Island County, Washington
Island County is a county located in the U. S. state of Washington. As of the 2010 census, its population was 78,506, its county seat is Coupeville. The county's name reflects the fact that it is composed of islands, it contains two large islands and Camano, seven smaller islands. Island County was created out of Thurston County on December 22, 1852, by the legislature of Oregon Territory, is the eighth-oldest county in Washington, it encompassed what are now Snohomish, Skagit and San Juan Counties. Island County comprises the Oak Harbor, WA Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Seattle-Tacoma, WA Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 517 square miles, of which 208 square miles is land and 309 square miles is water, it is the second-smallest county in Washington by area. Puget Sound Strait of Juan de Fuca Whidbey Island Camano Island Saratoga Passage Snohomish County – east Kitsap County – southwest Jefferson County – west San Juan County – northwest Skagit County – north Pacific Northwest National Scenic Trail Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve As of the census of 2000, there were 71,558 people, 27,784 households, 20,254 families residing in the county.
The population density was 343 people per square mile. There were 32,378 housing units at an average density of 155 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.17% White, 2.36% Black or African American, 0.97% Native American, 4.19% Asian, 0.44% Pacific Islander, 1.43% from other races, 3.44% from two or more races. 3.97% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 16.2% were of German, 11.2% English, 9.9% Irish, 7.2% United States or American and 6.0% Norwegian ancestry. 92.5 % spoke 2.5 % Spanish and 2.2 % Tagalog as their first language. There were 27,784 households out of which 33.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.20% were married couples living together, 7.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.10% were non-families. 21.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.50% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 28.00% from 25 to 44, 23.70% from 45 to 64, 14.30% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $45,513, the median income for a family was $51,363. Males had a median income of $35,331 versus $25,612 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,472. About 5.10% of families and 7.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.80% of those under age 18 and 4.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 78,506 people, 32,746 households, 22,156 families residing in the county; the population density was 376.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 40,234 housing units at an average density of 193.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 86.1% white, 4.4% Asian, 2.2% black or African American, 0.8% American Indian, 0.5% Pacific islander, 1.5% from other races, 4.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 5.5% of the population.
The largest ancestry groups were: Of the 32,746 households, 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.6% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.3% were non-families, 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.81. The median age was 43.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $57,190 and the median income for a family was $68,106. Males had a median income of $46,801 versus $35,189 for females; the per capita income for the county was $29,079. About 5.7% of families and 8.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.1% of those under age 18 and 4.0% of those age 65 or over. The primary islands of Island County, Whidbey Island and Camano Island are served by a total of 3 Washington State Routes, those being SR 20 and SR 525, on Whidbey Island, SR 532 on Camano Island. SR 20 enters Island County via the Port Townsend-Coupeville ferry route from the West, departs via the Deception Pass Bridge in the North.
SR 525 enters Island County from the East/South via the Mukilteo-Clinton ferry and terminates at an intersection with SR 20, South of Coupeville. SR 532 begins on Camano Island, just a few hundred yards inside Island County at an intersection with Sunrise Boulevard and departs Island County to the East via the Mark Clark Bridge; these islands are served by a fare-free/pre-paid bus service called Island Transit. Island County is divided in many ways between its south. While the north is conservative – George W. Bush received 65 percent of the 2004 vote and carried all precincts – all southern and central precincts voted for John Kerry; the south-central area voted over 60 percent for Kerry. Camano Island has a Republican lean and went for Bush with 52 percent of the vote in 2004, but is much less polarized than the rest of the county. Langley Oak Harbor Coupeville Camano Clinton Freeland Whidbey Island Station listed as Ault Field Juniper Beach, a wedding ceremony locale in past years, has given its name to the Juniper Beach Water Di
Kitsap County, Washington
Kitsap County is located in the U. S. state of Washington. As of the 2010 census, its population was 251,133, its county seat is Port Orchard, its largest city is Bremerton. The county was formed out of King County and Jefferson County, Washington, on January 16, 1857 and is named for Chief Kitsap of the Suquamish Tribe. Named Slaughter County, it was soon renamed. Kitsap County comprises the Bremerton-Silverdale, WA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Seattle-Tacoma, WA Combined Statistical Area; the United States Navy is the largest employer in the county, with installations at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Naval Undersea Warfare Center Keyport, Naval Base Kitsap. Kitsap County is connected to the eastern shore of Puget Sound by Washington State Ferries routes, including the Seattle-Bremerton Ferry, Southworth to West Seattle via Vashon Island, Bainbridge Island to Downtown Seattle, from Kingston to Edmonds, Washington; the Kitsap Peninsula was acquired by the U. S. Government in three pieces by three treaties negotiated with the Native American tribes: The Treaty of Medicine Creek, signed 26 December 1854, ratified 3 March 1855 The Treaty of Point Elliott, signed 22 January 1855, ratified 11 April 1859 Point No Point Treaty, signed 26 January 1855, ratified 8 March 1859.
Territorial Governor Isaac Stevens represented the United States in all three negotiations. When the Washington Territory was organized in 1853, the Kitsap Peninsula was divided between King County to the east and Jefferson County to the west. Official public papers were required to be filed at the county seat, which meant Peninsula business people had to travel to either Seattle or Port Townsend to transact business. On the understanding that they would "bring home a new county," area mill operators George Meigs and William Renton supported the candidacies to the Territorial Legislature of two employees from their respective mills: Timothy Duane Hinckley from Meigs' and S. B. Wilson from Renton's. Upon arrival in Olympia, the two men introduced bills to create a new county, to be named "Madison". Representative Abernathy from Wahkiakum County proposed an amendment to name it "Slaughter", in recognition of Lt. William Alloway Slaughter, killed in 1855 in the Yakima War; the bill passed as amended.
It was signed by Governor Isaac Stevens on January 16, 1857. The county seat would be located in Meigs's mill town at Port Madison. In Slaughter County's first election on July 13, 1857, voters were given the opportunity to rename the county; the options were "Mill", "Madison" or "Kitsap". Slaughter was not one of the options. Kitsap won by an overwhelming majority. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 566 square miles, of which 395 square miles is land and 171 square miles is water, it is the fourth-smallest county in Washington by land third-smallest by total area. In addition to occupying most of the Kitsap Peninsula, Kitsap County includes both Bainbridge Island and Blake Island. According to Puget Sound Partnership, Kitsap county has over 250 miles of saltwater shoreline; the portion of the county north of Silverdale is referred to as North Kitsap, the portion south of Bremerton as South Kitsap. Island County - northeast Snohomish County - east King County - east/southeast Pierce County - south/southeast Mason County - southwest Jefferson County - northwest As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 251,133 people, 97,220 households, 65,820 families residing in the county.
The population density was 635.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 107,367 housing units at an average density of 271.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 82.6% white, 4.9% Asian, 2.6% black or African American, 1.6% American Indian, 0.9% Pacific islander, 1.6% from other races, 5.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 6.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 21.3% were German, 14.4% were Irish, 13.8% were English, 7.1% were Norwegian, 4.2% were American. Of the 97,220 households, 31.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.2% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.3% were non-families, 25.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.97. The median age was 39.4 years. The median income for a household in the county was $59,549 and the median income for a family was $71,065. Males had a median income of $52,282 versus $38,499 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $29,755. About 6.1% of families and 9.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.8% of those under age 18 and 5.3% of those age 65 or over. Bainbridge Island Bremerton Port Orchard Poulsbo Kitsap County is been considered to be a Democratic area. In the 2016 U. S. presidential election, Democrat Hillary Clinton received 49.05% of the vote to Republican Donald Trump's 38.07%. On mainland Kitsap County, politics are dominated by working-class Bremerton, which casts moderate margins for Democratic candidates. However, population shifts have resulted in Bremerton playing less of a role in politics, unincorporated Kitsap County is a mix of battleground areas and staunchly Republican areas. Non-Bremerton parts of incorporated mainland Kitsap County vary, with Silverdale having become a Republican stronghold, Poulsbo marginally Democratic, Port Orchard electing Republican candidates over Democrats. Democrats carry the Indian reservations of the area by wide margins.
U.S. Route 101
U. S. Route 101, or U. S. Highway 101 is a north–south United States Numbered Highway that runs through the states of California and Washington, on the West Coast of the United States, it is known as El Camino Real where its route along the southern and central California coast approximates the old trail which linked the Spanish missions and presidios. It merges at some points with California State Route 1. Though US 101 remains a major coastal north–south link along the Pacific coast north of San Francisco, it has been replaced in overall importance for transport through the West Coast states by Interstate 5, more modern in its physical design, goes through more major cities, has more direct routing due to easier geography over much of the route. US 101 is a major parallel route between Los Angeles and San Francisco, is an alternative to the Interstate for most of its length. In 1964, California truncated US 101's southern terminus in Los Angeles; the old road is known as County Route Historic Route 101 in northern San Diego County.
The nearly 1,550-mile-long highway's northern terminus is in Tumwater, Washington: the route remains along the Olympic Peninsula's coastal perimeter west and east. The southern terminus of US 101 is in Los Angeles at the East Los Angeles Interchange, the world's busiest freeway interchange. According to the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials's numbering scheme for United States Numbered Highways, three-digit route numbers are subsidiaries of two-digit routes. However, the principal north–south routes were assigned numbers ending in 1. Rather than number the west coast highway US 91, lose four available north–south numbers which, under the numbering plan, are supposed to be west of US 91, or assign the primary west coast highway a "lesser" number, AASHTO made an exception to its two-digit rule. Thus, US 101 is treated as a primary, two-digit route with a "first digit" of 10, rather than a spur of US 1, located along the east coast, on the opposite side of the U.
S. Thus, US 101, not US 99, is the westernmost north-south route in the U. S. Highway System. US 101 is called the Oregon Coast Highway in Oregon, the Pacific Highway in parts of California, it is called "The 101" by Southern Californians or "101" by residents of Northern California and Washington. From north of San Francisco and continuing to Oregon it is signed as the Redwood Highway though not spoken of as such outside organizations responsible for tourism marketing. Urban portions of the route in Southern California are named the Santa Ana Freeway, Hollywood Freeway, Ventura Freeway at various points between East Los Angeles and Carpinteria, California. In 2008, the portion of US 101 that runs from the Conejo Grade to the Old Town district of Camarillo was dedicated as the Adolfo Camarillo Memorial Highway to honor the city's namesake and extends through the boundaries of the original Camarillo family ranch. In 2003, the portion of US 101 in Ventura County was named Screaming Eagles Highway in honor of the US Army 101st Airborne Division.
Urban portions of the route in the Bay Area are called the James Lick Freeway, Bayshore Freeway, Central Freeway. A portion of the route between Cochrane Road in Morgan Hill and SR 85 in San Jose is named the Sig Sanchez Freeway; the section of highway between SR-85 in Mountain View and Embarcadero Road in Palo Alto is known as the Frederick E. Terman Highway. Street routings in San Francisco are more referred to by their street names rather than the route number. Portions of the route between Southern California and the Bay Area are named El Camino Real or El Camino Real Freeway, but such names are used colloquially. In Northern California the section of US 101 between Sonoma and Marin counties is referred to as the Novato Narrows because of the reduction from six lanes to four. In Southern California, the highway is a traveled commuter route serving the Northwest portion of the Greater Los Angeles area; the route is the Santa Ana Freeway from East Los Angeles to Downtown Los Angeles. It becomes the Hollywood Freeway north of Downtown Los Angeles through the Cahuenga Pass, before turning west and becoming the Ventura Freeway.
Communities along the alignment include Hollywood and the southern edge of the San Fernando Valley, the cities of Hidden Hills, Agoura Hills, Westlake Village, Thousand Oaks, Oxnard, Santa Barbara, Santa Maria, San Luis Obispo and Atascadero. In Northern California, US 101 is the primary coastal route providing motorists access in and out of the San Francisco Bay Area, as well as the primary commuter route between San Francisco and the North Bay, it is one of two major freeway routes connecting San Jose and Silicon Valley with San Francisco and the North Bay. It serves as a more urban alternative to the rural I-280, as US 101 runs through Peninsula cities closer to the Bay, while I-280 runs closer to the Santa Cruz Mountains and Skyline Boulevard. Through northern San Francisco, US 101 remains routed on congested city streets due to freeway revolts, leaving the city on the iconic Golden Gate Bridge, it departs the immediate coast and continues through wine country and Redwood forests until it re-emerges coast-side at Eureka.
The route prov
Discovery Bay, Washington
Discovery Bay is a small bay connected to the Strait of Juan de Fuca on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington state. An unincorporated community named "Discovery Bay" lies in Jefferson County at the southern end of the bay; the bay was named by George Vancouver after the Discovery, a ship used in his 1792 expedition of the area. The community at the foot of the bay assumed the same name. Discovery Bay is located at the northeastern edge of the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state; the bay enters the Strait of Juan de Fuca between the Quimper peninsulas. The bay's mouth is just south of a small federally protected nature preserve. Discovery Bay is 9 miles in length, 1.5 miles wide at its mouth. Its primary inlet is Snow Creek at the south end of the bay, other small watercourses feed the bay on its east and west sides; the community of Discovery Bay is an area near the intersection of U. S. Route 101 and State Route 20, at the foot of Discovery Bay – midway between the larger communities of Port Townsend to the northeast and Sequim to the northwest.
It is a mix of residential areas and commercial enterprises, including crabbing, clamming, security training and gravel extraction. A few restaurants and stores on US 101 near SR 20 serve drivers and truckers along US 101. Discovery Bay is the current name associated with the area, its use for the community, as opposed to the bay itself, is recent. The original communities in the area mill towns that waxed and waned along with the local timber industry, had different names: Fairmont is a group of residences at the southeast corner of the bay, off SR 20 just northeast of US 101. Discovery Junction is an abandoned railroad junction near Fairmont. Uncas is an old mill community to the southwest of Fairmont, on the south side of US 101. Fort Discovery is the original location of Capt. Vancouver's camp and the present headquarters of Security Services NW. Maynard is an old mill community to the north of Uncas, along US 101 at the southwest corner of the bay. An abandoned sawmill just to the east of US 101 is a well-known remnant of this community.
The mill has been incorrectly identified as the 1858 Port Discovery Mill. It was, in fact, the Maynard Mill; these names appear on maps and persist in local road names. The mill communities no longer have the population or visibility they enjoyed when the mills were operating, making these hamlets matters of local historical interest. However, changing demographics and rising property values are leading to redevelopment of this area, breathing new life into older names. South Discovery now constitutes the entirety of the area around Discovery Bay the area between Port Discovery and Port Townsend; the South Discovery voting precinct includes areas away from Discovery Bay, as well. Several nearby place names are prominent in Discovery Bay history: Eaglemount is an area on the hills to the south of Discovery Bay, on the east of US 101 above high bluffs over Discovery Bay. Port Discovery is the location of George Vancouver's 1792 visit to Discovery Bay. Many sources incorrectly identify the current Discovery Bay community as the location of Port Discovery.
The site is near today's Broders Road. There are several other communities located near the shores of Discovery Bay. Proceeding clockwise from the northeast corner: Port Townsend occupies the northern end of the Quimper Peninsula, 5 miles east of the northeast corner of the bay; the downtown area of Port Townsend, a famous seaport, is on the opposite side of the peninsula. Cape George is located on high bluffs at the northeast entrance of the bay. Beckett Point is a shoreline community a mile south of Cape George. Adelma Beach is a shoreline community halfway down the bay. Gardiner is an unincorporated community several miles to the west along US 101, established by Herbert Gardner in the late 19th century. Diamond Point is located opposite Protection Island, it once hosted a government quarantine station. Native people – the Klallam – have occupied the lands around the Strait of Juan de Fuca for millennia, including locations on Discovery Bay. Most native populations on the Olympic Peninsula were relocated to reservations during the 19th and early 20th centuries, leaving only scattered individuals of native descent still residing on the bay.
The Spanish explorers Manuel Quimper and Gonzalo López de Haro in the Princesa Real are the first known Europeans to find and map the bay of Port Discovery. They were sent to explore the Strait of Juan de Fuca by Francisco de Eliza in 1790; the Spanish named the bay Puerto Quadra, after Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra. In 1792, George Vancouver's exploration of the area provided names for Discovery Bay and Port Discovery. A landing party put ashore along the west shore of the bay near what is now Contractor's Point to fill water barrels from the creek there. Today, a sign alongside Highway 101 above the site of the landing commemorates the event. In 1858, the S. L. Mastick Company of San Francisco established the Port Discovery Mill on the western shore of the bay, at what is now Mill Point; the old growth timber on the steep hillsides above the mill were
The Olympic Mountains are a mountain range on the Olympic Peninsula of western Washington in the United States. The mountains, part of the Pacific Coast Ranges, are not high – Mount Olympus is the highest at 7,965 ft; the western slopes are the wettest place in the 48 contiguous states. Most of the mountains are protected within the bounds of Olympic National Park and adjoining segments of the Olympic National Forest; the mountains are spread out across four counties: Clallam, Grays Harbor and Mason. Physiographically, they are a section of the larger Pacific Border province, in turn a part of the larger Pacific Mountain System; the Olympics have the form of a cluster of steep-sided peaks surrounded by forested foothills and incised by deep valleys. They are surrounded by water on three sides, separated from the Pacific by the 20 to 35 km wide coastal plain; the general form of the range is more or less circular, or somewhat horseshoe-shaped, the drainage pattern is radial. Rivers radiate outwards to all sides.
Clockwise from windward to leeward, the major watersheds are: Satsop, Humptulips, Queets, Bogachiel, Sol Duc, Elwha, Big Quilcene, Duckabush, Hamma Hamma, Skokomish. Principal summits: Mount Olympus – highest point, eight glaciers Mount Constance – largest peak visible from Seattle Mount Anderson – West Peak of Mt Anderson is the hydrographic apex of the Olympic Mountains: From this peak, rivers flow outward to the Pacific Ocean, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Hood Canal; the Brothers – double peak visible from Seattle Mount Deception Mount Washington Mount Angeles Mount Stone Mount EllinorOther summits: Boulder Peak – Peak located in the Lake Crescent and Elwha River area Mount Storm King – located just to the south of Lake Crescent Hurricane Ridge – road accessible summit near Port Angeles Lost Pass A large portion of the range is contained within the Olympic National Park. Of this 95% is part of the Olympic Wilderness; the national park is surrounded on the south and northwest sides by the Olympic National Forest, with five wilderness areas, on the southwest side by the Clearwater State Forest with one Natural Area Preserve, the Quinault Indian Reservation.
State parks and wildlife areas occur in the lower elevations. Precipitation varies throughout the range, from the wet western slopes to the arid eastern ridges. Mount Olympus, nearly 8,000 feet tall, is a mere 35 miles from the Pacific Ocean, one of the steepest reliefs globally and accounting for the high precipitation of the area, as much as 240 inches of snow and rain on Mount Olympus. 140 to 170 inches of rain falls on the Hoh Rainforest annually, receiving the most precipitation of anywhere in the continental United States. Areas to the northeast of the mountains are located in a rain shadow and receive as little as 16 in of precipitation. Annual precipitation increases to about 30 in on the edges of the rain shadow around Port Townsend, the San Juan Islands, Everett. 80% of precipitation falls during the winter. On the coastal plain, the winter temperature stays between −2 to 7 °C. During the summer it warms up to stay between 10 and 24 °C; as a consequence of the high precipitation is the large number of snowfields and glaciers, reaching down to 1,500 m above sea level.
There are about 184 glaciers crowning the Olympics peaks. The most prominent glaciers are those on Mount Olympus covering 10 square miles. Beyond the Olympic complex are the glaciers of Mount Carrie, the Bailey Range, Mount Christie, Mount Anderson; the Olympics are made up of oceanic crust. They are Eocene sandstones and basaltic oceanic crust. Unlike the Cascades, the Olympic Mountains are not volcanic, contain no granite. Millions of years ago and fissures opened under the Pacific Ocean and lava flowed forth, creating huge underwater mountains and ranges called seamounts; the Farallon tectonic plate that formed a part of the Pacific Ocean floor inched eastward toward North America about 35 million years ago and most of the sea floor subducted beneath the continental land mass of the North America plate. Some of the sea floor, was scraped off and jammed against the mainland, creating the dome, the forerunner of today's Olympics. In this particular case, the future Olympics were being jammed into a corner created by the Vancouver Island and North Cascades microcontinents attached to the western edge of the North America plate.
This is thought to be the origin of the curved shape of the Olympic Basaltic Horseshoe, an arc of basalt running east along the Strait of Juan de Fuca, south along Hood Canal, west to Lake Quinault. Thrust-faulting northeast into the Vancouver Island/North Cascades corner pushes Olympic rock upward and southwestward, resulting in strata that appear to be standing on edge and that intermix with strata of different mineral composition. All this occurred under water; the Olympics were shaped in the Pleistocene era by both alpine and co
Olympic National Forest
Olympic National Forest is a U. S. National Forest located in Washington, USA. With an area of 628,115 acres, it nearly surrounds Olympic National Park and the Olympic Mountain range. Olympic National Forest contains parts of Clallam, Grays Harbor and Mason counties; the landscape of the national forest varies, from the temperate Olympic rain forest to the salt water fjord of Hood Canal to the peaks of Mt. Washington. Annual precipitation averages about 220 inches, giving rise to streams such as the Humptulips River. Olympic National Forest was created as Olympic Forest Reserve in 1897 renamed to Olympic National Forest in 1907. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated, it is administered in two ranger districts: the Pacific Ranger District on the west side of the Olympic Peninsula, the Hood Canal Ranger District on the east side. Forest headquarters are located in Olympia, with ranger district offices in Forks and Quilcene; the former office in Hoodsport closed in 2005, now houses a local Chamber of Commerce, which still sells Northwest Forest Passes.
Other Washington towns near entrances of the forest include Port Angeles and Amanda Park. Lake Cushman Quinault Rain Forest Wynoochee Dam Seal Rock Lake Crescent The Brothers Wilderness Buckhorn Wilderness Colonel Bob Wilderness Mt. Skokomish Wilderness Wonder Mountain Wilderness Official web site
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government