The skeptical movement is a modern social movement based on the idea of scientific skepticism. Scientific skepticism involves the application of skeptical philosophy, critical-thinking skills, knowledge of science and its methods to empirical claims, while remaining agnostic or neutral to non-empirical claims; the movement has the goal of investigating claims made on fringe topics and determining whether they are supported by empirical research and are reproducible, as part of a methodological norm pursuing "the extension of certified knowledge". The process followed is sometimes referred to as skeptical inquiry. Roots of the movement date at least from the 19th century, when people started publicly raising questions regarding the unquestioned acceptance of claims about spiritism, of various widely-held superstitions, of pseudoscience. Publications such as those of the Dutch Vereniging tegen de Kwakzalverij targeted medical quackery. Using as a template the Belgian organization founded in 1949, Comité Para, Americans Paul Kurtz and Marcello Truzzi founded the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal, in Amherst, New York in 1976.
Now known as the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, this organization has inspired others to form similar groups worldwide. Scientific skepticism or rational skepticism, sometimes referred to as skeptical inquiry, is an epistemological position in which one questions the veracity of claims lacking empirical evidence. In practice, the term is most applied to the examination of claims and theories that appear to be beyond mainstream science, rather than to the routine discussions and challenges among scientists. Scientific skepticism is different from philosophical skepticism, which questions humans' ability to claim any knowledge about the nature of the world and how they perceive it. Methodological skepticism, a systematic process of being skeptical about the truth of one's beliefs, is similar but distinct; the New Skepticism described by Paul Kurtz is scientific skepticism. For example, Robert K. Merton asserts that all ideas must be tested and are subject to rigorous, structured community scrutiny.
An important difference to classical skepticism, according to religious history professor Olav Hammer, is that it is not directly aligned with classical pyrrhonian scepticism, which would question all sort of orthodox wisdom, as well as the one established by modern science. According to Hammer, "the intellectual forebears of the modern skeptical movement are rather to be found among the many writers throughout history who have argued against beliefs they did not share."The following are quotations related to scientific skepticism: Briefly stated, a skeptic is one, willing to question any claim to truth, asking for clarity in definition, consistency in logic, adequacy of evidence. The use of skepticism is thus an essential part of objective scientific inquiry and the search for reliable knowledge. What skeptical thinking boils down to is the means to construct, to understand, a reasoned argument and important, to recognize a fallacious or fraudulent argument; the question is not whether we like the conclusion that emerges out of a train of reasoning, but whether the conclusion follows from the premises or starting point and whether that premise is true.
Science is a way of skeptically interrogating the universe with a fine understanding of human fallibility. If we are not able to ask skeptical questions, to interrogate those who tell us that something is true, to be skeptical of those in authority we’re up for grabs for the next charlatan, political or religious, who comes ambling along. Scientific skepticism the practice or project of studying paranormal and pseudoscientific claims through the lens of science and critical scholarship, sharing the results with the public. A skeptic is one who prefers beliefs and conclusions that are reliable and valid to ones that are comforting or convenient, therefore rigorously and applies the methods of science and reason to all empirical claims their own. A skeptic provisionally proportions acceptance of any claim to valid logic and a fair and thorough assessment of available evidence, studies the pitfalls of human reason and the mechanisms of deception so as to avoid being deceived by others or themselves.
Skepticism values method over any particular conclusion. "Skepticism is a provisional approach to claims. It is the application of reason to any and all ideas—no sacred cows allowed. In other words, skepticism is a method, not a position." The true meaning of the word skepticism has nothing to do with disbelief, or negativity. Skepticism is the process of applying reason and critical thinking to determine validity. It's the process of finding a supported conclusion, not the justification of a preconceived conclusion. With regard to the skeptical social movement, Loxton refers to other movements promoting "humanism, rationalism, science education and critical thinking" before, he saw the demand for the new movement—a movement of people called "skeptics" — being based on a lack of interest by the scientific community to address paranormal and fringe science claims. In line with Kendrick Frazier, he describes the movement as a surrogate in that area for institutional science; the movement set up a distinct field of study, provided an organizational structure, while long-standing genre of individual skeptical activities lacked such a community and background.
Skeptical organizations tend to have science education and promotion among
Derek Colanduno is an American skeptic and podcaster. Derek is employed as a software engineer for a wastewater engineering firm in Atlanta, GA, where he resides. In the early 1980s when Colanduno was in elementary school, he developed an interest in computer science with encouragement from his father, a computer programmer at Burroughs Corporation. After high school, his family moved to Las Vegas, Nevada where Colanduno attended University of Nevada, Las Vegas, majoring in Computer Science, he worked as an engineer for a national Sports Radio network and a owned Alternative Rock Station during late night, where he would fill in as an on-air broadcaster.d Colanduno first began streaming RealAudio content in the 1990s, prior to the podcasting boom of the 2000s. He has contributed to several other podcasts including The Pickle Round-Up for Podcast Pickle and AMP'd, the weekly music review show for the Association of Independent Music Podcasters, a group of music podcasters from around the world who promote and support independent musicians through the web.
He is the the Director for Skeptrack at Dragon*Con. Colanduno became interested in skepticism after picking up a copy of Skeptic Magazine with a photo of Carl Sagan on the cover in the 1990s. Due to his notoriety of Skepticality, he has been interviewed numerous times on the subject of Skepticism, he has appeared on the XM-Sirius show & podcast Slice of SciFi, the podcast Disability 411 The Skeptic Zone podcast and for the website Cuddly Atheism, among others. Colanduno is the co-creator and co-host, of the talk show Skepticality, the official biweekly podcast of The Skeptics Society's Skeptic magazine. Skepticality is dedicated to the promotion of critical science; each episode is an audio magazine featuring regular segments by contributors who are specialized in specific areas of critical thought followed by featured content, in the form of an interview with a researcher, author, or individual, helping promote skeptical thought and/or science in an effective way. In 2008, Derek and Robynn McCarthy launched a new sub-conference at Dragon*Con called the Skeptrack.
Daniel Loxton, a panelist at the 2009 Skeptrack Conference describes it as follows: "Skeptrack is a remarkable achievement whose potential cannot be overstated. In its second year, Skeptrack is a full-blown skeptics conference, offering more programming to a larger audience than did TAM2. And, because Skeptrack is embedded within Dragon*Con, it offers unique assets — and unique promise for growth and outreach." On September 8, 2005, during a dinner celebrating Skepticality being mentioned during a Steve Jobs speech, Colanduno suffered a massive stroke after which he spent six weeks in a coma. His doctors were unable to determine with certainty whether what he suffered was a proper stroke or a burst aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation; the damage to his frontal lobe was extensive and resulted in severe executive function disorder, now under control following years of rehabilitation and a regimen of drugs. In an interview in 2012, Colanduno stated that his stroke affected the part of his brain, responsible for a psychological phenomenon called Pareidolia.
This is a normal brain's way of interpreting vague or random stimulus as being significant, such as seeing an animal or a face in a cloud or seeing the "Man in the Moon." He suffered significant Aphasia which affected his ability to speak. Colanduno chose to use Music Therapy to improve his speech pattern, word formation and word-finding abilities. Speaking a nursery rhyme, for example, to the beat of the music using a metronome helped his condition significantly. Colanduno was told he would never walk again, however he adamantly persevered until he was able to walk again; the drug L-DOPA or Levodopa expedited his recovery. Colanduno is the namesake for the asteroid 106545 Colanduno, it was named for him by Jeff Medkeff because he felt Derek had "pioneered the new media of podcasting and put it to service for skeptical thinking." Official website Skepticality official site
Philip Cary Plait known as The Bad Astronomer, is an American astronomer, skeptic and popular science blogger. Plait has worked as part of the Hubble Space Telescope team and spectra of astronomical objects, as well as engaging in public outreach advocacy for NASA missions, he has written Bad Astronomy and Death from the Skies. He has appeared in several science documentaries, including Phil Plait's Bad Universe and How the Universe Works on the Discovery Channel. From August 2008 through 2009, he served as president of the James Randi Educational Foundation. Additionally, he wrote and hosted episodes of Crash Course Astronomy, which aired its last episode in 2016. Plait grew up in the Washington, D. C. area. He has said he became interested in astronomy when his father brought home a telescope when Plait was 5 years old or so. According to Plait, he "aimed it at Saturn that night. One look, and, it. I was hooked." Plait attended the University of Michigan and received his PhD in astronomy at the University of Virginia in 1995 with a thesis on supernova SN 1987A, which he studied with the Supernova Intensive Study.
During the 1990s, Plait worked with the COBE satellite and was part of the Hubble Space Telescope team at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, working on the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. In 1995, he published observations of a ring of circumstellar material around SN 1987A, which led to further study of explosion mechanisms in core-collapse supernovae. Plait's work with Grady, et al. resulted in the presentation of high-resolution images of isolated stellar objects from the Hubble Space Telescope, among the first of those recorded. These results have been used in further studies into the properties and structure of dim, moderate-size stars, called Herbig Ae/Be stars, which confirmed results observed by Grady, et al. After his research contributions, Plait concentrated on educational outreach, he went on to perform web-based public outreach for the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and other NASA-funded missions while at Sonoma State University from 2000 to 2007. In 2001, he coauthored a paper on increasing accessibility of astronomy education resources and programs.
A large proportion of his public outreach occurs online. He established the badastronomy website in 1998 and the corresponding blog in 2005; the website remains archived but is no longer maintained, while the blog has continued, through several changes of platform, to the present day. His first book, Bad Astronomy: Misconceptions and Misuses Revealed, from Astrology to the Moon Landing "Hoax" deals with much the same subject matter as his website, his second book, Death from the Skies, describes ways astronomical events could wipe out life on Earth and was released in October 2008. Plait's work has appeared in the Encyclopædia Britannica Yearbook of Science and the Future and Astronomy magazine, he is a frequent guest on the SETI Institute's weekly science radio show Big Picture Science. Plait has contributed to a number of television and cinema productions, either onscreen as host or guest or in an advisory role offscreen, he hosted the three-part documentary series "Phil Plait's Bad Universe" on the Discovery Channel, which first aired in the United States on August 29, 2010 but was not picked up as a series.
He has appeared in numerous science programs including How the Universe Works. Plait was the 2017 CBS TV Series Salvation, he was the head science writer of the 2017 show. From 2008 to 2009, Plait served as the president of the James Randi Educational Foundation, which promotes scientific skepticism, a position he stepped down from in order to focus on the "Bad Universe" television project, he has been a regular speaker at attended science and skepticism events and conferences, such as The Amazing Meeting, Northeast Conference on Science and Skepticism, DragonCon. Plait writes and speaks on topics related to scientific skepticism, such as advocating in favor of widespread immunization. Plait resides in Boulder, Colorado with his wife, Marcella Setter, daughter. In a 2009 interview, Plait stated that his daughter is interested in astronomy and science, as well as anime and manga. Setter and Plait run a vacation company that provides science-based adventures. Plait began publishing explanatory Internet postings on science in 1993.
Five years Plait established Badastronomy.com with the goal of clearing up what he perceived to be widespread public misconceptions about astronomy and space science in movies, the news, on the Internet providing critical analysis of several pseudoscientific theories related to space and astronomy, such as the "Planet X" cataclysm, Richard Hoagland's theories, the Moon landing "hoax". It received a considerable amount of traffic after Plait criticized a Fox Network special accusing NASA of faking the Apollo missions. Astronomer Michelle Thaller has described Badastronomy.com, as well as Plait's book and essays called Bad Astronomy, as "a monumental service to the space-science community". In 2005, Plait started the Bad Astronomy blog. In July 2008, it moved to Discover Magazine. While it is an astronomy blog, Plait posts about skepticism, antiscience topics, with occasional personal and political posts. On November 12, 2012, the Bad Astronomy blog moved to Slate magazine. Plait told Richard Saunders in an interview that "they are supportive... a new community."
Revisiting old posts, Plait stated, "I've written about everything, when you've written 7,000 blog posts you'v
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities. Less broadly, atheism is the rejection of belief. In an narrower sense, atheism is the position that there are no deities. Atheism is contrasted with theism, which, in its most general form, is the belief that at least one deity exists; the etymological root for the word atheism originated before the 5th century BCE from the ancient Greek ἄθεος, meaning "without god". In antiquity it had multiple uses as a pejorative term applied to those thought to reject the gods worshiped by the larger society, those who were forsaken by the gods, or those who had no commitment to belief in the gods; the term denoted a social category created by orthodox religionists into which those who did not share their religious beliefs were placed. The actual term atheism emerged first in the 16th century. With the spread of freethought, skeptical inquiry, subsequent increase in criticism of religion, application of the term narrowed in scope.
The first individuals to identify themselves using the word atheist lived in the 18th century during the Age of Enlightenment. The French Revolution, noted for its "unprecedented atheism," witnessed the first major political movement in history to advocate for the supremacy of human reason; the French Revolution can be described as the first period where atheism became implemented politically. Arguments for atheism range from the philosophical to historical approaches. Rationales for not believing in deities include arguments that there is a lack of empirical evidence, the problem of evil, the argument from inconsistent revelations, the rejection of concepts that cannot be falsified, the argument from nonbelief. Nonbelievers contend that atheism is a more parsimonious position than theism and that everyone is born without beliefs in deities. Although some atheists have adopted secular philosophies, there is no one ideology or set of behaviors to which all atheists adhere. Since conceptions of atheism vary, accurate estimations of current numbers of atheists are difficult.
According to global Win-Gallup International studies, 13% of respondents were "convinced atheists" in 2012, 11% were "convinced atheists" in 2015, in 2017, 9% were "convinced atheists". However, other researchers have advised caution with WIN/Gallup figures since other surveys which have used the same wording for decades and have a bigger sample size have reached lower figures. An older survey by the British Broadcasting Corporation in 2004 recorded atheists as comprising 8% of the world's population. Other older estimates have indicated that atheists comprise 2% of the world's population, while the irreligious add a further 12%. According to these polls and East Asia are the regions with the highest rates of atheism. In 2015, 61 % of people in China reported; the figures for a 2010 Eurobarometer survey in the European Union reported that 20% of the EU population claimed not to believe in "any sort of spirit, God or life force". Writers disagree on how best to define and classify atheism, contesting what supernatural entities are considered gods, whether it is a philosophic position in its own right or the absence of one, whether it requires a conscious, explicit rejection.
Atheism has been regarded as compatible with agnosticism, has been contrasted with it. A variety of categories have been used to distinguish the different forms of atheism; some of the ambiguity and controversy involved in defining atheism arises from difficulty in reaching a consensus for the definitions of words like deity and god. The plurality of wildly different conceptions of God and deities leads to differing ideas regarding atheism's applicability; the ancient Romans accused Christians of being atheists for not worshiping the pagan deities. This view fell into disfavor as theism came to be understood as encompassing belief in any divinity. With respect to the range of phenomena being rejected, atheism may counter anything from the existence of a deity, to the existence of any spiritual, supernatural, or transcendental concepts, such as those of Buddhism, Hinduism and Taoism. Definitions of atheism vary in the degree of consideration a person must put to the idea of gods to be considered an atheist.
Atheism has sometimes been defined to include the simple absence of belief. This broad definition would include newborns and other people who have not been exposed to theistic ideas; as far back as 1772, Baron d'Holbach said. George H. Smith suggested that: "The man, unacquainted with theism is an atheist because he does not believe in a god; this category would include the child with the conceptual capacity to grasp the issues involved, but, still unaware of those issues. The fact that this child does not believe in god qualifies him as an atheist." Implicit atheism is "the absence of theistic belief without a conscious rejection of it" and explicit atheism is the conscious rejection of belief. For the purposes of his paper on "philosophical atheism", Ernest Nagel contested including mere absence of theistic belief as a type of atheism. Graham Oppy classifies as innocents those who never considered the question because they lack any understanding of what a god is. According to Oppy, these could be one-month-old babies, humans with severe traumatic brain injuries, or patients with advanced dementia.
Philosophers such as Antony Flew and Michael Martin have contrasted positive (st
Philanthropy means the love of humanity. A conventional modern definition is "private initiatives, for the public good, focusing on quality of life", which combines an original humanistic tradition with a social scientific aspect developed in the 20th century; the definition serves to contrast philanthropy with business endeavors, which are private initiatives for private good, e.g. focusing on material gain, with government endeavors, which are public initiatives for public good, e.g. focusing on provision of public services. A person who practices philanthropy is called a philanthropist. Philanthropy has distinguishing characteristics separate from charity. A difference cited is that charity aims to relieve the pain of a particular social problem, whereas philanthropy attempts to address the root cause of the problem—the difference between the proverbial gift of a fish to a hungry person, versus teaching them how to fish. In the second century CE, Plutarch used the Greek concept of philanthrôpía to describe superior human beings.
During the Roman Catholic Middle Ages, philanthrôpía was superseded by Caritas charity, selfless love, valued for salvation and escape from purgatory. Philanthropy was modernized by Sir Francis Bacon in the 1600s, credited with preventing the word from being owned by horticulture. Bacon considered philanthrôpía to be synonymous with "goodness", correlated with the Aristotelian conception of virtue, as consciously instilled habits of good behaviour. Samuel Johnson defined philanthropy as "love of mankind; this definition still survives today and is cited more gender-neutrally as the "love of humanity." In London prior to the 18th century and civic charities were established by bequests and operated by local church parishes or guilds. During the 18th century, however, "a more activist and explicitly Protestant tradition of direct charitable engagement during life" took hold, exemplified by the creation of the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge and Societies for the Reformation of Manners.
In 1739, Thomas Coram, appalled by the number of abandoned children living on the streets of London, received a royal charter to establish the Foundling Hospital to look after these unwanted orphans in Lamb's Conduit Fields, Bloomsbury. This was "the first children's charity in the country, one that'set the pattern for incorporated associational charities' in general." The hospital "marked the first great milestone in the creation of these new-style charities."Jonas Hanway, another notable philanthropist of the era, established The Marine Society in 1756 as the first seafarer's charity, in a bid to aid the recruitment of men to the navy. By 1763, the society had recruited over 10,000 men and it was incorporated in 1772. Hanway was instrumental in establishing the Magdalen Hospital to rehabilitate prostitutes; these organizations were run as voluntary associations. They raised public awareness of their activities through the emerging popular press and were held in high social regard—some charities received state recognition in the form of the Royal Charter.
Philanthropists, such as anti-slavery campaigner William Wilberforce, began to adopt active campaigning roles, where they would champion a cause and lobby the government for legislative change. This included organized campaigns against the ill treatment of animals and children and the campaign that succeeded in ending the slave trade throughout the Empire starting in 1807. Although there were no slaves allowed in Britain itself, many rich men owned sugar plantations in the West Indies, resisted the movement to buy them out until it succeeded in 1833. Financial donations to organized charities became fashionable among the middle-class in the 19th century. By 1869 there were over 200 London charities with an annual income, all together, of about £2 million. By 1885, rapid growth had produced with an income of about £ 4.5 million. They included a wide range of religious and secular goals, with the American import, the YMCA as one of the largest, many small ones such as the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain Association.
In addition to making annual donations wealthy industrialists and financiers left generous sums in their wills. A sample of 466 wills in the 1890s revealed a total wealth of £76 million, of which £20 million was bequeathed to charities. By 1900 London charities enjoyed an annual income of about £8.5 million. Led by the energetic Lord Shaftesbury, philanthropists organized themselves. In 1869 they set up the Charity Organisation Society, it was a federation of one in each of the 42 Poor Law divisions. Its central office had experts in coordination and guidance, thereby maximizing the impact of charitable giving to the poor. Many of the charities were designed to alleviate the harsh living conditions in the slums; such as the Labourer's Friend Society founded in 1830. This included the promotion of allotment of land to labourers for "cottage husbandry" that became the allotment movement, in 1844 it became the first Model Dwellings Company—an organization that sought to improve the housing conditions of the working classes by building new homes for them, while at the same time receiving a competitive rate of return on any investment.
This was one of the first housing associations, a philanthropic endeavor that flourished in the second half of the nineteenth century, brought about by the growth of the middle class. Associations included the Peabody Trust, t
International Astronomical Union
The International Astronomical Union is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy. Among other activities, it acts as the internationally recognized authority for assigning designations and names to celestial bodies and any surface features on them; the IAU is a member of the International Council for Science. Its main objective is to promote and safeguard the science of astronomy in all its aspects through international cooperation; the IAU maintains friendly relations with organizations that include amateur astronomers in their membership. The IAU has its head office on the second floor of the Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris in the 14th arrondissement of Paris. Working groups include the Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature, which maintains the astronomical naming conventions and planetary nomenclature for planetary bodies, the Working Group on Star Names, which catalogs and standardizes proper names for stars.
The IAU is responsible for the system of astronomical telegrams which are produced and distributed on its behalf by the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. The Minor Planet Center operates under the IAU, is a "clearinghouse" for all non-planetary or non-moon bodies in the Solar System; the Working Group for Meteor Shower Nomenclature and the Meteor Data Center coordinate the nomenclature of meteor showers. The IAU was founded on 28 July 1919, at the Constitutive Assembly of the International Research Council held in Brussels, Belgium. Two subsidiaries of the IAU were created at this assembly: the International Time Commission seated at the International Time Bureau in Paris and the International Central Bureau of Astronomical Telegrams seated in Copenhagen, Denmark; the 7 initial member states were Belgium, France, Great Britain, Greece and the United States, soon to be followed by Italy and Mexico. The first executive committee consisted of Benjamin Baillaud, Alfred Fowler, four vice presidents: William Campbell, Frank Dyson, Georges Lecointe, Annibale Riccò.
Thirty-two Commissions were appointed at the Brussels meeting and focused on topics ranging from relativity to minor planets. The reports of these 32 Commissions formed the main substance of the first General Assembly, which took place in Rome, Italy, 2–10 May 1922. By the end of the first General Assembly, ten additional nations had joined the Union, bringing the total membership to 19 countries. Although the Union was formed eight months after the end of World War I, international collaboration in astronomy had been strong in the pre-war era; the first 50 years of the Union's history are well documented. Subsequent history is recorded in the form of reminiscences of past IAU Presidents and General Secretaries. Twelve of the fourteen past General Secretaries in the period 1964-2006 contributed their recollections of the Union's history in IAU Information Bulletin No. 100. Six past IAU Presidents in the period 1976–2003 contributed their recollections in IAU Information Bulletin No. 104. The IAU includes a total of 12,664 individual members who are professional astronomers from 96 countries worldwide.
83% of all individual members are male, while 17% are female, among them the union's former president, Mexican astronomer Silvia Torres-Peimbert. Membership includes 79 national members, professional astronomical communities representing their country's affiliation with the IAU. National members include the Australian Academy of Science, the Chinese Astronomical Society, the French Academy of Sciences, the Indian National Science Academy, the National Academies, the National Research Foundation of South Africa, the National Scientific and Technical Research Council, KACST, the Council of German Observatories, the Royal Astronomical Society, the Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Science Council of Japan, among many others; the sovereign body of the IAU is its General Assembly. The Assembly determines IAU policy, approves the Statutes and By-Laws of the Union and elects various committees; the right to vote on matters brought before the Assembly varies according to the type of business under discussion.
The Statutes consider such business to be divided into two categories: issues of a "primarily scientific nature", upon which voting is restricted to individual members, all other matters, upon which voting is restricted to the representatives of national members. On budget matters, votes are weighted according to the relative subscription levels of the national members. A second category vote requires a turnout of at least two-thirds of national members in order to be valid. An absolute majority is sufficient for approval in any vote, except for Statute revision which requires a two-thirds majority. An equality of votes is resolved by the vote of the President of the Union. Since 1922, the IAU General Assembly meets every three years, with the ex
Sky & Telescope
Sky & Telescope is a monthly American magazine covering all aspects of amateur astronomy, including the following: current events in astronomy and space exploration. The articles are intended for the informed lay reader and include detailed discussions of current discoveries by participating scientists; the magazine is illustrated in full color, with both amateur and professional photography of celestial sights, as well as tables and charts of upcoming celestial events. Sky & Telescope was founded by Charles A Federer and his wife Helen Spence Federer and began publication at Harvard College Observatory in November 1941, as a result of the merger of the separate magazines, The Sky and The Telescope. In 2005, Sky Publishing Corporation was acquired by New Track Media, a portfolio company of the private equity firm Boston Ventures. In 2014, New Track was sold to F+W Media; the magazine played an important role in the dissemination of knowledge about telescope making, through the column "Gleanings for ATMs" that ran from 1933 to 1990.
Its main competitor is Astronomy. Amateur astronomy Amateur telescope making Official website