University of Michigan
The University of Michigan simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The university is Michigan's oldest; the school was moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres of. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet spread out over a Central Campus and North Campus, two regional campuses in Flint and Dearborn, a Center in Detroit; the university is a founding member of the Association of American Universities. Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States with annual research expenditures approaching $1.5 billion, Michigan is classified as one of 115 Doctoral Universities with Very High Research by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. As of October 2018, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 25 Nobel Prize winners, 6 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with University of Michigan.
Its comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, STEM fields as well as professional degrees in architecture, medicine, pharmacy, social work, public health, dentistry. Michigan's body of living alumni comprises more than 540,000 people, one of the largest alumni bases of any university in the world. Michigan's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Wolverines, they are members of the Big Ten Conference. More than 250 Michigan athletes or coaches have participated in Olympic events, winning more than 150 medals; the University of Michigan was established in Detroit on August 26, 1817 as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, by the governor and judges of Michigan Territory. Judge Augustus B. Woodward invited The Rev. John Monteith and Father Gabriel Richard, a Catholic priest, to establish the institution. Monteith became its first president and held seven of the professorships, Richard was vice president and held the other six professorships.
Concurrently, Ann Arbor had set aside 40 acres in the hopes of being selected as the state capital. But when Lansing was chosen as the state capital, the city offered the land for a university. What would become the university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 thanks to Governor Stevens T. Mason; the original 40 acres was the basis of the present Central Campus. This land was once inhabited by the Ojibwe and Bodewadimi Native tribes and was obtained through the Treaty of Fort Meigs. In 1821, the university was renamed the University of Michigan; the first classes in Ann Arbor were held in 1841, with six freshmen and a sophomore, taught by two professors. Eleven students graduated in the first commencement in 1845. By 1866, enrollment had increased to 1,205 students. Women were first admitted in 1870, although Alice Robinson Boise Wood had become the first woman to attend classes in 1866-7. James Burrill Angell, who served as the university's president from 1871 to 1909, aggressively expanded U-M's curriculum to include professional studies in dentistry, engineering and medicine.
U-M became the first American university to use the seminar method of study. Among the early students in the School of Medicine was Jose Celso Barbosa, who in 1880 graduated as valedictorian and the first Puerto Rican to get a university degree in the United States, he returned to Puerto Rico to practice medicine and served in high-ranking posts in the government. From 1900 to 1920, the university constructed many new facilities, including buildings for the dental and pharmacy programs, natural sciences, Hill Auditorium, large hospital and library complexes, two residence halls. In 1920 the university reorganized the College of Engineering and formed an advisory committee of 100 industrialists to guide academic research initiatives; the university became a favored choice for bright Jewish students from New York in the 1920s and 1930s, when the Ivy League schools had quotas restricting the number of Jews to be admitted. Because of its high standards, U-M gained the nickname "Harvard of the West."
During World War II, U-M's research supported military efforts, such as U. S. Navy projects in proximity fuzes, PT boats, radar jamming. After the war, enrollment expanded and by 1950, it reached 21,000, of which more than one third were veterans supported by the G. I. Bill; as the Cold War and the Space Race took hold, U-M received numerous government grants for strategic research and helped to develop peacetime uses for nuclear energy. Much of that work, as well as research into alternative energy sources, is pursued via the Memorial Phoenix Project. In the 1960 Presidential campaign, U. S. Senator John F. Kennedy jokingly referred to himself as "a graduate of the Michigan of the East, Harvard University" in his speech proposing the formation of the Peace Corps speaking to a crowd from the front steps of the Michigan Union. Lyndon B. Johnson gave his speech outlining his Great Society program as the lead speaker during U-M's 1964 spring commencement ceremony. During the 1960s, the university campus was the site of numerous protests against the Vietnam War and university administration.
On March 24, 1965, a group of U-M faculty members and 3,000 students held the nation's first faculty-led "teach-in" to protest against American policy in
David J. Skorton
David Jan Skorton is an American physician, non-profit and university administrator. He leads the Smithsonian Institution, the national research museums of the United States, as its 13th Secretary. On December 20, 2018, it was announced that he had been selected as the next President and CEO of the Association of American Medical Colleges, a position he will begin on July 15, 2019. A cardiologist, he was president of Cornell University from 2006 to 2015. Before arriving at Cornell, he served as president of the University of Iowa, where he had been a longtime professor and vice president, he began his career as a professor of engineering. Skorton has committed his time as an administrator to research integrity and progressive stances on issues affecting his institutions, from mental health to the Greek System. Among his accomplishments are the growth of Cornell University onto Roosevelt Island, via Cornell NYC Tech, $4 billion in fundraising for the University. Skorton studied at the University of California, Los Angeles before transferring to Northwestern University, where he was awarded a bachelor's degree in psychology in 1970 and an M.
D. in 1974. He completed his medical residency and fellowship in cardiology at UCLA, where he served as chief medical resident. Skorton began his long career in Iowa in 1980, when he became an instructor at the University of Iowa. In 1981, he was named an assistant professor in internal medicine, in 1982 he became an assistant professor in electrical and computer engineering. While at the University of Iowa, he served as vice president for research and vice president for external relations. Skorton's time with the University culminated with the announcement that he had been selected to serve the state as the nineteenth president of the university, he was appointed by the Board of Regents on January 5, 2003. He would serve in that post until 2006. Among his goals and accomplishments were cost reducing efforts and a focus on Iowa high school graduates. Skorton was named as the 12th president of Cornell University on January 21, 2006 and is the second Cornell president to arrive directly from the presidency of the University of Iowa.
Skorton stayed on at Iowa for the duration of the 2006 spring semester and assumed the Cornell presidency on July 1, 2006. His inauguration occurred on September 7, 2006. In celebration of the occasion, the Cornell Dairy unveiled a new flavor of ice cream, "Banana-Berry Skorton." Soon after the announcement of Skorton's appointment, Doug Mitarotonda, a student member of the university's board of trustees, called him "clearly the right person to lead Cornell." Professor Robert Frank, writing for The New York Times, noted that "leaders of his stature are in short supply... every university wants a Skorton." Skorton's popularity has been cited as one factor in increased donations to the university. During his tenure as president, Cornell's capital campaign has raised over $4 billion in six years' time, despite a global recession. According to Cornell University, Skorton's base salary was $686,683 for 2009-2010. While president, Skorton maintained two academic appointments, as a professor of internal medicine and pediatrics at Weill Cornell Medical College in New York City and as a professor in Biomedical Engineering at the College of Engineering on Cornell's Ithaca campus.
Skorton chaired the Business-Higher Education Forum and the Task Force on Diversifying the New York State Economy through Industry-Higher Education Partnerships. He established a University Diversity Council at Cornell University in 2006 and presently serves as its co-chair, he writes monthly guest columns for the independent student newspaper, The Cornell Daily Sun, a bi-monthly column for the Cornell Alumni Magazine, blogs for Forbes.com and the Huffington Post. Skorton spearheaded the Reimagining Cornell initiative. In a winter 2010 interview with Imagineer magazine, he described the program: With input from faculty, staff, outside consultants, our board, alumni. What's the environment like? What is the budget of the university to look like? What can we do to be the highest quality university we can going forward, assuming that resources are not infinite, but that they are finite and a bit constrained for the foreseeable future? What we are trying to do is be in a planning mode where we talk with each other on campus and listen to those who have been here like alumni and management experts.
We try to do the best job we can of conceptualizing how to do things in a up-to-date way. On December 2, 2011, Skorton accompanied Billy Joel on flute, during Joel's rendition of "She's Always a Woman" at a concert at Cornell University's Bailey Hall. On September 30, 2010, at the same location, he accompanied Wynton Marsalis and the Jazz at Lincoln Center Orchestra. In 2011, Skorton led Cornell's effort to build a new applied sciences campus in New York City, in response to a competition designed by Mayor Michael Bloomberg to boost the city's technology startup sector. In partnership with the Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Cornell was selected as the competition's winner on December 19, 2011. In exchange for free land and $100 million for infrastructure upgrades, Cornell promised to invest over $2 billion in the new campus, called Cornell NYC Tech, over the next three decades. Construction of the campus is expected to begin in 2014 on the site of the Goldwater Hospital Campus on Roosevelt Island.
On May 21, 2012, Skorton appeared at Google's New York headquarters to announce that the tech company would donate up to 58,000 square feet of space to house CornellNYC Tech until the campus opens on Roosevelt Island in 201
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Lee Carroll Bollinger is an American lawyer and educator, serving as the 19th president of Columbia University. The president of the University of Michigan, he is a noted legal scholar of the First Amendment and freedom of speech, he was at the center of two notable United States Supreme Court cases regarding the use of affirmative action in admissions processes. In July 2010, Bollinger was appointed Chair of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York board of directors for 2011, he had served as Deputy Chair. Bollinger was born in Santa Rosa, the son of Patricia Mary and Lee C. Bollinger, he was raised there and in Oregon. Bollinger spent a year as an exchange student in Brazil with AFS Intercultural Programs, he received his B. S. in political science from the University of Oregon, where he became a brother of Theta Chi Fraternity, his Juris Doctor from Columbia Law School. He served as a law clerk to Judge Wilfred Feinberg of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and Chief Justice Warren Burger of the Supreme Court.
Bollinger went on to join the faculty of the University of Michigan Law School in 1973, becoming dean of the school in 1987. He became provost of Dartmouth College in 1994 before returning to the University of Michigan in 1996 as president. Bollinger assumed his current position as president of Columbia University in June 2002. On October 19, 2010, the Board of Trustees announced through a university-wide email that Bollinger has agreed to continue as president for at least the next five years; the board explained as the rationale for its decision to extend Bollinger's contract: "Columbia is thriving on many levels today, is well positioned for the long-term both locally and globally, because of Lee’s distinctive vision of the university’s vital role in serving our society. But we still have much work to do in building on this extraordinary forward momentum in the years ahead and therefore have every reason to maintain the continuity of Lee's principled leadership." In 2003, while serving as president of the University of Michigan, Bollinger made headlines as the named defendant in the Supreme Court cases Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger.
In the Grutter case, the Court found by a 5–4 margin that the affirmative action policies of the University of Michigan Law School were constitutional. But at the same time, it found by a 6–3 margin in the Gratz case that the undergraduate admissions policies of Michigan were not narrowly tailored to a compelling interest in diversity, thus that they violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. In 2006, affirmative action in university admissions in the state of Michigan was banned by a ballot initiative known as the Michigan Civil Rights Initiative; as president, Bollinger has attempted to expand the international scope of the University, taking frequent trips abroad and inviting world leaders to its campus. Bollinger has been criticized for taking a neutral public position on controversies regarding the Middle East Languages and Cultures department and for placing the department in receivership, he has been the subject of criticism for his role in advocating the expansion of the university into the Manhattanville neighborhood and the possible use of eminent domain to help it seize property there.
The Bollinger administration's expansion plans have been criticized as fundamentally incompatible with the 197/a plan for development crafted by the community, for failing to address the neighborhood's need to maintain affordable housing stock. President Bollinger has lived in the Columbia President's House since February 2004, after the building underwent a $23 million renovation. In 2008, his salary was $1.7 million. In 2013, Bollinger's total compensation was $4.6 million, making him the highest paid private college president in the United States. In November 2006, Bollinger was elected to the Board of Directors of the Federal Reserve Bank in New York City, a term lasting for three years. Columbia invited Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to speak at the World Leaders Forum on September 24, 2007. A number of local and national politicians denounced Columbia for hosting Ahmadinejad. Bollinger described the event as part of "Columbia's long-standing tradition of serving as a major forum for robust debate on global issues."
Bollinger released a statement outlining his introduction, explaining to the student body that the free speech afforded to Ahmadinejad was for the sake of the students and the faculty rather than for the benefit of Ahmadinejad himself, whom Bollinger referred to as "exhibiting all the signs of a petty and cruel dictator." Bollinger was criticized by students at Columbia's School of International and Public Affairs, but praised by Bob Kerrey who said that Bollinger "turned what could have been an embarrassment for higher education into something quite positive." On July 14, 2010, he wrote an article for The Wall Street Journal calling for the American government to subsidize its journalists. Bollinger is married to artist Jean Magnano Bollinger, they have five grandchildren. Bollinger's family is Catholic. In addition to his academic and administrative positions, Bollinger has written many articles and books on the subject of free speech; the Tolerant Society: Freedom of Speech and Extremist Speech in America ISBN 0-19-504000-7 Images of a Free Press ISBN 0-226-06349-6 Eternally Vigilant: Free Speech in the Modern Era ISBN 0-226-06353-4 Uninhibited and Wide-Open: A Free Press for a New Cent
Frank H. T. Rhodes
Frank Harold Trevor Rhodes was the ninth president of Cornell University from 1977 to 1995. Rhodes was born in Warwickshire, England on October 29, 1926, he attended the University of Birmingham. He holds three other degrees from Birmingham, including a Doctor of Philosophy which he received in 1950, he went to the University of Illinois for a year as a Fulbright Scholar. Rhodes taught geology at the University of Durham between 1951 and 1954. In 1954 he returned to the University of Illinois as an assistant professor and was named an associate professor in 1955. In 1956 he moved to the University of Wales, Swansea as head of the department of geology and in 1967 he was named dean of faculty of science. During this time Rhodes lectured at other institutions such as Cornell in 1960. In 1965 and 1966 he served as a visiting research fellow at the Ohio State University. Rhodes joined the University of Michigan faculty as professor of geology and mineralogy in 1968. In 1971, was named dean of the College of Literature and the Arts.
Prior to assuming the presidency at Cornell he served for three years as vice president of academic affairs at Michigan. Rhodes was elected the ninth President of Cornell University on February 16, 1977 and he assumed the office on August 1, 1977, he served until June 30, 1995. At the time of his retirement, he was the longest-serving president in the Ivy League, he is a Professor Emeritus of Geology at Cornell. In addition to his positions in academia, Rhodes has played a part in government, he was appointed as a member of the National Science Board under President Ronald Reagan, as a member of the President's Educational Policy Advisory Committee by President George H. W. Bush. Between 1984 and 2002 Rhodes served on the Board of Directors of General Electric. During his tenure as president the percentage of minority students grew from 8 percent in 1977 to 28 percent in 1994; the number of women and minority members of the faculty more than doubled. In the final years of his presidency a capital campaign raised $1.5 billion.
In 1995 the building that houses what was known as the Cornell Theory Center was named Frank H. T. Rhodes Hall. Cornell has a professorship honoring Rhodes. T. Rhodes Class of'56 University Professors are appointed to three-year terms. In 2011, the University created new postgraduate student fellowships named after Rhodes to further scholarship and research in areas including poverty alleviation, public health, human rights, supporting the elderly and disadvantaged children. King Abdullah University of Science and Technology Cornell Presidency: Frank H. T. Rhodes Cornell University Library Presidents Exhibition: Frank Howard Trevor Rhodes
The Chronicle of Higher Education
The Chronicle of Higher Education is a newspaper and website that presents news and jobs for college and university faculty and student affairs professionals. A subscription is required to read some articles; the Chronicle, based in Washington, D. C. is a major news service in United States academic affairs. It is published every weekday online and appears weekly in print except for every other week in June and August and the last three weeks in December. In print, The Chronicle is published in two sections: section A with news and job listings, section B, The Chronicle Review, a magazine of arts and ideas, it publishes The Chronicle of Philanthropy, a newspaper for the nonprofit world. Corbin Gwaltney was the founder and had been the editor of the alumni magazine of the Johns Hopkins University since 1949. In 1957, he joined in with editors from magazines of several other colleges and universities for an editorial project to investigate issues in higher education in perspective; the meeting occurred on the day the first Sputnik circled the Earth, October 4, 1957, so the "Moonshooter" project was formed as a supplement on higher education for the college magazines.
The college magazine editors promised 60 percent of one issue of their magazine to finance the supplement. The first Moonshooter Report was 32 pages long and titled American Higher Education, 1958, they sold 1.35 million copies to universities. By the project's third year, circulation was over three million for the supplement. In 1959, Gwaltney left Johns Hopkins Magazine to become the first full-time employee of the newly created "Editorial Projects for Education" starting in an office in his apartment in Baltimore and moving to an office near the Johns Hopkins campus, he realized. He and other board members of EPE met to plan a new publication which would be called The Chronicle of Higher Education; the Chronicle of Higher Education was founded in 1966 by Corbin Gwaltney. and its first issue was launched in November 1966. Although it was meant for those involved in higher education, one of the founding ideas was that the general public had little knowledge about what was going on in higher education and the real issues involved.
It didn't accept any advertising and didn't have any staff-written editorial opinions. It was supported by grants from the Ford Foundation. On in its history, advertising would be accepted for jobs in higher education, this would allow the newspaper to be financially independent. By the 1970s, the Chronicle was attracting enough advertising to become self-sufficient, in 1978 the board of EPE agreed to sell the newspaper to its editors. EPE sold the Chronicle to the editors for $2,000,000 in cash and $500,000 in services that Chronicle would provide to EPE. Chronicle went from a legal non-profit status to a for-profit company; this sale shifted the focus of non-profit EPE to K-12 education. Inspired by the model established by the Chronicle, with the support of the Carnegie Corporation and other philanthropies, EPE founded Education Week in September 1981. In 1993, the Chronicle was one of the first newspapers to appear on the Internet, as a Gopher service, it released an iPad version in 2011. The Chronicle grossed $33 million in advertising revenues and $7 million in circulation revenues in 2003.
Over the years, the paper has been a winner of several journalism awards. In 2005, two special reports – on diploma mills and plagiarism – were selected as finalists in the reporting category for a National Magazine Award, it was a finalist for the award in general excellence every year from 2001 to 2005. In 2007, The Chronicle won an Utne Reader Independent Press Award for political coverage. In its award citation, Utne called The Chronicle Review "a fearless, free-thinking section where academia's best and brightest can take their gloves off and swing with abandon at both sides of the predictable political divide." The New Republic, The Nation and The American Prospect were among the finalists in the category. Baldwin, Joyce, "Chronicling Higher Education for Nearly Forty Years,", Carnegie Results, Carnegie Corporation of New York, Winter, 2006 issue Baldwin, Patricia L. Covering the Campus: The History of The Chronicle of Higher Education, 1966–1993, Texas: University of North Texas Press, 1995.
ISBN 0-929398-96-3 Connell, Christopher. 8, pp. 12–24, 27, journal published for the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching by Heldref Publications Official website
A law clerk or a judicial clerk is an individual—generally an attorney—who provides direct assistance and counsel to a judge in making legal determinations and in writing opinions by researching issues before the court. Judicial clerks play significant roles in the formation of case law through their influence upon judges' decisions. Judicial clerks should not be confused with legal clerks, court clerks, or courtroom deputies who only provide secretarial and administrative support to attorneys and/or judges. Judicial clerks are recent law school graduates who performed at or near the top of their class. Serving as a judicial clerk is considered to be one of the most prestigious positions in legal circles, tends to open up wide-ranging opportunities in academia, law firm practice, influential government work. In some countries, judicial clerks are known as judicial assistants. In many nations, clerk duties are performed by permanent staff attorneys or junior apprentice-like judges, such as those that sit on France's Conseil d'État.
In English courts, they are known as judicial assistants. The European Court of Justice uses the stagiaires. Australia, Canada and Brazil have notable clerk systems. See Judge's associate and Tipstaff. Most Canadian courts accept applications for judicial clerkships from graduating law students or experienced lawyers who have been called to the Bar in Canada or abroad. Most provincial superior and appellate courts hire at least one clerk for each judge. Students in their last two years of law school are eligible to apply for these positions, but experienced practicing lawyers are considered for these positions; the term lasts a year and fulfills the articling requirement for provincial law societies, which qualifies a person to become a practicing lawyer in a Canadian jurisdiction. The most prestigious clerkship available is with the country's highest court, the Supreme Court of Canada, followed by the Federal and provincial Courts of Appeal; each Justice of the Supreme Court hires four clerks for a one-year period.
The Federal Court of Appeal, based in Ottawa but hears cases across the country, selects 15 law clerks each year, or one per judge. The Federal Court hires only one clerk per judge, or about 30 per year in total; the Court of Appeal for Ontario selects 17 law clerks, who serve either one or two of the 24 Justices. The Quebec Court of Appeal hires a similar number of law clerks for both Montreal and Quebec City, but is unusual among Canadian courts in having a formal clerkship program for law students in addition to law graduates; the Court of Appeal for Saskatchewan hires 3 clerks. Successful candidates for all clerkships are selected based on a distinguished academic record, academic recommendations, strong research and writing skills and interviews with judges. For both the Supreme Court of Canada and the Quebec Court of Appeal, being able to work in both English and French is preferred; the Tax Court of Canada hires 12 clerks annually. Many law clerks have gone on to become leaders of the profession.
For example, the Hon. Mr. Justice Jean Cote of the Alberta Court of Appeal was one of the first Supreme Court law clerks, serving as a clerk in the program's inaugural year; the Hon. Madam Justice Louise Arbour of the Supreme Court of Canada, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and former UN High Commissioner for Human Rights served as a law clerk in the early years of the program. Meanwhile, the Hon. Madam Justice Andromache Karakatsanis of the Supreme Court of Canada and the Hon. Madam Justice Kathryn N. Feldman of the Ontario Court of Appeal were law clerks at the Ontario Court of Appeal. In England and Wales, law clerks are called judicial assistants, it is possible to be a judicial assistant at the UK Supreme Court. Only Supreme Court judicial assistants are appointed for a full-time, one year fixed-term appointment. Since 2006 they have taken part in a week long exchange in Washington DC at the U. S. Supreme Court established by the late Justice Antonin Lord Rodger of Earlsferry.
Sally Kenney's article on clerks, or référendaires, on the European Court of Justice provides one detailed point of comparison. There are some major differences between ECJ clerks and their American counterparts because of the way the ECJ is structured. One key difference is that ECJ clerks, while hired by individual judges, serve long tenures as opposed to the one-year-clerkship norm at the U. S. Supreme Court; this gives ECJ clerks considerable power. Because ECJ judges serve six-year renewable terms and do not issue individual opinions, the most important role of ECJ clerks is to facilitate uniformity and continuity across chambers, member-states, over time. Furthermore, this role is heightened because the European Union is composed of different nations with disparate legal systems. Kenney found that ECJ clerks provide legal and linguistic expertise, ease the workload of their members, participate in oral and written interactions between chambers, provide continuity as members change. While Kenney concludes that they have more power than their counterparts on the U.
S. Supreme Court, ECJ clerks act as agents for their principals—judges—and are not the puppeteers that critics claim; the ECJ admits a limited n