University of Liverpool
The University of Liverpool is a public university based in the city of Liverpool, England. Founded as a college in 1881, it gained its royal charter in 1903 with the ability to award degrees and is known to be one of the six original'red brick' civic universities, it comprises three faculties organised into schools. It is a founding member of the Russell Group, the N8 Group for research collaboration and the university management school is AACSB accredited. Ten Nobel Prize winners are amongst its alumni and past faculty and the university offers more than 230 first degree courses across 103 subjects, its alumni include the CEOs of GlobalFoundries, ARM Holdings, Tesco and The Coca-Cola Company. It was the world's first university to establish departments in oceanography, civic design and biochemistry at the Johnston Laboratories. In 2006 the university became the first in the UK to establish an independent university in China, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, making it the world's first Sino-British university.
For 2017-18, Liverpool had a turnover of £543.9 million, including £95.6 million from research grants and contracts. It has the fifth largest endowment of any university in England. Graduates of the university are styled with the post-nominal letters Lpool, to indicate the institution; the university has a strategic partnership with Laureate International Universities, a for-profit college collective, for University of Liverpool online. The partnership provides the technical infrastructure to deliver courses worldwide; the university was established in 1881 as University College Liverpool, admitting its first students in 1882. In 1884, it became part of the federal Victoria University. In 1894 Oliver Lodge, a professor at the university, made the world's first public radio transmission and two years took the first surgical X-ray in the United Kingdom; the Liverpool University Press was founded in 1899, making it the third oldest university press in England. Students in this period were awarded external degrees by the University of London.
Following a royal charter and act of Parliament in 1903, it became an independent university with the right to confer its own degrees called the University of Liverpool. The next few years saw major developments at the university, including Sir Charles Sherrington's discovery of the synapse and William Blair-Bell's work on chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer. In the 1930s to 1940s Sir James Chadwick and Sir Joseph Rotblat made major contributions to the development of the atomic bomb. From 1943 to 1966 Allan Downie, Professor of Bacteriology, was involved in the eradication of smallpox. In 1994 the university was a founding member of the Russell Group, a collaboration of twenty leading research-intensive universities, as well as a founding member of the N8 Group in 2004. In the 21st century physicists and technicians from the University of Liverpool were involved in the construction of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, working on two of the four detectors in the LHC. In 2004, Sylvan Learning known as Laureate International Universities, became the worldwide partner for University of Liverpool online.
The university has produced ten Nobel Prize winners, from the fields of science, medicine and peace. The Nobel laureates include the physician Sir Ronald Ross, physicist Charles Barkla, physicist Martin Lewis Perl, the physiologist Sir Charles Sherrington, physicist Sir James Chadwick, chemist Sir Robert Robinson, chemist Har Gobind Khorana, physiologist Rodney Porter, economist Ronald Coase and physicist Joseph Rotblat. Sir Ronald Ross was the first British Nobel laureate in 1902; the University is associated with Professors Ronald Finn and Sir Cyril Clarke who jointly won the Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award in 1980 and Sir David Weatherall who won the Lasker-Koshland Special Achievement Award in Medical Science in 2010. These Lasker Awards are popularly known as America's Nobels. Over the 2013/2014 academic year, members of staff took part in numerous strikes after staff were offered a pay rise of 1% which unions equated to a 13% pay cut since 2008; the strikes were supported by both the university's Guild of Students and the National Union of Students.
Some students at the university supported the strike. The university is based around a single urban campus five minutes walk from Liverpool City Centre, at the top of Brownlow Hill and Mount Pleasant. Occupying 100 acres, it contains 192 non-residential buildings that house 69 lecture theatres, 114 teaching areas and research facilities; the main site is divided into three faculties: Life Sciences. The Veterinary Teaching Hospital and Ness Botanical Gardens are based on the Wirral Peninsula. There was a marine biology research station at Port Erin on the Isle of Man until it closed in 2006. Fifty-one residential buildings, on or near the campus, provide 3,385 rooms for students, on a catered or self-catering basis; the centrepiece of the campus remains the University's original red brick building, the Victoria Building. Opened in 1892, it has been restored as the Victoria Gallery and Museum, complete with cafe and activities for school visits Victoria Gallery and Museum, University of Liverpool.
In 2011 the university made a commitment to invest £660m into the'Student Experience', £250m of which will be spent on Student Accommodation. Announced so far have been two large On-Campus halls of residences (the first of which, Vine Court, opened September 2012, new Veterinary Science facilities, a £10m refurbishment of the Liverpool Guild of Students. New Central Teaching Laboratories for physics, earth sciences, chemistry an
Jason was an ancient Greek mythological hero, the leader of the Argonauts whose quest for the Golden Fleece featured in Greek literature. He was the son of the rightful king of Iolcos, he was married to the sorceress Medea. He was the great-grandson of the messenger god Hermes, through his mother's side. Jason appeared in various literary works in the classical world of Greece and Rome, including the epic poem Argonautica and the tragedy Medea. In the modern world, Jason has emerged as a character in various adaptations of his myths, such as the 1963 film Jason and the Argonauts and the 2000 TV miniseries of the same name. Jason's father is invariably Aeson. According to various authors, she could be: Alcimede, daughter of Phylacus Polymede, or Polymele, or Polypheme, a daughter of Autolycus Amphinome Theognete, daughter of Laodicus Rhoeo Arne or ScarpheJason was said to have had a younger brother Promachus. By Medea: Alcimenes, murdered by Medea. Thessalus, twin of Alcimenes and king of Iolcus.
Tisander, murdered by Medea Mermeros killed either by the Corinthians or by Medea Pheres, as above Eriopis, their only daughter Medus or Polyxemus, otherwise son of Aegeus Argus seven sons and seven daughtersBy Hypsipyle: Euneus, King of Lemnos and his twin Nebrophonus or Deipylus or Thoas Pelias was power-hungry and sought to gain dominion over all of Thessaly. Pelias was the progeny of a union between their shared mother, the daughter of Salmoneus, the sea god Poseidon. In a bitter feud, he overthrew Aeson, he spared his half-brother for unknown reasons. Aeson's wife Alcimede I had a newborn son named Jason whom she saved from Pelias by having female attendants cluster around the infant and cry as if he were still-born. Fearing that Pelias would notice and kill her son, Alcimede sent him away to be reared by the centaur Chiron,. Pelias, fearing that his ill-gotten kingship might be challenged, consulted an oracle, who warned him to beware of a man wearing only one sandal. Many years Pelias was holding games in honor of Poseidon when the grown Jason arrived in Iolcus, having lost one of his sandals in the river Anauros while helping an old woman to cross.
She blessed him. When Jason entered Iolcus, he was announced as a man wearing only one sandal. Jason, aware Pelias. Pelias replied, "To take my throne, which you shall, you must go on a quest to find the Golden Fleece." Jason accepted this condition. Jason assembled for a number of heroes, known as the Argonauts after their ship, the Argo; the group of heroes included the Boreads who could fly, Philoctetes, Telamon, Orpheus and Pollux, Atalanta and Euphemus. The isle of Lemnos is situated off the Western coast of Asia Minor; the island was inhabited by a race of women. The women had neglected their worship of Aphrodite, as a punishment the goddess made the women so foul in stench that their husbands could not bear to be near them; the men took concubines from the Thracian mainland opposite, the spurned women, angry at Aphrodite, killed all the male inhabitants while they slept. The king, was saved by Hypsipyle, his daughter, who put him out to sea sealed in a chest from which he was rescued; the women of Lemnos lived for a while with Hypsipyle as their queen.
During the visit of the Argonauts the women mingled with the men creating a new "race" called Minyae. Jason fathered twins with the queen. Heracles pressured them to leave, he had not taken part, unusual considering the numerous affairs he had with other women. After Lemnos the Argonauts landed among the Doliones, he forgot to mention what lived there. What lived in the land beyond Bear Mountain were the Gegeines, which are a tribe of Earthborn giants with six arms and wore leather loincloths. While most of the crew went into the forest to search for supplies, the Gegeines saw that few Argonauts were guarding the ship and raided it. Heracles was among those guarding the ship at the time and managed to kill most them before Jason and the others returned. Once some of the other Gegeines were killed and the Argonauts set sail. Sometime after their fight with the Gegeines, they sent some men to find water. Among these men was Heracles' servant Hylas, gathering water while Heracles was out finding some wood to carve a new oar to replace the one that broke.
The nymphs of the stream where Hylas was collecting were attracted to his good looks, pulled him into the stream. Heracles returned to his Labors. Others say that Heracles went to Colchis with the Argonauts, got the Golden Girdle of the Amazons and slew the Stymphalian Birds at that time; the Argonauts departed, landing again at the same spot that night. In the darkness, the Doliones took them for enemies and they started fighting each other; the Argonauts killed many of the Doliones, among them. Cyzicus' wife killed herself; the Argonauts realized their horrible mistake when dawn held a funeral for him. Soon Jason reached the court of Phineus of Salmydessus in Thrace. Zeus had sent the harpies to stea
South Wales is the region of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the east and south, mid Wales to the north, west Wales to the west. With an estimated population of around 2.2 million, three-quarters of the whole of Wales, Cardiff has 400,000, Swansea has 250,000 and Newport has 150,000. The region is loosely defined, but it is considered to include the historic counties of Glamorgan and Monmouthshire, extending westwards to include Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire. In the western extent, from Swansea westwards, local people would recognise that they lived in both south Wales and west Wales; the Brecon Beacons national park covers about a third of South Wales, containing Pen y Fan, the highest British mountain south of Cadair Idris in Snowdonia. Between the Statute of Rhuddlan of 1284 and the Laws in Wales Act 1535, crown land in Wales formed the Principality of Wales; this was divided into a Principality of North Wales. The southern principality was made up of the counties of Ceredigion and Carmarthenshire, areas, part of the Welsh kingdom of Deheubarth.
The legal responsibility for this area lay in the hands of the Justiciar of South Wales based at Carmarthen. Other parts of southern Wales were in the hands of various Marcher Lords; the Laws in Wales Acts 1542 created the Court of Great Sessions in Wales based on four legal circuits. The Brecon circuit served the counties of Brecknockshire and Glamorgan while the Carmarthen circuit served Cardiganshire and Pembrokeshire. Monmouthshire was attached to the Oxford circuit for judicial purposes; these seven southern counties were thus differentiated from the six counties of north Wales. The Court of the Great Sessions came to an end in 1830, but the counties survived until the Local Government Act 1972 which came into operation in 1974; the creation of the county of Powys merged one northern county with two southern ones. There are thus different concepts of south Wales. Glamorgan and Monmouthshire are accepted by all as being in south Wales, but the status of Breconshire or Carmarthenshire, for instance, is more debatable.
In the western extent, from Swansea westwards, local people might feel that they live in both south Wales and west Wales. Areas to the north of the Brecon Beacons and Black Mountains are considered to be in Mid Wales. A further point of uncertainty is whether the first element of the name should be capitalized:'south Wales' or'South Wales'; as the name is a geographical expression rather than a specific area with well-defined borders, style guides such as those of the BBC and The Guardian use the form'south Wales'. The South Wales Valleys and upland mountain ridges were once a rural area noted for its river valleys and ancient forests and lauded by romantic poets such as William Wordsworth as well as poets in the Welsh language, although the interests of the latter lay more in society and culture than in the evocation of natural scenery; this natural environment changed to a considerable extent during the early Industrial Revolution when the Glamorgan and Monmouthshire valley areas were exploited for coal and iron.
By the 1830s, hundreds of tons of coal were being transported by barge to ports in Cardiff and Newport. In the 1870s, coal was transported by rail transport networks to Newport Docks, at the time the largest coal exporting docks in the world, by the 1880s coal was being exported from Barry, Vale of Glamorgan; the Marquess of Bute, who owned much of the land north of Cardiff, built a steam railway system on his land that stretched from Cardiff into many of the South Wales Valleys where the coal was being found. Lord Bute charged fees per ton of coal, transported out using his railways. With coal mining and iron smelting being the main trades of south Wales, many thousands of immigrants from the Midlands, Ireland and Italy came and set up homes and put down roots in the region. Many came from other coal mining areas such as Somerset, the Forest of Dean in Gloucestershire and the tin mines of Cornwall such as Geevor Tin Mine, as a large but experienced and willing workforce was required. Whilst some of the migrants left, many settled and established in the South Wales Valleys between Swansea and Abergavenny as English-speaking communities with a unique identity.
Industrial workers were housed in cottages and terraced houses close to the mines and foundries in which they worked. The large influx over the years caused overcrowding which led to outbreaks of Cholera, on the social and cultural side, the near-loss of the Welsh language in the area; the 1930s inter-war Great Depression in the United Kingdom saw the loss of half of the coal pits in the South Wales Coalfield, their number declined further in the years following World War II. This number is now low, following the UK miners' strike, the last'traditional' deep-shaft mine, Tower Colliery, closed in January 2008. Despite the intense industrialisation of the coal mining valleys, many parts of the landscape of South Wales such as the upper Neath valley, the Vale of Glamorgan and the valleys of the River Usk and River Wye remain distinctly beautiful and unspoilt and have been designated Sites of Special Scientific Interest. In addition, many once industrialised sites have reverted to wilderness, some provided with a series of cycle tracks and other outdoor amenities.
Large areas of forestry and open moorland contribute to the amenity of the landscape. Merthyr Tydfil grew around the Dowlais Ironworks, founded to exploit the locally abundant seams of ir
Victoria University of Wellington
Victoria University of Wellington is a university in Wellington, New Zealand. It was established in 1897 by Act of Parliament, was a constituent college of the University of New Zealand; the university is well known for its programmes in law, the humanities, some scientific disciplines, offers a broad range of other courses. Entry to all courses at first year is open, entry to second year in some programmes is restricted. Victoria had the highest average research grade in the New Zealand Government's Performance-Based Research Fund exercise in 2012, having been ranked 4th in 2006 and 3rd in 2003. Victoria has been ranked 221st in the World's Top 500 universities by the QS World University Rankings. Victoria is named after Queen Victoria. There was a dispute as to where to site it, it opened in temporary facilities in Thorndon, it was decided to place it in Kelburn, where it still has its primary campus. This decision was influenced by the Cable Car company's offer of a donation of £1,000 if it were located in Kelburn so that students would patronise the Cable Car from the city.
Several of the Company investors like Martin Kennedy were supporters of Seddon, who stalled on releasing land on the alternative Mount Cook Gaol site for the university, although this site was supported in Wellington. The foundation stone of the historic Hunter Building was laid in 1904; the original name was Victoria University College, but on the dissolution of the University of New Zealand in 1961 Victoria or "Vic" became the Victoria University of Wellington, conferring its own degrees. An extramural branch was founded at Palmerston North in 1960, it merged with Massey College on 1 January 1963. Having become a branch of Victoria upon the University of New Zealand's 1961 demise, the merged college became Massey University on 1 January 1964. In 2004, Victoria celebrated the 100th birthday of the Hunter Building. Victoria has expanded beyond its original campus in Kelburn, with campuses in Te Aro, Pipitea. Victoria hosts the Ferrier Research Institute and the Robinson Research Institute in Lower Hutt, the Coastal Ecology Laboratory in Island Bay and the Miramar Creative Centre, in Park Rd, Miramar.
In 2015, Victoria opened a new campus in Auckland to service the growing demand for its courses and expertise. In May 2018, it was reported that Victoria was exploring options to simplify its name to University of Wellington. Vice-Chancellor Grant Guillford said that the university was pursuing a name change in order to reduce confusion overseas, as several other universities carried the "Victoria" name. On the 27th July, 2018, the Victoria University of Wellington Council agreed in principle to the name change, as well as replacing the Māori name with Te Herenga Waka. Of the 2,000 public submissions on the name change proposal were opposed, 75% were opposed to it. Alumni and students were opposed to the name change, staff gave mixed feedback, while university stakeholders favoured the name change. On 24 September 2018, Victoria University's Council voted by a majority of nine to two to change the university's name to the University of Wellington; the Council voted to adopt the new Māori name of Te Herenga Waka.
The University's Vice-Chancellor Grant Guilford abstained from the vote, citing a conflict of interest. Critics such as Victoria University law professor Geoff McLay criticized the name change for erasing 120 years of history. By contrast, Chancellor Neil Pavious-Smith defended the outcome of the vote as "one decision in a much broader strategy to try and help the university achieve its potential"; the Council will submit its recommendation to the Minister of Education who will make the final decision. On 18 December 2018, Minister for Education Chris Hipkins announced that he had rejected the University Council's recommendation, citing the proposed change did not have sufficient support from Victoria's staff, students or alumni, that such a change would not in keeping with institution accountability or be in the national interest, its main campus is in Kelburn, a suburb on a hill overlooking the Wellington central business district, where its administration and humanities & social science and science faculties are based.
The law and commerce and administration faculties are in the Pipitea Campus, near Parliament Buildings, which consists of Rutherford House, the restored Old Government Buildings, the West Wing of the Wellington railway station. A smaller campus in Te Aro is the base for the design schools; the newest facility, the Victoria University Coastal Ecology Laboratory supports research programmes in marine biology and coastal ecology on Wellington's rugged south coast. Day-to-day governance is in the hands of the University Council, which consists of 20 people: four elected by the Court of Convocation, three elected by the academic staff, one elected by the general staff, two appointed by the student union executive, four appointed by the Minister of Education, four selected by the Council itself, the Vice-Chancellor; the Court of Convocation is composed of all graduates. Charles Wilson, at the time the chief librarian of the parliamentary library, was a member of the original council and its chairman for two years.
For New Zealand residents entry to most courses is open, with a few exceptions. Performance Music requires an audition. There is selection for entry into the second year in degrees such as BArch and BDes. BA in criminology a
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Sir Peter Robert Jackson is a New Zealand film director and film producer. He is best known as the director and producer of the Lord of the Rings trilogy and the Hobbit trilogy, both of which are adapted from the novels of the same name by J. R. R. Tolkien. Other films include the critically lauded drama Heavenly Creatures, the mockumentary film Forgotten Silver, the horror comedy The Frighteners, the epic monster remake film King Kong, the supernatural drama film The Lovely Bones, the World War I documentary film They Shall Not Grow Old, he produced District 9, The Adventures of Tintin: The Secret of the Unicorn, West of Memphis, Mortal Engines. Jackson began his career with the "splatstick" horror comedy Bad Taste and the black comedy Meet the Feebles before filming the zombie comedy Braindead, he shared a nomination for Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay with his partner Fran Walsh for Heavenly Creatures, which brought him to mainstream prominence in the film industry. Jackson has been awarded three Academy Awards for The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King, including the award for Best Director.
His other awards include four Saturn Awards and three BAFTAs amongst others. His production company is Wingnut Films, his most regular collaborators are co-writers and producers Walsh and Philippa Boyens. Jackson was made a Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit in 2002, he was knighted by Anand Satyanand, the Governor-General of New Zealand, at a ceremony in Wellington in April 2010. In December 2014, Jackson was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Jackson was born on 31 October 1961 in Wellington and was raised at the nearby coastal town of Pukerua Bay, his parents—Joan, a factory worker and housewife, William "Bill" Jackson, a wages clerk—were emigrants from England. As a child, Jackson was a keen film fan, growing up on Ray Harryhausen films, as well as finding inspiration in the television series Thunderbirds and Monty Python's Flying Circus. After a family friend gave the Jacksons a Super 8 cine-camera with Peter in mind, he began making short films with his friends. Jackson has long cited King Kong as his favourite film, around the age of nine he attempted to remake it using his own stop-motion models.
As a child Jackson made a WWII epic called "The Dwarf Patrol" seen on the Bad Taste bonus disc which featured his first special effect of poking pinholes in the film for gun shots, a James Bond spoof named Coldfinger. Most notable though was a 20-minute short called The Valley, which won him a special prize because of the shots he used. In school, Jackson expressed no interest in sports, his classmates remember him wearing a duffle coat with "an obsession verging on religious". He had no formal training in film-making, but learned about editing, special effects and make-up through his own trial and error; as a young adult, Jackson discovered the work of author J. R. R. Tolkien after watching The Lord of the Rings, an animated film by Ralph Bakshi, a part-adaptation of Tolkien's fantasy trilogy; when he was 16 years old, Jackson left school and began working full-time as a photo-engraver for a Wellington newspaper, The Evening Post. For the seven years he worked there, Jackson lived at home with his parents so he could save as much money as possible to spend on film equipment.
After two years of work Jackson bought a 16 mm camera, began shooting a film that became Bad Taste. Jackson has long cited several films as influences, it is well known that Jackson has a passion for King Kong citing it as his favourite film and as the film that inspired him early in his life. Jackson recalls attempting to remake King Kong when he was 12. At the 2009 San Diego Comic-Con International, while being interviewed alongside Avatar and Titanic director James Cameron, Jackson said certain films gave him a "kick", he mentioned Martin Scorsese's crime films Goodfellas and Casino, remarking on "something about those particular movies and the way Martin Scorsese just fearlessly rockets his camera around and has shot those films that I can watch those movies and feel inspired." Jackson said. Other influences include Sam Raimi. Jackson's first feature was Bad Taste, a haphazard fashion splatter comedy, which included many of Jackson's friends acting and working on it for free. Shooting was done in the weekends since Jackson was working full-time.
Bad Taste is about aliens. Jackson had two acting roles including a famous scene; the film was completed thanks to a late injection of finance from the New Zealand Film Commission, after Jim Booth, the body's executive director, became convinced of Jackson's talent. In May 1987, Bad Taste was unveiled at the Cannes Film Festival, where rights to the film sold to twelve countries. Around this time, Jackson began working on writing a number of film scripts, in varied collaborative groupings with playwright Stephen Sinclair, writer Fran Walsh and writer/actor Danny Mulheron. Walsh would become his life partner; some of the scripts from this period, including a sequel to A Nightmare on Elm Street, have never been made into movies. Jackson's next film to see release was Meet the Feebles, co-written with Sinclair and Mulheron. An ensemble musical comedy starring Muppet-styl
Television New Zealand, more referred to as TVNZ, is a state-owned television network, broadcast throughout New Zealand and parts of the Pacific region. Although the network identifies as a national, part-public broadcaster, it is commercially funded. TVNZ was competition free until November 1989; this began the battle for ratings with the only real rival MediaWorks New Zealand, which operates channels Three, ThreeLife and The Edge TV. However, TVNZ still maintains a number of transmission advantages due to its long-standing relationship with the state-owned sister company Kordia. TVNZ operates playout services from its Auckland studio via Kordia's fibre and microwave network for TVNZ 1, TVNZ 2 and TVNZ Duke, with new media video services via the American-owned Brightcove, streamed on the Akamai RTMP/HLS DNS based caching network, its former channels include TVNZ Kidzone, TVNZ Heartland, TVNZ U, TVNZ 7, TVNZ 6, TVNZ Sport Extra. 90% of TVNZ's revenue is from commercial activity. The remainder of its funding comes from government funding agencies.
TVNZ was created in February 1980, through the merger of Television One and South Pacific Television. Until January 1989, it was paired with Radio New Zealand as the Broadcasting Corporation of New Zealand; the broadcaster was based in Television One's former headquarters at the Avalon television centre in Lower Hutt, however over the course of the 1980s, operations were moved to Auckland. In 1989, TVNZ moved to a new television centre in central Auckland. Broadcasting in New Zealand was deregulated in 1989; the Labour-led government under Helen Clark from 1999 to 2008 pursued a programme of public broadcasting reforms. New Zealand's wide-ranging adoption of neoliberal policies in the mid-1980s and 1990s had large sections of the state sector privatised; as a state owned enterprise, TVNZ enjoyed enormous commercial success and paid the Crown substantial dividends. However, the commercial success had been achieved through an unabashed pursuit of ratings through populist and tabloid content, prior to the 1999 election the National-led government was evidently positioning TVNZ for commercialisation Labour-led administrations since 1999 explicitly recognised the market failures of a wholly commercial broadcasting sector and re-emphasised television's cultural and democratic functions in their policy thinking.
The Clark government's highest profile broadcasting reform to date was the restructuring of TVNZ as a Crown entity in 2003. This introduced a dual remit whereby the broadcaster had to maintain its commercial performance while implementing a new public service Charter; the TVNZ Charter would require the negotiation and reconciliation of contradictory commercial and public service imperatives. The final version of the TVNZ Charter included a range of public service objectives and expectations. However, this dual remit precluded any transformation of TVNZ into fully-fledged public service broadcaster, TVNZ's efforts to balance its pursuit of commercial performance and Charter objectives were soon being criticised. Despite some investment in local content, including new documentaries and discussion programmes, the content on TV One and TV2 remained similar to the pre-charter schedules, with a continuing high proportion of light entertainment and reality-TV shows. TVNZ continues to pay dividends to the Crown.
However, from 2006 until 2009 TVNZ received $15.11 million each year from Government to assist it with fulfilling Charter obligations. There was much debate about the initial secrecy surrounding funding allocations and the programmes supported; the allocation of $5 million toward coverage of the 2008 Olympics, the rights for which are secured by a competitive tender between broadcasters, was the most controversial. In 2009 the Government gave control of that funding to funding agency NZ On Air. NZ On Air announced the creation of the contestable "Platinum Fund" in April 2009, setting aside the $15.11 million for high quality drama and other programme types. Following the election of a National Party-led government under John Key in 2008, the Charter was abolished in favour of a return to the 1990s model of a full commercial broadcaster. There is much debate on the future of TVNZ, which focuses on the nature of public service broadcasting and its commercial role. An example was in a memo called A More Public Broadcaster written by outgoing Chief Executive Ian Fraser to the board of TVNZ in October 2005, was obtained and released by Green MP Sue Kedgley.
The memo outlined three options. These were: TV One as a non-commercial network, like ABC in Australia, charged with delivering Charter values, merging with Radio New Zealand and Māori Television TV One a semi-commercial broadcaster with no more than six minutes of advertisements an hour like SBS in Australia TV One and TV2 remaining unchanged, but two new public service channels being broadcast via digital television. TV One and TV2 are now commercial with 15 – 20 minutes of ads per hour, plus ads overplayed over programs. On 15 February 2006, a group of 31 prominent New Zealanders signed an open letter, published as a full-page newspaper advertisement, calling for