottleville, Dardenne Prairie, Foristell, Lake St. Louis, New Melle, O'Fallon, St. Charles, St. Peters, Weldon Spring, West Alton St. Louis: City of St. Louis St. Louis County MO: Affton, Bel-Nor, Bel-Ridge, Bella Villa, Bellefontaine Neighbors, Berkeley, Beverly Hills, Black Jack, Breckenridge Hills, Bridgeton, Calverton Park, Charlack, Clarkson Valley, Cool Valley, Country Club Hills, Country Life Acres, Creve Coeur, Crystal Lake Park, Des Peres, Ellisville, Fenton, Flordell Hills, Frontenac, Glen Echo Park, Grantwood Village, Green Park, Hanley Hills, Hillsdale, Kinloch, Jennings, Lakeshire, Maplewood, Maryland Heights, Moline Acres, Northwoods, Norwood Court, Olivette, Pacific, Pasadena Hills, Pasadena Park, Pine Lawn, Richmond Heights, Rock Hill, St. Ann, St. John, Spanish Lake, Sunset Hills, Sycamore Hills, Town & Country, Twin Oaks, University City, Uplands Park, Valley Park, Velda City, Velda Village Hills, Vinita Park, Warson Woods, Webster Groves, Westwood, Wilbur Park, Winchester, Woodson Terrace Warren County MO: Foristell, Truesdale, Wright City Bond County IL: Greenville, Sorento Calhoun County IL: Brussels, Kampsville Clinton County IL: Aviston, Breese, Centralia, New Baden, Trenton Jersey County IL: Grafton, Jerseyville Macoupin County IL: Benld, Bunker Hill, Gillespie, Mt. Olive, Virden Madison County IL: Alhambra, Bethalto, East Alton, Godfrey, Glen Carbon, Granite City, Hartford, Livingston, Marine, New Douglas, Pontoon Beach, South Roxana, St. Jacob, Venice, Wood River, Worden Monroe County IL: Columbia, Valmeyer, Waterloo St. Clair County IL: Alorton, Brooklyn, Caseyville, Dupo, East Carondelet, East St. Louis, Fairmont City, Fairview Heights, Freeburg, Marissa, Millstadt, New Athens, O'Fallon, Shiloh, Smithton, St. Libory, Washington ParkAs noted above, the Greater St. Louis area includes two cities named O'Fallon and two cities named Troy.
The nearby Hannibal–Quincy micropolitan areas are technically not located within the metropolitan, but are regionally associated due to their proximity and accessibility to Gr
Interstate 64 is an Interstate Highway in the Eastern United States. Its western terminus is at I-70, U. S. Route 40, US 61 in Wentzville, Missouri, its eastern terminus is at an interchange with I-264 and I-664 at Bowers Hill in Chesapeake, Virginia. I-64 connects the major metropolitan areas of St. Louis and Lexington in Kentucky, West Virginia, Richmond and Hampton Roads in Virginia. At 953.74 miles, I-64 is the second longest interstate highway not ending with a 5 or 0, after I-94. I-64 overlaps with I-55, I-57, I-75, I-77, I-81, I-95. I-64 does not maintain exit number continuity for any of the overlaps, as each of the six north-south routes maintain their exit numbering on their respective overlaps with I-64. In Missouri, the stretch was labeled as the Daniel Boone Expressway only as US-40, as such, is still known to some locals in the St. Louis area as Highway 40 though the road has been designated as both I-64 and US-40 since 1988; this road is the southernmost portion of the Avenue of the Saints.
An interchange at Highway N O'Fallon, Missouri opened on December 13, 2004. This interchange accommodates the tie-in of the Missouri Route 364 freeway to I-64. In April 2007, construction started to rebuild 10.5 miles of I-64 in St. Louis, from Spoede Road to Kingshighway; this project included repaving the entire road, rebuilding the overpasses and interchanges, adding a fourth lane between Spoede Road and I-170, connecting I-64 to I-170 in all directions. Construction resulted in the complete closure of portions of the expressway in 2008 and 2009. In 2008, I-64 was closed from I-270 to I-170, re-opening December 15, 2008. Beginning December 15, 2008, I-64 from I-170 to Kingshighway was closed. On December 6, 2009, with a grand opening ceremony and dedication, Interstate 64 was completed in its entire length in Missouri from the Poplar Street Bridge to I-70 in Wentzville; as of December 7, 2009, I-64 signed all the way to Interstate 70 in Wentzville. All stoplights have been removed; the portion of Interstate 64 in St. Louis has been named the Jack Buck Memorial Highway, in honor of the late sportscaster.
I-64 enters Illinois from St. Louis, via the Poplar Street Bridge, where it overlaps I-55 as it crosses the Mississippi River. After crossing the city of East St. Louis and the rest of suburban St. Clair County, the freeway heads southeast through rural Southern Illinois. Shortly after passing Mid-America Airport at Exit 23, I-64 enters Clinton County Washington County. After providing access to towns such as Carlyle, Breese and Centralia, the freeway overlaps I-57 through the Mt. Vernon area for five miles. East of Mt. Vernon in Illinois, services along I-64 are few; the freeway crosses Jefferson and White counties as it progresses east toward Indiana and the Evansville area. East of the St Louis area, there are numerous oil wells dotting the landscape; the section from IL 127 to I-57 opened on October 4, 1974. The section from IL 161 to IL 127 opened in December 1973; the section in the Metro East, except for a short section near I-55/70, opened on December 23, 1975. The section from US 460 to US 45 opened on August 7, 1975.
I-64 enters the state of Indiana. It passes Griffin and Poseyville, passes under nearby State Road 68 passes three marked exits for Evansville proceeds through part of the scenic Hoosier National Forest, with exits leading to Dale and Huntingburg, Santa Claus and Ferdinand, French Lick and Tell City, Indiana's first state capital, Corydon. Near milepost 61, there is a time change from Central Time Zone to Eastern Time Zone; as with all time zone changes on highways maintained by the Indiana Department of Transportation, this change in time zone is not marked with any roadside signage. Between Evansville and New Albany, I-64 intersects a few major north-south arterial highways, such as U. S. 231, Indiana 37, Indiana 135 and offers access to Interstate 65 to Indianapolis via Interstate 265 before crossing into Kentucky on the Sherman Minton Bridge. The 123-mile route in Indiana can be described as being somewhat winding the farther east one travels within the state; the longest straight line distance along the route is the around 9 mile stretch from the Indiana 65 exit to the 26 mile marker, 1 mile east of U.
S. 41. There are many points along the route where the two halves of the highway are nearly 500 feet apart around the Hoosier National Forest and points to the east. In addition, there are several points in the sharp valleys along its route in Dubois, Perry and Harrison Counties, where the highway towers more than 100 feet above the surrounding terrain. Interstate 64 enters Kentucky at Louisville, paralleling the Ohio River along the Riverfront Expressway, it intersects with several downtown interchanges before coming to the Kennedy Interchange, where it intersects Interstate 65 and Interstate 71 in a tangle of ramps referred to as the "Spaghetti Junction". Moving eastward, I-64 passes through Shelbyville, Midway, Winchester, Mount Sterling and Morehead, before leaving the state near Ashland at Catlettsburg, it overlaps Interstate 75 as it makes an arc around the northeast of Lexington's urban core, with the exit numbers for I-75 used for the concurrent portion. The two interstate
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti