WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by Inc.. The subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCat's database, the world's largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscription OCLC services. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour; that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat. In 2003, OCLC began the "Open WorldCat" pilot program, making abbreviated records from a subset of WorldCat available to partner web sites and booksellers, to increase the accessibility of its subscribing member libraries' collections. In 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million "identities", predominantly authors and persons who are the subjects of published titles.
In December 2017, WorldCat contained over 400 million bibliographic records in 491 languages, representing over 2.6 billion physical and digital library assets, the WorldCat persons dataset included over 100 million people. WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model; that is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the underlying library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently: WorldCat shows that a particular item is owned by a particular library but does not provide that library's call number. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair, or moved to storage not directly accessible to patrons. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title; as an alternative, WorldCat allows participating institutions to add direct links from WorldCat to their own catalog entries for a particular item, which enables the user to determine its real-time status.
However, this still requires users to open multiple Web pages, each pointing to a different online public access catalog with its own distinctive user interface design, until they can locate a catalog entry that shows the item is available at a particular library. Copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Open Library Research Libraries UK Blackman, Cathy. "WorldCat and SkyRiver: a comparison of record quantity and fullness". Library Resources & Technical Services. 58: 178–186. Doi:10.5860/lrts.58n3.178. Breeding, Marshall. "Library services platforms: a maturing genre of products". Library Technology Reports. 51: 1–38. Doi:10.5860/ltr.51n4. Matthews, Joseph R.. "An environmental scan of OCLC alternatives: a management perspective". Public Library Quarterly. 35: 175–187. Doi:10.1080/01616846.2016.1210440. McKenzie, Elizabeth. OCLC changes its rules for use of records in WorldCat: library community pushback through blogs and cultures of resistance. Boston: Suffolk University Law School.
Research paper 12-06. What the OCLC online union catalog means to me: a collection of essays. Dublin, Ohio: OCLC. 1997. ISBN 1556532237. OCLC 37492023. Wilson, Kristen. "The knowledge base at the center of the universe". Library Technology Reports. 52: 1–35. Doi:10.5860/ltr.52n6. "WorldCat data licensing". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. See also: "Data licenses & attribution". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. Information about licensing of WorldCat records and some other OCLC data. Official website "WorldCat". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. Information on the OCLC website about WorldCat. "Bibliographic Formats and Standards". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. "WorldCat Identities". Worldcat.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31
Cleveland is a major city in the U. S. state of Ohio, the county seat of Cuyahoga County. The city proper has a population of 385,525, making it the 51st-largest city in the United States, the second-largest city in Ohio. Greater Cleveland is ranked as the 32nd-largest metropolitan area in the U. S. with 2,055,612 people in 2016. The city anchors the Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area, which had a population of 3,515,646 in 2010 and is ranked 15th in the United States; the city is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie 60 miles west of the Ohio-Pennsylvania state border. It was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, it became a manufacturing center due to its location on both the river and the lake shore, as well as being connected to numerous canals and railroad lines. Cleveland's economy relies on diversified sectors such as manufacturing, financial services and biomedicals. Cleveland is home to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Cleveland residents are called "Clevelanders".
The city has many nicknames, the oldest of which in contemporary use being "The Forest City". Cleveland was named on July 22, 1796, when surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company laid out Connecticut's Western Reserve into townships and a capital city, they named it "Cleaveland" after General Moses Cleaveland. Cleaveland oversaw design of the plan for what would become the modern downtown area, centered on Public Square, before returning home, never again to visit Ohio; the first settler in Cleaveland was Lorenzo Carter, who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River. The Village of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 23, 1814. In spite of the nearby swampy lowlands and harsh winters, its waterfront location proved to be an advantage, giving access to Great Lakes trade; the area began rapid growth after the 1832 completion of the Erie Canal. This key link between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes connected the city to the Atlantic Ocean via the Erie Canal and Hudson River, via the St. Lawrence Seaway.
Its products could reach markets on the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. Growth continued with added railroad links. Cleveland incorporated as a city in 1836. In 1836, the city located only on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, nearly erupted into open warfare with neighboring Ohio City over a bridge connecting the two. Ohio City remained an independent municipality until its annexation by Cleveland in 1854; the city's prime geographic location as a transportation hub on the Great Lakes has played an important role in its development as a commercial center. Cleveland serves as a destination for iron ore shipped from Minnesota, along with coal transported by rail. In 1870, John D. Rockefeller founded Standard Oil in Cleveland. In 1885, he moved its headquarters to New York City, which had become a center of finance and business. Cleveland emerged in the early 20th century as an important American manufacturing center, its businesses included automotive companies such as Peerless, People's, Jordan and Winton, maker of the first car driven across the U.
S. Other manufacturers located in Cleveland produced steam-powered cars, which included White and Gaeth, as well as the electric car company Baker; because of its significant growth, Cleveland was known as the "Sixth City" of the US during this period. By 1920, due in large part to the city's economic prosperity, Cleveland became the nation's fifth-largest city; the city counted Progressive Era politicians such as the populist Mayor Tom L. Johnson among its leaders, its industrial jobs had attracted waves of European immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, as well as both black and white migrants from the rural South. In commemoration of the centennial of Cleveland's incorporation as a city, the Great Lakes Exposition debuted in June 1936 along the Lake Erie shore north of downtown. Conceived as a way to energize the city after the Great Depression, it drew four million visitors in its first season, seven million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937; the exposition was housed on grounds that are now used by the Great Lakes Science Center, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Burke Lakefront Airport, among others.
Following World War II, Cleveland continued to enjoy a prosperous economy. In sports, the Indians won the 1948 World Series, the hockey team, the Barons, became champions of the American Hockey League, the Browns dominated professional football in the 1950s; as a result, along with track and boxing champions produced, Cleveland was dubbed "City of Champions" in sports at this time. Businesses proclaimed that Cleveland was the "best location in the nation". In 1940, non-Hispanic whites represented 90.2% of Cleveland's population. Wealthy patrons supported development of the city's cultural institutions, such as the art museum and orchestra; the city's population reached its peak of 914,808, in 1949 Cleveland was named an All-America City for the first time. By the 1960s, the economy slowed, residents sought new housing in the suburbs, reflecting the national trends of suburban growth following the subsidized highways. In the 1950s and 1960s, African Americans worked in numerous cities to gain constitutional rights and relief from racial discrimination.
As change lagged despite federal laws to enforce rights and racial unrest occurred in Cleveland and numerous other industrial cities. In Cleveland, the Hough Riots erupted from July 18 to 23, 1966; the Glenville Shootout took place from July 23 to 25, 1968. In November 1967, Cleveland became the first major American city to elect a black mayor, Carl Stokes. Industrial restructuring in the railroad and steel industries, resulted in the loss of numerous
IMDb is an online database of information related to films, television programs, home videos and video games, internet streams, including cast, production crew and personnel biographies, plot summaries and fan reviews and ratings. An additional fan feature, message boards, was abandoned in February 2017. A fan-operated website, the database is owned and operated by IMDb.com, Inc. a subsidiary of Amazon. As of October 2018, IMDb has 5.3 million titles and 9.3 million personalities in its database, as well as 83 million registered users. The movie and talent pages of IMDb are accessible to all internet users, but a registration process is necessary to contribute information to the site. Most data in the database is provided by volunteer contributors; the site enables registered users to submit new material and edits to existing entries. Users with a proven track record of submitting factual data are given instant approval for additions or corrections to cast and other demographics of media product and personalities.
However, name, character name, plot summaries, title changes are screened before publication, take between 24 and 72 hours to appear. All registered users choose their own site name, most operate anonymously, they have a profile page which shows how long a registered user has been a member, as well as personal movie ratings and, since 2015, "badges" are added representing how many contributions a particular registered user has submitted. These badges range from total contributions made to independent categories such as photos, bios, etc. If a registered user or visitor is in the entertainment industry and has an IMDb page, that user/visitor can add photos to that page by enrolling in IMDbPRO. There is no single index of contributors, no index on each profile page of the items contributed, no identification of contributors to each product's or person's data pages. Users are invited to rate any film on a scale of 1 to 10, the totals are converted into a weighted mean-rating, displayed beside each title, with online filters employed to deter ballot-stuffing.
In January 2019, IMDb launched a free movie streaming platform called Freedive, an ad-supported service offering Hollywood movie titles and TV shows. Many Freedive titles are licensed from Sony Pictures. IMDb originated with a Usenet posting by British film fan and computer programmer Col Needham entitled "Those Eyes", about actresses with beautiful eyes. Others with similar interests soon responded with different lists of their own. Needham subsequently started an "Actors List", while Dave Knight began a "Directors List", Andy Krieg took over "THE LIST" from Hank Driskill, which would be renamed the "Actress List". Both lists had been restricted to people who were alive and working, but soon retired people were added, so Needham started what was a separate "Dead Actors/Actresses List". Steve Hammond started collecting and merging character names for both the actors and actresses lists; when these achieved popularity, they were merged back into the lists themselves. The goal of the participants now was to make the lists as inclusive as possible.
By late 1990, the lists included 10,000 movies and television series correlated with actors and actresses appearing therein. On October 17, 1990, Needham developed and posted a collection of Unix shell scripts which could be used to search the four lists, thus the database that would become the IMDb was born. At the time, it was known as the "rec.arts.movies movie database". The database had been expanded to include additional categories of filmmakers and other demographic material as well as trivia and plot summaries; the movie ratings had been properly integrated with the list data, a centralized email interface for querying the database had been created by Alan Jay. In 1993, it moved onto the World Wide Web, under the name of Cardiff Internet Movie Database; the database resided on the servers of the computer science department of Cardiff University in Wales. Rob Hartill was the original web interface author. In 1994, the email interface was revised to accept the submission of all information, which enabled people to email the specific list maintainer with their updates.
However, the structure remained so that information received on a single film was divided among multiple section managers, the sections being defined and determined by categories of film personnel and the individual filmographies contained therein. Over the next few years, the database was run on a network of mirrors across the world with donated bandwidth. In 1996 IMDb was incorporated in the United Kingdom. Founder Col. Needham became the primary owner as well as the figurehead. General revenue for site operations was generated through advertising and partnerships. In 1998, Jeff Bezos, owner, CEO of Amazon.com, struck a deal with Needham and other principal shareholders to buy IMDb outright for $55 million and attach it to Amazon as a subsidiary, private company. This gave IMDb the ability to pay the shareholders salaries for their work, while Amazon.com would be able to use IMDb as an advertising resource for selling DVDs and videotapes. IMDb continued to expand its functionality. On January 15, 2002, it added a subscription service known as IMDbPro, aimed at entertainment professionals.
IMDbPro was launched at the 2002 Sundance Film Festival. It provides a variety of services including film production and box office details, as well as a company directory
The Big Parade
The Big Parade is a 1925 American silent war drama film directed by King Vidor, starring John Gilbert, Renée Adorée, Hobart Bosworth, Tom O'Brien, Karl Dane. Adapted by Harry Behn from the autobiographical novel Plumes by Laurence Stallings, with titles by Joseph W. Farnham, the film is about an idle rich boy who joins the US Army's Rainbow Division and is sent to France to fight in World War I, becomes a friend of two working class men, experiences the horrors of trench warfare, finds love with a French girl. Although other anti-war films chronologically preceded it, The Big Parade is an early film to have neither glorified the war nor ignored its human costs, it influenced a great many subsequent war films All Quiet on the Western Front. In 1992, The Big Parade was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". In the United States in 1917, James "Jim" Apperson's idleness incurs the great displeasure of his wealthy businessman father.
America enters World War I. Jim informs his worried mother that he has no intention of enlisting, his father threatens to kick him out of the house if he does not join. However, when he runs into his patriotic friends at a send-off parade, he is persuaded to enlist, making his father proud. During training, Jim makes friendships with Southern construction worker Slim and Bronx bartender Bull, their unit ships out to France, where they are billeted at a farm in the village of Champillon in the Marne. All three men are attracted to Melisande, she repulses all their advances, but warms to Jim, bonding at first over chewing gum. They fall in love, despite not being able to speak each other's language. One day, Jim receives a letter and a photograph from Justyn, which reveals that they are engaged; when Melisande sees the picture, she runs off in tears. Before Jim can decide what to do, his unit is ordered to the front. Melisande hears the commotion and races just in time for the lovers to embrace and kiss.
The Americans are strafed by an enemy fighter before it is shot down. The unit is sent to the attack advancing against snipers and machine guns in the woods more machine guns and poison gas in the open, they settle down in a makeshift line. Jim shelters in a shellhole with Slim and Bull; that night, orders come down for one man to eliminate a troublesome mortar crew. He is spotted and wounded on the way back. After listening to Slim's pleas for help, Jim cannot stand it any longer and goes to his rescue against orders. Bull is shot and killed. By the time Jim reaches Slim, he is dead. Jim is shot in the leg; when a German comes to finish him off, Jim wounds him. The German starts crawling back to his line. Jim catches up to him in another shellhole, face to face, cannot bring himself to finish him off with his bayonet. Instead, he gives his erstwhile enemy a cigarette. Soon after, the German dies. However, Jim is not stuck in no man's land for long. From another patient, he learns. Worried about Melisande, Jim sneaks out of hitches a ride.
When he gets to the farmhouse, he finds it empty. Melisande and her mother have joined a stream of refugees. Jim is carried off in an ambulance by retreating soldiers. After the war ends, Jim goes home to America. Before he arrives, his mother overhears Jim's brother Harry discussing what to do; when Jim appears, it is revealed. Jim tells his mother about Melisande; when he returns to the farm, Melisande rushes into his arms. John Gilbert as James Apperson Renée Adorée as Melisande Hobart Bosworth as Mr. Apperson Claire McDowell as Mrs. Apperson Claire Adams as Justyn Reed Robert Ober as Harry Apperson Tom O'Brien as Bull Karl Dane as Slim Rosita Marstini as Melisande's mother Harry Crocker as Soldier Julanne Johnston as Justine Devereux Kathleen Key as Miss Apperson Carl Voss as Officer George Beranger as German soldier Frank Currier Dan Mason The Big Parade was one of the greatest hits of the 1920s earning gross rentals of $4,990,000 in the United States and $1,141,000 overseas on a budget of $382,000 during its initial release, with MGM recording a profit of $3.4 million, its biggest of the silent era.
The domestic earnings were MGM's biggest until the release of Gone With the Wind. It played in some larger cities continually for a year or more, boosting Gilbert's career and made Renée Adorée a major star, although Adorée would soon be diagnosed with tuberculosis and die only a few years later; the film grossed $18–$22 million in worldwide rentals and is sometimes proclaimed as the most successful film of the silent era, although it is most this record falls to The Birth of a Nation. The film won the Photoplay Magazine Medal for best film of the year in 1925; the medal is considered the first significant annual movie award, prior to the establishment of the Oscars. After the film's producers found a clause in Vidor's contract that entitled the director to 20% of the net profits, studio lawyers called for a meeting with him. At the meeting, accountants upgraded the costs of the picture and downgraded their forecast of its
Spite Marriage is a 1929 American silent comedy film starring Buster Keaton and Dorothy Sebastian. Keaton and Edward Sedgwick co-directed, it is the second film Keaton made for MGM and his last silent film, although he had wanted it to be a full sound film. Keaton wrote gags for some up-and-coming MGM stars like Red Skelton and lifted many gags from this film for his 1943 film I Dood It, some shot for shot. Elmer, a humble worker in a dry cleaning establishment, idolizes stage actress Trilby Drew. She, in turn, is carrying a torch for fellow actor Lionel Benmore; when he spurns her for the younger Ethyl Norcrosse, she impulsively asks Elmer to marry her, only to regret it immediately. Her handlers extricate her from the marriage, when Elmer finds himself first in the hands of criminals and at sea, he is more than happy for the opportunity to forget her, but a series of coincidences throw Elmer and Trilby back together again, she will have cause to re-evaluate her opinion of him. Buster Keaton as Elmer Gantry Dorothy Sebastian as Trilby Drew Edward Earle as Lionel Benmore Leila Hyams as Ethyl Norcrosse William Bechtel as Nussbaum John Byron as Scarzi Joe Bordeaux as Rumrunner Ray Cooke as The Bellboy Mike Donlin as Man in Ship's Engine Room Pat Harmon as Tugboat Captain Sydney Jarvis as Man in Audience Next to Elmer Theodore Lorch as Actor as'Union Officer' Hank Mann as Stage Manager Charles Sullivan as Tough Sailor Buster Keaton filmography Spite Marriage on IMDb Synopsis at AllMovie Spite Marriage at the International Buster Keaton Society
The Thief of Bagdad (1924 film)
The Thief of Bagdad is a 1924 American silent swashbuckler film directed by Raoul Walsh and starring Douglas Fairbanks, written by Achmed Abdullah and Lotta Woods. Adapted from One Thousand and One Nights, it tells the story of a thief who falls in love with the daughter of the Caliph of Baghdad. In 1996, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". Fairbanks considered this to be the favorite of his films, according to his son; the imaginative gymnastics suited the athletic star, whose "catlike effortless" movements, were as much dance as gymnastics. Along with his earlier Robin Hood, the film marked Fairbanks's transformation from genial comedy to a career in "swashbuckling" roles; the movie, strong on special effects of the period and featuring massive Arabian-style sets proved to be a stepping stone for Anna May Wong, who portrayed a treacherous Mongol slave. The Thief of Bagdad is now considered one of the great silent films and Fairbanks's greatest work.
Fairbanks biographer Jeffrey Vance writes, "An epic romantic fantasy-adventure inspired by several of the Arabian Nights tales, The Thief of Bagdad is the greatest artistic triumph of Fairbanks's career. The superb visual design, imaginative splendor, visual effects, along with his bravura performance, all contribute to making this his masterpiece." Ahmed robs. Wandering into a mosque, he tells the holy man; that night, he sneaks into the palace of the caliph using a magic rope he stole during ritual prayers. All thoughts of plunder are forgotten when he sees the caliph's daughter; the princess's Mongol slave discovers him and alerts the guards. When his associate Abu reminds the disconsolate Ahmed that a bygone thief once stole another princess during the reign of Haroun al-Rashid, Ahmed sets out to do the same; the next day is the princess's birthday. Three princes arrive. Another of the princess's slaves foretells that she will marry he who first touches a rose-tree in her garden; the princess watches anxiously as first the glowering Prince of the Indies the obese Prince of Persia, the Prince of the Mongols pass by the rose-tree.
The mere sight of the Mongol fills the princess with fear. The Mongol slave tells her countryman of the prophecy, but before he can touch the rose-tree, Ahmed's startled horse tosses its rider into it; that night, following ancient custom, the princess chooses Ahmed for her husband. Out of love, Ahmed confesses all to her in private; the Mongol prince learns from his spy, the princess's Mongol slave, that Ahmed is a common thief and informs the caliph. Ahmed is lashed mercilessly, the caliph orders he be torn apart by a giant ape, but the princess has the guards bribed to let him go; when the caliph insists she select another husband, her loyal slave advises her to delay. She asks that the princes each bring her a gift after "seven moons". In despair, Ahmed turns to the holy man, he tells the thief to become a prince. The Prince of the Indies obtains a magic crystal ball from the eye of a giant idol, which shows whatever he wants to see, while the Persian prince buys a flying carpet; the Mongol prince leaves behind his henchman, telling him to organize the soldiers he will send to Bagdad disguised as porters.
After he lays his hands on a magic apple which has the power to cure anything death, he sends word to the Mongol slave to poison the princess. After many adventures, Ahmed gains a cloak of invisibility and a small chest of magic powder which turns into whatever he wishes when he sprinkles it, he races back to the city. The three princes meet; the Mongol asks the Indian to check. They discover that she is near death, ride the flying carpet to reach her; the Mongol uses the apple to cure her. The suitors argue over which gift is rarest, but the princess points out that without any one gift, the remaining two would have been useless in saving her life, her loyal slave shows her Ahmed in the crystal ball, so the princess convinces her father to deliberate on his future son-in-law. The Mongol prince chooses not to wait, capturing Bagdad. Ahmed arrives at the city gate and manned by Mongols; when he conjures up a large army with his powder, the Mongol soldiers flee. The Mongol prince is about to have one of his men kill him when the Mongol slave suggests he escape with the princess on the flying carpet.
Ahmed liberates the city and rescues the princess, using his cloak of invisibility to get through the Mongols guarding their prince. In gratitude, the caliph gives his daughter to him in marriage. Douglas Fairbanks as Ahmed, the Thief of Bagdad Snitz Edwards as His Evil Associate Charles Belcher as The Holy Man / Narrator Julanne Johnston as The Princess. Johnston had appeared the previous year in another Arabian Nights fantasy, the now lost The Brass Bottle, directed by Maurice Tourneur. Sojin Kamiyama as Cham Shang, Prince of the Mongols Anna May Wong as The Mo
The Mysterious Lady
The Mysterious Lady is a Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer silent film starring Greta Garbo, Conrad Nagel, Gustav von Seyffertitz, directed by Fred Niblo, based on the novel War in the Dark by Ludwig Wolff. In Vienna, Captain Karl von Raden purchases a returned ticket to a sold-out opera and finds himself sharing a loge with a lovely woman. Though she repulses his first advance, she does spend an idyllic day with him in the countryside. Karl is called away to duty, however. Colonel Eric von Raden, his uncle and the chief of the secret police, gives him secret plans to deliver to Berlin, he warns his nephew that the woman is Tania Fedorova, a Russian spy. Tania comes to him aboard the train, professing to love him. Dejected, she leaves; the next morning, when Karl wakes up, he finds. As a result, he is sentenced to military imprisonment for treason. However, Colonel von Raden arranges for his release, he sends his nephew to Warsaw, posing as a Serbian pianist, to seek out the identity of the real traitor and thus exonerate himself.
In Warsaw, by chance, Karl is asked to play at a private party where he once again crosses paths with Tania. She is being escorted by General Boris Alexandroff, the infatuated head of the Russian Military Intelligence Department. Foolhardily, Karl plays a tune from the opera, she does not betray him. As the party goers are leaving, she slips away for a few stolen moments with her love; the jealous Alexandroff suspects their feelings for each other. He hires Karl to play the next day at a ball. While Alexandroff and Tania are alone in his home office, he receives a parcel containing the latest secrets stolen by the traitor, whom he casually identifies as Max Heinrich. Tania steals the documents, gives them to Karl, sends him out via a secret passage. However, it is all a trap. Alexandroff tells Tania that what she stole was mere blank paper, he pulls out a gun and announces that he intends to use it on Karl, captured outside. She manages to fatally shoot him; when the guards bring the prisoner, she pretends the general is still alive and wants to see him alone.
She and Karl get married. Greta Garbo as Tania Fedorova Conrad Nagel as Captain Karl von Raden Gustav von Seyffertitz as General Boris Alexandroff Albert Pollet as Max Heinrich Edward Connelly as Colonel Eric von Raden Richard Alexander as General's Aide Betty Blythe as Opera singer Warner Home Video released The Mysterious Lady to DVD in 2005 as part of a box set called The Garbo Silents Collection with a music score by Vivek Maddala; the home video version contains an audio commentary track by film historians Jeffrey Vance and Tony Maietta. The Mysterious Lady on IMDb