Michigan State University
Michigan State University is a public research university in East Lansing, Michigan. MSU was founded in 1855 and served as a model for land-grant universities created under the Morrill Act of 1862; the university was founded as the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, one of the country's first institutions of higher education to teach scientific agriculture. After the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture. Today, MSU is one of the largest universities in the United States and has 563,000 living alumni worldwide. U. S. News & World Report ranks many of its graduate programs among the best in the nation, including African history, criminology and organizational psychology, educational psychology and secondary education, osteopathic medicine, human medicine, nuclear physics, rehabilitation counseling, supply chain/logistics, veterinary medicine. MSU pioneered the studies of packaging, hospitality business, supply chain management, communication sciences.
Michigan State is a member of the Association of American Universities, an organization of 62 leading research universities in North America. The university's campus houses the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, the W. J. Beal Botanical Garden, the Abrams Planetarium, the Wharton Center for Performing Arts, the Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum, the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, the country's largest residence hall system; the Michigan State Spartans compete in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference. Michigan State Spartans football won the Rose Bowl Game in 1954, 1956, 1988 and 2014, a total of six national championships. Spartans men's basketball won the NCAA National Championship in 1979 and 2000 and has attained the Final Four eight times since the 1998–1999 season, including in 2019 with a victory over Duke. Spartans ice hockey won NCAA national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007; the Michigan Constitution of 1850 called for the creation of an "agricultural school," though it was not until February 12, 1855, that Michigan Governor Kinsley S. Bingham signed a bill establishing the United States' first agriculture college, the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan.
Classes began on May 13, 1857, with three buildings, five faculty members, 63 male students. The first president, Joseph R. Williams, designed a curriculum that required more scientific study than any undergraduate institution of the era, it balanced science, liberal arts, practical training. The curriculum excluded Latin and Greek studies since most applicants did not study any classical languages in their rural high schools. However, it did require three hours of daily manual labor, which kept costs down for both the students and the College. Despite Williams' innovations and his defense of education for the masses, the State Board of Education saw Williams' curriculum as elitist, they reduced the curriculum to a two-year vocational program. In 1860, Williams became acting lieutenant governor and helped pass the Reorganization Act of 1861; this gave the college the power to grant master's degrees. Under the act, a newly created body, known as the State Board of Agriculture, took over from the State Board of Education in running the institution.
The college changed its name to State Agricultural College, its first class graduated in the same year. As the Civil War had begun, there was no time for an elaborate graduation ceremony; the first alumni enlisted to the Union Army. Williams died, the following year, Abraham Lincoln signed the First Morrill Act of 1862 to support similar colleges, making the Michigan school a national model. Shortly thereafter, on March 18, 1863, the state designated the college its land-grant institution making Michigan State University one of the nation's first land-grant college; the college first admitted women in 1870, although at that time there were no female residence halls. The few women who enrolled boarded with faculty families or made the arduous stagecoach trek from Lansing. From the early days, female students took the same rigorous scientific agriculture courses as male students. In 1896, the faculty created a "Women Course" that melded a home economics curriculum with liberal arts and sciences.
That same year, the College turned the Abbot Hall male dorm into a women's dormitory. It was not until 1899 that the State Agricultural College admitted its first African American student, William O. Thompson. After graduation, he taught at. President Jonathan L. Snyder invited its president Booker T. Washington to be the Class of 1900 commencement speaker. A few years Myrtle Craig became the first woman African-American student to enroll at the College. Along with the Class of 1907, she received her degree from U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt, commencement speaker for the Semi-Centennial celebration; the City of East Lansing was incorporated the same year, two years the college changed its name to Michigan Agricultural College. During the early 20th century, M. A. C. Expanded its curriculum well beyond agriculture. By 1925 it had expanded enough it changed its name to Michigan State College of Agriculture and Applied Science. In 1941, the Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture, John A. Hannah, became president of the College.
After World War II, he began the largest expansion in the institution's history, with the help of the 1945 G. I. Bill, which helped World War II veterans gain college educations. One of Hannah's strategies was to build a new dormitory building, enroll enough students to fill it, use the income to start construction on a new dormitory. Under his plan, enrollment increased fr
Baby boomers are the demographic cohort following the Silent Generation and preceding Generation X. Though there may be a few different timelines said to represent the birth years of the Baby Boom generation, the U. S. Census Bureau and many experts agree that the Baby Boom generation spans 18 birth years from 1946 to 1964; this leaves room for demographers and researchers to define and label cohort subsets if the characteristics and experiences of the youngest or oldest members correlate with or span two generations. When the term "baby boomer" is used in a cultural context, it becomes more difficult to achieve a consensus among scholars and researchers as to the precise birth years from a cultural perspective. Baby boomers are associated with a redefinition of traditional values. Many commentators, have disputed the extent of that rejection, noting the widespread continuity of values between boomers and their parents. In Western Europe and North America, boomers are associated with privilege, as many grew up during a period of increasing affluence due in part to widespread post-war government subsidies in housing and education.
As a group, baby boomers were wealthier, more active and more physically fit than any preceding generation and were the first to grow up genuinely expecting the world to improve with time. They were the generation that reached peak levels of income in the workplace and could, enjoy the benefits of abundant food, retirement programs, "midlife-crisis" products. But, this generation has been criticized for its increases in consumerism which others saw as excessive; the boomers have tended to think of themselves as a special generation different from preceding and subsequent generations. In the 1960s and 1970s, as a large number of young people entered their late teens—the oldest turned 18 in 1964—they, those around them, created a specific rhetoric around their cohort and the changes brought about by their size in numbers; this rhetoric had an important impact in the self-perceptions of the boomers, as well as their tendency to define the world in terms of generations, a new phenomenon. The baby boom has been described variously as a "shockwave" and as "the pig in the python".
The term baby boom refers to a noticeable increase in the birth rate. The post-war population increase was described as a "boom" by various newspaper reporters, including Sylvia F. Porter in a column in the May 4, 1951, edition of the New York Post, based on the increase of 2,357,000 in the population of the U. S. in 1950. The first recorded use of "baby boomer" is in a January 1963 Daily Press article describing a massive surge of college enrollments approaching as the oldest boomers were coming of age; the Oxford English Dictionary dates the modern meaning of the term to a January 23, 1970 article in The Washington Post. Pew Research Center defines baby boomers as being born between 1946 and 1964; the United States Census Bureau defines baby boomers as "individuals born in the United States between mid-1946 and mid-1964."The Australian Bureau of Statistics defines baby boomers as those born between 1946 and 1964. Australia's Social Research Center defines baby boomers as born between 1946 and 1964.
In the U. S. the generation can be segmented into two broadly defined cohorts: The Leading-Edge Baby Boomers are individuals born between 1946 and 1955, those who came of age during the Vietnam War era. This group represents more than half of the generation, or 38,002,000 people of all races; the other half of the generation was born between 1956 and 1964. Called Late Boomers, or Trailing-Edge Boomers, this second cohort includes about 37,818,000 individuals, according to Live Births by Age and Mother and Race, 1933–98, published by the Centers for Disease Control's National Center for Health Statistics; the American term "Generation Jones" is sometimes used to describe those born between 1954 and 1965. The term is used to refer to the years of the baby boomer cohort and the early years of Generation X. Various authors have delimited the baby boom period differently. Landon Jones, in his book Great Expectations: America and the Baby Boom Generation, defined the span of the baby-boom generation as extending from 1946 through 1964, when annual births increased over 4,000,000.
Authors William Strauss and Neil Howe, well known for their generational theory, define the social generation of Boomers as that cohort born from 1943 to 1960, who were too young to have any personal memory of World War II, but old enough to remember the postwar American High. An ongoing battle for "generational ownership" has motivated a handful of marketing mavens and cultural commentators to coin or promote their own terms for sub‑segments of the baby-boomer generation; these monikers include but are not limited to "golden boomers", "generation Jones", "alpha boomers", "hippies", "yippies", "yuppies", "zoomers" and "cuspers". In Ontario, David Foot, author of Boom and Echo: Profiting from the Demographic Shift in the 21st century, defined a Canadian boomer as someone born from 1947 to 1966, the years in which more than 400,000 babies were born. However, he acknowledges that, a demographic definition, that culturally, it may not be as clear-cut. Doug Owram argues that the Canadian boom took place from 1946 to 1962, but that culturally boomers everywhere were born between the late war years and about 1955 or 1956.
He notes that those born in the years before the actual boom were the most influential people among boomers: for example, musicians such as The Beatles, Bob Dylan, The Rolling Stones, as well as writers like Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg, who were either or vastly
Biologically, an adult is a human or other organism that has reached sexual maturity. In human context, the term adult additionally has meanings associated with social and legal concepts. In contrast to a "minor", a legal adult is a person who has attained the age of majority and is therefore regarded as independent, self-sufficient, responsible; the typical age of attaining legal adulthood is 18, although definition may vary by legal rights and country. Human adulthood encompasses psychological adult development. Definitions of adulthood are inconsistent and contradictory. Conversely, one may be an adult but possess none of the maturity and responsibility that may define an adult character. In different cultures there are events that relate passing from being a child to becoming an adult or coming of age; this encompasses the passing a series of tests to demonstrate that a person is prepared for adulthood, or reaching a specified age, sometimes in conjunction with demonstrating preparation. Most modern societies determine legal adulthood based on reaching a specified age without requiring a demonstration of physical maturity or preparation for adulthood.
And cross-culturally, adulthood has been determined by the start of puberty. In the past, a person moved from the status of child directly to the status of adult with this shift being marked by some type of coming-of-age test or ceremony. After the social construct of adolescence was created, adulthood split into two forms: biological adulthood and social adulthood. Thus, there are now two primary forms of adults: social adults. Depending on the context, adult can indicate either definition. Although few or no established dictionaries provide a definition for the two word term biological adult, the first definition of adult in multiple dictionaries includes "the stage of the life cycle of an animal after reproductive capacity has been attained". Thus, the base definition of the word adult is the period beginning at physical sexual maturity, which occurs sometime after the onset of puberty. Although this is the primary definition of the base word "adult", the term is frequently used to refer to social adults.
The two-word term biological adult stresses or clarifies that the original definition, based on physical maturity, is being used. The time of puberty varies, but begins around 10 or 11 years old. Girls begin the process of puberty at age 10 or 11, boys at age 11 or 12. Girls complete puberty by 15–17, boys by age 16 or 17. Nutrition and environment usually play a part in the onset of puberty. Adulthood means that one has reached the age of majority – when parents lose parenting rights and responsibilities regarding the person concerned. Depending on one's jurisdiction, the age of majority may or may not be set independently of and should not be confused with the minimum ages applicable to other activities, such as engaging in a contract, voting, having a job, serving in the military, buying/possessing firearms, traveling abroad, involvement with alcoholic beverages, sexual activity, being a model or actor in pornography, running for President, etc. Admission of a young person to a place may be restricted because of danger for that person, concern that the place may lead the person to immoral behavior or because of the risk that the young person causes damage.
One can distinguish the legality of acts of a young person, or of enabling a young person to carry out that act, by selling, renting out, permitting entrance, allowing participation, etc. There may be distinction between commercially and enabling. Sometimes there is the requirement of supervision by a legal guardian, or just by an adult. Sometimes there is no requirement, but rather a recommendation. Using the example of pornography, one can distinguish between: being allowed inside an adult establishment being allowed to purchase pornography being allowed to possess pornography another person being allowed to sell, rent out, or show the young person pornography, see disseminating pornography to a minor being a pornographic actor: rules for the young person, for other people, regarding production, etc. With regard to films with violence, etc.: another person being allowed to sell, rent out, or show the young person a film. Niger, Democratic Republic of Congo and Cameroon define adulthood at age 15, but marriage of girls at an earlier age is common.
In most of the world, including most of the United States and China, the legal adult age is 18 for most purposes, with some notable exceptions: British Columbia, New Brunswick and Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Yukon Territory in Canada. In contrast to biological perspectives of aging and adulthood, social scientists conc
China's one-child policy was part of a birth planning program designed to control the size of its population. Distinct from the family planning policies of most other countries, it set a limit on the number of children parents could have, the world's most extreme example of population planning, it was introduced in 1979, modified in the mid 1980s to allow rural parents a second child if the first was a daughter, lasted three more decades before being eliminated at the end of 2015. The policy allowed exceptions for some other groups, including ethnic minorities; the term one-child policy is thus a misnomer, because for nearly 30 of the 36 years that it existed about half of all parents in China were allowed to have a second child. Provincial governments could, did, require the use of contraception and abortions to ensure compliance, imposed enormous fines for violations. Local and national governments created commissions to raise awareness and carry out registration and inspection work. China rewards families with only one child.
From 1982 onwards, in accordance with the instructions on further family planning issued by the CPC central committee and the state council in that year, regulations awarded 5 yuan per month for only children. Parents who had one child would get a “one-child glory certificate”. According to the Chinese government, 400 million births were prevented, starting from 1970, a decade before the start of the one child policy; some scholars have disputed this claim, with Martin King Whyte and Wang et al contending that the policy had little effect on population growth or the size of the total population. China has been compared to countries with similar socioeconomic development like Thailand and Iran, along with the Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, which achieved similar declines of fertility without a one-child policy. However, a recent demographic study challenged these scholars by showing that China's low fertility was achieved two or three decades earlier than would be expected given its level of development, that more than 500 million births were prevented between 1970 and 2015, some 400 million of which may have been due to one-child restrictions.
In addition, by 2060 China's birth planning policies may have averted as many as 1 billion people in China when one adds in all the eliminated descendants of the births averted by the policies. Although 76% of Chinese people said that they supported the policy in a 2008 survey, it was controversial outside of China. Effective from January 2016, the national birth planning policy became a universal two-child policy that allowed each couple to have two children. During the period of Mao Zedong's leadership in China, the birth rate fell from 37 per thousand to 20 per thousand. Infant mortality declined from 227 per thousand births in 1949 to 53 per thousand in 1981, life expectancy increased from around 35 years in 1948 to 66 years in 1976; until the 1960s, the government encouraged families to have as many children as possible because of Mao's belief that population growth empowered the country, preventing the emergence of family planning programs earlier in China's development. The population grew from around 540 million in 1949 to 940 million in 1976.
Beginning in 1970, citizens were encouraged to marry at ages and have only two children. Although the fertility rate began to decline, the Chinese government observed the global debate over a possible overpopulation catastrophe suggested by organizations such as Club of Rome and Sierra Club, it thus began to encourage one-child families in 1978, announced in 1979 its intention to advocate for one-child families. In 1980, the central government organized a meeting in Chengdu to discuss the speed and scope of one-child restrictions. One participant at the Chengdu meeting had read two influential books about population concerns, The Limits to Growth and A Blueprint for Survival while visiting Europe in 1979; that official, Song Jian, along with several associates, determined that the ideal population of China was 700 million, that a universal one-child policy for all would be required to meet that goal. Moreover and his group showed that if fertility rates remained constant at 3 births per woman, China's population would surpass 3 billion by 2060 and 4 billion by 2080.
In spite of some criticism inside the party, the plan was formally implemented as a temporary measure on 18 September 1980. The plan called for families to have one child each in order to curb a then-surging population and alleviate social and environmental problems in China. Although a recent and often-repeated interpretation by Greenhalgh claims that Song Jian was the central architect of the one-child policy and that he "hijacked" the population policymaking process, that claim has been refuted by several leading scholars, including Liang Zhongtang, a leading internal critic of one-child restrictions and an eye-witness at the discussions in Chengdu. In the words of Wang et al. "the idea of the one-child policy came from leaders within the Party, not from scientists who offered evidence to support it” Central officials had decided in 1979 to advocate for one-child restrictions before knowing of Song's work and, upon learning of his work in 1980 seemed sympathetic to his position. Moreover if Song's work convinced them to proceed with universal one-child restrictions in 1980, the policy was loosened to a "1.5"-child policy just five years and it is that p
Heavy metal subculture
Fans of heavy metal music have created their own subculture which encompasses more than just appreciation of the style of music. Fans affirm their membership in the subculture or scene by attending metal concerts – an activity seen as central to the subculture, buying albums, in some cases growing their hair long, wearing leather jackets and t-shirts with band names and logos and most by contributing to metal publications; some critics and musicians have suggested that the subculture is intolerant to other musical genres. The metal scene, like the rock scene in general, is associated with alcohol and drug use as well as riding motorcycles and having a lot of tattoos. While there are songs that celebrate drinking, smoking/dipping, drug use, having tattoos and partying, there are many songs that warn about the dangers of alcohol, gambling and drug addictions; the metal fanbase was traditionally white and male in the 1970s, but since the 1980s, more female fans have developed an interest in the style, while popularity and interest continue to grow among African Americans and other groups.
Heavy metal fans go by a number of different names, including metalhead, hesher and heavy, with the term thrasher being used only for fans of thrash metal music, which began to differentiate itself from other varieties of metal in the late 80's. These vary with time and regional divisions, but "headbanger" and "metalhead" are universally accepted to refer to fans or the subculture itself. Heavy metal fans have created a "subculture of alienation" with its own standards for achieving authenticity within the group. Deena Weinstein’s book Heavy Metal: The Music And Its Culture argues that heavy metal “…has persisted far longer than most genres of rock music” due to the growth of an intense “subculture which identified with the music”. Metal fans formed an “exclusionary youth community”, "distinctive and marginalized from the mainstream” society; the heavy metal scene developed a masculine “community with shared values and behaviors”. A “code of authenticity” is central to the heavy metal subculture.
The metal code includes “opposition to established authority, separateness from the rest of society”. Fans expect that the metal “…vocation includes total devotion to the music and deep loyalty to the youth subculture that grew up around it…”. While the audience for metal is “white, lower/middle class youth,” this group is “…tolerant of those outside its core demographic base who follow its codes of dress and behavior”; the activities in the metal subculture include the ritual of attending concerts, buying albums, most contributing to metal websites. Attending concerts affirms the solidarity of the subculture, as it is one of the ritual activities by which fans celebrate their music. Metal magazines help the members of the subculture to connect, find information and evaluations of bands and albums, “express their solidarity”; the long hair, leather jackets, band patches of heavy metal fashion help to encourage a sense of identification within the subculture. However, Weinstein notes that not all metal fans are “visible members” of the heavy metal subculture.
Some metal fans may have short dress in regular clothes. In the musical subcultures of heavy metal and punk, authenticity is a core value; the term poseur is used to describe "a person who habitually pretends to be something he/she is not," as in, adopting the appearance and clothing style of the metal scene without understanding the culture and its music. In a 1993 profile of heavy metal fans' "subculture of alienation," the author noted that the scene classified some members as "poseurs," that is, heavy metal performers or fans who pretended to be part of the subculture, but who were deemed to lack authenticity and sincerity. Jeffrey Arnett's 1996 book Metalheads: Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Alienation argues that the heavy metal subculture classifies members into two categories by giving "...acceptance as an authentic metalhead or rejection as a fake, a poseur."Heavy metal fans began using the term "sell out" in the 1980s to refer to bands who turned their heavy metal sound into radio-friendly rock music.
In metal, a sell out is "...someone dishonest who adopted the most rigorous pose, or identity-affirming lifestyle and opinions". The metal bands that earned this epithet are those "... who adopt the visible aspects of the orthodoxy without contributing to the underlying belief system."Ron Quintana's article on "Metallica Early History" argues that when Metallica was trying to find a place in the L. A. metal scene in the early 1980s, "American hard-rock scene was dominated by coiffed, smoothly-polished bands such as Styx, REO Speedwagon." He claims that this made it hard for Metallica to "...play their music and win over a crowd in a land where poseurs ruled and anything fast and heavy was ignored." In David Rocher's 1999 interview with Damian Montgomery, the frontman of Ritual Carnage, he praised Montgomery as "...an authentic, no-frills, poseur-bashing, nun-devouring kind of gentleman, an enthusiastic metalhead in love with the lifestyle he preaches... and unquestionably practises. In 2002, "etal guru Josh Wood" claimed that the "credibility of heavy metal" in North America is being destroyed by the genre's demotion to "...horror movie soundtracks, wrestling events and, worst of all, the so-called'Mall Core' groups like Limp Bizkit."
Wood claims that the "...true devotee’
Waithood is a period of stagnation in the lives of young unemployed college graduates in various industrializing and developing nations or regions in the Middle East, North Africa and India, where their expertise is still not needed or applicable. "Waithood" is described as "a kind of prolonged adolescence", "the bewildering time in which large proportions of youth spend their best years waiting". It is a phase in which the difficulties youth face in each of these interrelated spheres of life result in a debilitating state of helplessness and dependency. One commentator argues, waithood can be best understood by examining outcomes and linkages across five different sectors: education, housing and marriage. Waithood is applicable only to college educated people who are not compelled to settle in blue collar jobs due to the support from family elders or resources. Due to the lack of any potential employment, waithood is tangentially related to rising rate of belated parenthood in various developing countries, with younger people choosing to delay or being forced to delay starting their own families, likes of which were uncommon in the modern industrialized countries when they were developing.
Fountain of Youth, Gulf News, January 2008 Young and Out of Work in the Middle East, ABC News, December 2007 Mohamed Ali: The link between unemployment and terrorism, TED talk November 2013)
Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, overall loudness; the genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with machismo. In 1968, three of the genre's most famous pioneers, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple were founded. Though they came to attract wide audiences, they were derided by critics. During the mid-1970s, Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence. Beginning in the late 1970s, bands in the new wave of British heavy metal such as Iron Maiden and Def Leppard followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers". During the 1980s, glam metal became popular with groups such as Mötley Crüe.
Underground scenes produced an array of more aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica, Slayer and Anthrax, while other extreme subgenres of heavy metal such as death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Since the mid-1990s popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre; these include groove metal and nu metal, the latter of which incorporates elements of grunge and hip hop. Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, vigorous vocals. Heavy metal subgenres variously alter, or omit one or more of these attributes; the New York Times critic Jon Pareles writes, "In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock—the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force." The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead guitarist, a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist.
Keyboard instruments are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound. Deep Purple's Jon Lord played an overdriven Hammond organ. In 1970, John Paul Jones used a Moog synthesizer on Led Zeppelin III; the electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of heavy distortion. For classic heavy metal guitar tone, guitarists maintain moderate levels gain at moderate levels, without excessive preamp or pedal distortion, to retain open spaces and air in the music. Thrash metal guitar tone has scooped mid-frequencies and compressed sound with lots of bass frequencies. Guitar solos are "an essential element of the heavy metal code... that underscores the significance of the guitar" to the genre. Most heavy metal songs "feature at least one guitar solo", "a primary means through which the heavy metal performer expresses virtuosity"; some exceptions are nu grindcore bands, which tend to omit guitar solos.
With rhythm guitar parts, the "heavy crunch sound in heavy metal... palm muting" the strings with the picking hand and using distortion. Palm muting creates a tighter, more precise sound and it emphasizes the low end; the lead role of the guitar in heavy metal collides with the traditional "frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two "contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry". Heavy metal "demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band. Reflecting metal's roots in the 1960s counterculture, an "explicit display of emotion" is required from the vocals as a sign of authenticity. Critic Simon Frith claims; the prominent role of the bass is key to the metal sound, the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy"; the bass plays a "more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock". Metal basslines vary in complexity, from holding down a low pedal point as a foundation to doubling complex riffs and licks along with the lead or rhythm guitars.
Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument, an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton with his heavy emphasis on bass guitar solos and use of chords while playing bass in the early 1980s. Lemmy of Motörhead played overdriven power chords in his bass lines; the essence of heavy metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed and precision". Heavy metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance", drummers have to develop "considerable speed and dexterity... to play the intricate patterns" used in heavy metal. A characteristic metal drumming technique is the cymbal choke, which consists of striking a cymbal and immediately silencing it by grabbing it with the other hand, producing a burst of sound; the metal drum setup is much larger than those employed in other forms of rock music. Black metal, death metal and some "mainstream metal" bands "all depend upon double-kicks and blast beats". In live performance, loudness—an "onslaught of sound", in sociologist Deena Weinstein's description—is considered vital.
In his book Metalheads, psychologist Jeffrey Arnett refers to heavy me