Lee Smolin is an American theoretical physicist, a faculty member at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, an adjunct professor of physics at the University of Waterloo and a member of the graduate faculty of the philosophy department at the University of Toronto. Smolin's 2006 book The Trouble with Physics criticized string theory as a viable scientific theory, he has made contributions to quantum gravity theory, in particular the approach known as loop quantum gravity. He advocates that the two primary approaches to quantum gravity, loop quantum gravity and string theory, can be reconciled as different aspects of the same underlying theory, his research interests include cosmology, elementary particle theory, the foundations of quantum mechanics, theoretical biology. Smolin was born in New York City, his brother, David M. Smolin, became a professor in the Cumberland School of Law in Birmingham, Alabama. Smolin dropped out of Walnut Hills High School in Cincinnati and was educated at Hampshire College.
He received his Ph. D in theoretical physics from Harvard University in 1979, he held postdoctoral research positions at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics in Santa Barbara and the University of Chicago, before becoming a faculty member at Yale and Pennsylvania State Universities. He was a visiting scholar at the Institute for Advanced Study in 1995 and a visiting professor at Imperial College London before becoming one of the founding faculty members at the Perimeter Institute in 2001. Smolin contributed to the theory of loop quantum gravity in collaborative work with Ted Jacobson, Carlo Rovelli, Louis Crane, Abhay Ashtekar and others. LQG is an approach to the unification of quantum mechanics with general relativity which utilizes a reformulation of general relativity in the language of gauge field theories, which allows the use of techniques from particle physics the expression of fields in terms of the dynamics of loops.
With Rovelli he discovered the discreteness of areas and volumes and found their natural expression in terms of a discrete description of quantum geometry in terms of spin networks. In recent years he has focused on connecting LQG to phenomenology by developing implications for experimental tests of spacetime symmetries as well as investigating ways elementary particles and their interactions could emerge from spacetime geometry. Between 1999 and 2002, Smolin made several proposals to provide a fundamental formulation of string theory that does not depend on approximate descriptions involving classical background spacetime models. Smolin is among those theorists who have proposed that the effects of quantum gravity can be experimentally probed by searching for modifications in special relativity detected in observations of high energy astrophysical phenomena; these include high energy cosmic rays and photons and neutrinos from gamma ray bursts. Among Smolin's contributions are the coinvention of doubly special relativity and of relative locality.
Smolin has worked since the early 1980s on a series of proposals for hidden variables theories, which would be non-local deterministic theories which would give a precise description of individual quantum phenomena. In recent years, he has pioneered two new approaches to the interpretation of quantum mechanics suggested by his work on the reality of time, called the real ensemble interpretation and the principle of precedence. Smolin's hypothesis of cosmological natural selection called the fecund universes theory, suggests that a process analogous to biological natural selection applies at the grandest of scales. Smolin published the idea in 1992 and summarized it in a book aimed at a lay audience called The Life of the Cosmos. Black holes have a role in natural selection. In fecund theory a collapsing black hole causes the emergence of a new universe on the "other side", whose fundamental constant parameters may differ from those of the universe where the black hole collapsed; each universe thus gives rise to as many new universes as it has black holes.
The theory contains the evolutionary ideas of "reproduction" and "mutation" of universes, so is formally analogous to models of population biology. Alternatively, black holes play a role in cosmological natural selection by reshuffling only some matter affecting the distribution of elementary quark universes; the resulting population of universes can be represented as a distribution of a landscape of parameters where the height of the landscape is proportional to the numbers of black holes that a universe with those parameters will have. Applying reasoning borrowed from the study of fitness landscapes in population biology, one can conclude that the population is dominated by universes whose parameters drive the production of black holes to a local peak in the landscape; this was the first use of the notion of a landscape of parameters in physics. Leonard Susskind, who promoted a similar string theory landscape, stated: I'm not sure why Smolin's idea didn't attract much attention. I think it deserved far more than it got.
However, Susskind argued that, since Smolin's theory relies on information transfer from the parent universe to the baby universe through a black hole, it makes no sense as a theory of cosmological natural selection. According to Susskind and many other physicists, the last decade of black hole physics has shown us that no information that goes into a black hole can be lost. Even
John de Jongh Jr.
John Percy de Jongh Jr. is an American businessman and politician who served as the seventh elected Governor of the U. S. Virgin Islands, he has been active in Virgin Islands politics and the business community since returning to St. Thomas after graduating from college in 1981. De Jongh has been involved in community development, commercial banking, served on the boards of business and philanthropic organizations, appointed to government positions and elected to public office. De Jongh ran for governor in the 2002 general election as an independent candidate, placing second with 24.4% of the vote and losing to the incumbent, Charles W. Turnbull. In the 2006 general election de Jongh ran as the Democratic Party candidate and defeated former Lieutenant Governor Kenneth Mapp in a runoff and became governor. In 2010, he was re-elected to a second term and served until January 5, 2015, when he was term limited. De Jongh was raised on St. Thomas; as a child, he attended Sts. Peter and Paul School on St. Thomas.
After his parents' divorce, he lived with his mother and two brothers and Sydney, in Detroit, where his mother was a social worker for the Detroit Public Schools. During the summer, de Jongh would return to St. Thomas to assist in his father's law firm. De Jongh graduated from Detroit Catholic Central High School in 1976. After his graduation, he attended Antioch College in Ohio. During his college career, he held work-study jobs in Detroit, Philadelphia and St. Thomas and completed an urban study program that involved travel to the United Kingdom and The Netherlands, he earned an economics degree from Antioch College. De Jongh graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree from Antioch College in 1981. After graduating from college, de Jongh returned to the Virgin Islands, he worked for several years with the Tri-Island Economic Development Council, during which he helped receive funding for the preservation of historic Virgin Island buildings, before taking a job with Chase Manhattan Bank. De Jongh first worked as an executive in the company's Puerto Rico office before returning to the Virgin Islands after earning the position of Consumer Manager of Operations in the U.
S. British Virgin Islands and Saint Maarten. Under his leadership, Chase placed more emphasis on personal over corporate banking in the Caribbean and increased home mortgage lending. In 1987, de Jongh was appointed as Commissioner of Finance by Governor Alexander A. Farrelly, his first government position and one that had once been held by his grandfather, Percy de Jongh. In addition to his primary responsibilities for financial administration, de Jongh served as Chairman of the Governing Board of the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority and as an Executive Director and board member of the Virgin Islands Public Finance Authority, he was key in financial boosting the economy of the territory in the early 1990s. He worked as an executive assistant to the governor's office, he helped to coordinate better interagency cooperation. In 1992, he returned to the private sector; that same year, de Jongh joined the real estate and insurance holding company, Lockhart Companies Incorporated where he served as President, CEO and a member of the board of directors until 2002.
In 1993, he joined Public Financial Management, Inc. as a Senior Managing Consultant, where he helped to draft and implement Five-Year Plans for the cities of Philadelphia, New Haven and Washington, D. C. From 1999-2001, de Jongh served as president of the St. Thomas-St. John Chamber of Commerce and headed a task force that created the Five Year Operating and Strategic Financial Plan for the government of the Virgin Islands, co-chaired a private-public sector group to negotiate with cruise lines and was selected as Rotary II's Person of the Year. In 2002, de Jongh left Lockhart Companies and unsuccessfully ran for governor as an independent candidate on a platform that addressed education, economic opportunity, crime and financial management. De Jongh founded Chilmark Partners, a financial advisory firm focused on engagements in the Eastern Caribbean in 2003. In 2005, it was reported that de Jongh led all potential candidates to become the next governor of the U. S. Virgin Islands. In 2006, he ran as a Democrat and won the Democratic Party primary defeating Lieutenant Governor Vargrave Richards and Senator Adlah Donastorg with 52.2% of the votes.
He won the governorship in 2006 after defeating former Lieutenant Governor Mapp in a November 21 run-off election with over 57% of the vote. De Jongh was sworn in as the 7th elected Governor of the U. S. Virgin Islands on January 1, 2007, his administration focused on addressing early childhood education issues, established the Children and Families Council, sought partnerships with cruise lines and rum companies, championed economic diversification and implemented revitalization projects for the islands that comprise the U. S. Virgin Islands. De Jongh created programs to reduce the territory's dependence on fossil fuels. After announcing they would seek a second term in office, de Jongh and Lt. Governor Gregory Francis won the Democratic primary election on September 11, 2010, after receiving 53% of the vote in the primary, more than all three of their Democratic challengers combined. De Jongh faced independent candidate Mapp, a former Lt. Governor, in the general election on November 2, 2010.
The contest between de Jongh and Mapp was a rematch of the top two contenders from the 2006 gubernatorial election. On November 2, 2010, De Jongh and Lt. Governor Gregory Francis were re-elected to second term, taking 17,535 votes, or 56.27%. De Jongh defeated the independ
Murray Gell-Mann is an American physicist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles. He is the Robert Andrews Millikan Professor of Theoretical Physics Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology, a distinguished fellow and co-founder of the Santa Fe Institute, a professor of physics at the University of New Mexico, the Presidential Professor of Physics and Medicine at the University of Southern California. Gell-Mann has spent several periods at CERN, among others as a John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation fellow in 1972. Gell-Mann was born in lower Manhattan into a family of Jewish immigrants from the Austro-Hungarian Empire from Chernivtsi in present-day Ukraine, his parents were Arthur Isidore Gell-Mann, who taught English as a Second Language. Propelled by an intense boyhood curiosity and love for nature and mathematics, he graduated valedictorian from the Columbia Grammar & Preparatory School and subsequently entered Yale College at the age of 15 as a member of Jonathan Edwards College.
At Yale, he participated in the William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition and was on the team representing Yale University that won the second prize in 1947. Gell-Mann earned a bachelor's degree in physics from Yale in 1948 and a PhD in physics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1951, his supervisor at MIT was Victor Weisskopf. In 1958, Gell-Mann and Richard Feynman, in parallel with the independent team of George Sudarshan and Robert Marshak, discovered the chiral structures of the weak interaction in physics; this work followed the experimental discovery of the violation of parity by Chien-Shiung Wu, as suggested by Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao Lee, theoretically. Gell-Mann's work in the 1950s involved discovered cosmic ray particles that came to be called kaons and hyperons. Classifying these particles led him to propose that a quantum number called strangeness would be conserved by the strong and the electromagnetic interactions, but not by the weak interactions. Another of Gell-Mann's ideas is the Gell-Mann–Okubo formula, a formula based on empirical results, but was explained by his quark model.
Gell-Mann and Abraham Pais were involved in explaining several puzzling aspects of the physics of these particles. In 1961, this led him to introduce a classification scheme for hadrons, elementary particles that participate in the strong interaction; this scheme is now explained by the quark model. Gell-Mann referred to the scheme as the Eightfold Way, because of the octets of particles in the classification. In 1964, Gell-Mann and, George Zweig went on to postulate the existence of quarks, particles of which the hadrons of this scheme are composed; the name is a reference to the novel Finnegans Wake, by James Joyce. Zweig had referred to the particles as "aces". Quarks and gluons were soon established as the underlying elementary objects in the study of the structure of hadrons, he was awarded a Nobel Prize in physics in 1969 for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions. In 1972 he and Harald Fritzsch introduced the conserved quantum number "color charge", together with Heinrich Leutwyler, they coined the term quantum chromodynamics as the gauge theory of the strong interaction.
The quark model is a part of QCD, it has been robust enough to accommodate in a natural fashion the discovery of new "flavors" of quarks, which superseded the eightfold way scheme. He is the Robert Andrews Millikan Professor of Theoretical Physics Emeritus at California Institute of Technology as well as a University Professor in the Physics and Astronomy Department of the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Presidential Professor of Physics and Medicine at the University of Southern California, he is a member of the editorial board of the Encyclopædia Britannica. In 1984 Gell-Mann co-founded the Santa Fe Institute—a non-profit theoretical research institute in Santa Fe, New Mexico—to study complex systems and disseminate the notion of a separate interdisciplinary study of complexity theory, he was a postdoctoral fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study in 1951, a visiting research professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign from 1952 to 1953. He was a visiting associate professor at Columbia University and an associate professor at the University of Chicago in 1954–55 before moving to the California Institute of Technology, where he taught from 1955 until he retired in 1993.
During the 1990s, Gell-Mann's interest turned to the emerging study of complexity. He played a central role in the founding of the Santa Fe Institute, where he continues to work as a distinguished professor, he wrote a popular science book about these matters, The Quark and the Jaguar: Adventures in the Simple and the Complex. The title of the book is taken from a line of a poem by Arthur Sze: "The world of the quark has everything to do with a jaguar circling in the night"; the author George Johnson has written a biography of Gell-Mann, Strange Beauty: Murray Gell-Mann, the Revolution in 20th-Century Physics, shortlisted for the Royal Society Book Prize. Gell-Mann has criticized it as inaccurate; the Nobel Prize–winning physicist Philip Anderson, in his chapter on Gell-Mann from a 2011 book, says that Johnson's biography is excellent. Both Anderso
Frank Anthony Wilczek is an American theoretical physicist, mathematician and a Nobel laureate. He is the Herman Feshbach Professor of Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Founding Director of T. D. Lee Institute and Chief Scientist Wilczek Quantum Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Distinguished Origins Professor at Arizona State University and full Professor at Stockholm University. Wilczek, along with David Gross and H. David Politzer, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2004 for their discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction, he is on the Scientific Advisory Board for the Future of Life Institute. Born in Mineola, New York, of Polish and Italian origin, Wilczek was educated in the public schools of Queens, attending Martin Van Buren High School, it was around this time Wilczek's parents realized that he was exceptional—in part as a result of Frank Wilczek having been administered an IQ test. He was raised Catholic but "lost faith in conventional religion".
He has been described as an agnostic but tweeted in 2013 that "pantheist" is "closer to the mark". He received his Bachelor of Science in Mathematics and membership in Phi Beta Kappa at the University of Chicago in 1970, a Master of Arts in Mathematics at Princeton University, 1972, a Ph. D. in physics at Princeton University in 1974. In 1982, he was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship. Wilczek holds the Herman Feshbach Professorship of Physics at MIT Center for Theoretical Physics, he worked at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton and the Institute for Theoretical Physics at the University of California, Santa Barbara and was a visiting professor at NORDITA. Wilczek became a foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2000, he was awarded the Lorentz Medal in 2002. Wilczek won the Lilienfeld Prize of the American Physical Society in 2003. In the same year he was awarded the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics Commemorative Medal from Charles University in Prague.
He was the co-recipient of the 2003 High Energy and Particle Physics Prize of the European Physical Society. The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004 was awarded jointly to David J. Gross, H. David Politzer and Frank Wilczek "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction.” Wilczek was the co-recipient of the 2005 King Faisal International Prize for Science. On January 25, 2013 Wilczek received an honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Science and Technology at Uppsala University, Sweden, he serves on the board for Society for Science & the Public and is a co-founding member of the Kosciuszko Foundation of the Collegium of Eminent Scientists of Polish Origin and Ancestry. Wilczek was married to Betsy Devine on July 3, 1973, together they have two daughters and Mira Wilczek said that "the world embodies beautiful ideas" but "although this may inspire a spiritual interpretation, it does not require one". Wilczek has appeared on an episode of Penn & Teller: Bullshit!, where Penn referred to him as "the smartest person had on the show."
In 2014, Wilczek penned a letter, along with Stephen Hawking and two other scholars, warning that "Success in creating AI would be the biggest event in human history. It might be the last, unless we learn how to avoid the risks." He is a member of the Scientific Advisory Board for the Future of Life Institute, an organization that works to mitigate existential risks facing humanity existential risk from advanced artificial intelligence. He is a supporter of the Campaign for the Establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, an organisation which advocates for democratic reform in the United Nations, the creation of a more accountable international political system. In 1973, while a graduate student working with David Gross at Princeton University, Wilczek discovered asymptotic freedom, which holds that the closer quarks are to each other, the less the strong interaction between them; the theory, independently discovered by H. David Politzer, was important for the development of quantum chromodynamics.
Wilczek has helped reveal and develop axions, asymptotic freedom, the color superconducting phases of quark matter, other aspects of quantum field theory. He has worked on condensed matter physics and particle physics. In 2012 he proposed the idea of a time crystal. In 2018, several research teams reported the existence of time crystals. Current research "Pure" particle physics: connections between theoretical ideas and observable phenomena. 2015 A Beautiful Question: Finding Nature’s Deep Design, Allen Lane, ISBN 9781846147012 2014. "Transcending Complacency on Superintelligent Machines". Huffington Post. 2008. The Lightness of Being: Mass and the Unification of Forces. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00321-1. 2007. La musica del vuoto. Roma: Di Renzo Editore. 2006. Fantastic Realities: 49 Mind Journeys And a Trip to Stockholm. World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-256-655-3. 2002, "On the world's numerical recipe," Daedalus 131: 142-47. 1989. Longing for the Harmonies: Themes and Variations from Modern Physics. W W Norton.
In computer science, artificial intelligence, sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans and animals. Computer science defines AI research as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of achieving its goals. Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is used to describe machines that mimic "cognitive" functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as "learning" and "problem solving"; as machines become capable, tasks considered to require "intelligence" are removed from the definition of AI, a phenomenon known as the AI effect. A quip in Tesler's Theorem says "AI is whatever hasn't been done yet." For instance, optical character recognition is excluded from things considered to be AI, having become a routine technology. Modern machine capabilities classified as AI include understanding human speech, competing at the highest level in strategic game systems, autonomously operating cars, intelligent routing in content delivery networks and military simulations.
Artificial intelligence can be classified into three different types of systems: analytical, human-inspired, humanized artificial intelligence. Analytical AI has only characteristics consistent with cognitive intelligence. Human-inspired AI has elements from emotional intelligence. Humanized AI shows characteristics of all types of competencies, is able to be self-conscious and is self-aware in interactions with others. Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1956, in the years since has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by disappointment and the loss of funding, followed by new approaches and renewed funding. For most of its history, AI research has been divided into subfields that fail to communicate with each other; these sub-fields are based on technical considerations, such as particular goals, the use of particular tools, or deep philosophical differences. Subfields have been based on social factors; the traditional problems of AI research include reasoning, knowledge representation, learning, natural language processing and the ability to move and manipulate objects.
General intelligence is among the field's long-term goals. Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, traditional symbolic AI. Many tools are used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, artificial neural networks, methods based on statistics and economics; the AI field draws upon computer science, information engineering, psychology, linguistics and many other fields. The field was founded on the claim that human intelligence "can be so described that a machine can be made to simulate it"; this raises philosophical arguments about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence which are issues that have been explored by myth and philosophy since antiquity. Some people consider AI to be a danger to humanity if it progresses unabated. Others believe that AI, unlike previous technological revolutions, will create a risk of mass unemployment. In the twenty-first century, AI techniques have experienced a resurgence following concurrent advances in computer power, large amounts of data, theoretical understanding.
Thought-capable artificial beings appeared as storytelling devices in antiquity, have been common in fiction, as in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein or Karel Čapek's R. U. R.. These characters and their fates raised many of the same issues now discussed in the ethics of artificial intelligence; the study of mechanical or "formal" reasoning began with philosophers and mathematicians in antiquity. The study of mathematical logic led directly to Alan Turing's theory of computation, which suggested that a machine, by shuffling symbols as simple as "0" and "1", could simulate any conceivable act of mathematical deduction; this insight, that digital computers can simulate any process of formal reasoning, is known as the Church–Turing thesis. Along with concurrent discoveries in neurobiology, information theory and cybernetics, this led researchers to consider the possibility of building an electronic brain. Turing proposed that "if a human could not distinguish between responses from a machine and a human, the machine could be considered "intelligent".
The first work, now recognized as AI was McCullouch and Pitts' 1943 formal design for Turing-complete "artificial neurons". The field of AI research was born at a workshop at Dartmouth College in 1956. Attendees Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky and Arthur Samuel became the founders and leaders of AI research, they and their students produced programs that the press described as "astonishing": computers were learning checkers strategies (and by 1959 were playing better than the average human
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution; the institution moved to Newark in 1747 to the current site nine years and renamed itself Princeton University in 1896. Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, it offers professional degrees through the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance. The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University. Princeton has the largest endowment per student in the United States. From 2001 to 2018, Princeton University was ranked either first or second among national universities by U.
S. News & World Report, holding the top spot for 16 of those 18 years; as of October 2018, 65 Nobel laureates, 15 Fields Medalists and 13 Turing Award laureates have been affiliated with Princeton University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. In addition, Princeton has been associated with 21 National Medal of Science winners, 5 Abel Prize winners, 5 National Humanities Medal recipients, 209 Rhodes Scholars, 139 Gates Cambridge Scholars and 126 Marshall Scholars. Two U. S. Presidents, twelve U. S. Supreme Court Justices and numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princeton's alumni body. Princeton has graduated many prominent members of the U. S. Congress and the U. S. Cabinet, including eight Secretaries of State, three Secretaries of Defense and three of the past five Chairs of the Federal Reserve. New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey in 1746; the college was the religious capital of Scottish Presbyterian America. In 1754, trustees of the College of New Jersey suggested that, in recognition of Governor Jonathan Belcher's interest, Princeton should be named as Belcher College.
Belcher replied: "What a name that would be!" In 1756, the college moved to New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal House of Orange-Nassau of William III of England. Following the untimely deaths of Princeton's first five presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that office until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the college's focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for secular leadership in the new American nation. To this end, he solicited investment in the college. Witherspoon's presidency constituted a long period of stability for the college, interrupted by the American Revolution and the Battle of Princeton, during which British soldiers occupied Nassau Hall. In 1812, the eighth president of the College of New Jersey, Ashbel Green, helped establish the Princeton Theological Seminary next door; the plan to extend the theological curriculum met with "enthusiastic approval on the part of the authorities at the College of New Jersey".
Today, Princeton University and Princeton Theological Seminary maintain separate institutions with ties that include services such as cross-registration and mutual library access. Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the college's sole building; the cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17, 1754. During the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the country's capital for four months. Over the centuries and through two redesigns following major fires, Nassau Hall's role shifted from an all-purpose building, comprising office, dormitory and classroom space; the class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, when that same class replaced them with tigers. Nassau Hall's bell rang after the hall's construction; the bell was recast and melted again in the fire of 1855. James McCosh took office as the college's president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period, brought about by the American Civil War.
During his two decades of service, he overhauled the curriculum, oversaw an expansion of inquiry into the sciences, supervised the addition of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style to the campus. McCosh Hall is named in his honor. In 1879, the first thesis for a Doctor of Philosophy Ph. D. was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877. In 1896, the college changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides. During this year, the college underwent large expansion and became a university. In 1900, the Graduate School was established. In 1902, Woodrow Wilson, graduate of the Class of 1879, was elected the 13th president of the university. Under Wilson, Princeton introduced the preceptorial system in 1905, a then-unique concept in the US that augmented the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form in which small groups of students, or precepts, could interact with a single instructor, or preceptor, in their field of interest.
In 1906, the reservoir Lake Carnegie was created by Andrew Carnegie. A collection of historical photographs of the build