A blackwater river is a type of river with a slow-moving channel flowing through forested swamps or wetlands. As vegetation decays, tannins leach into the water, making a transparent, acidic water, darkly stained, resembling tea. Most major blackwater rivers are in the Southern United States; the term is used in fluvial studies, geography and biology. Not all dark rivers are blackwater in that technical sense; some rivers in temperate regions, which drain or flow through areas of dark black loam, are black due to the color of the soil. There are black mud estuaries. Blackwater rivers are lower in nutrients than whitewater rivers and have ionic concentrations higher than rainwater; the unique conditions lead to flora and fauna that differ from both whitewater and clearwater rivers. The classification of Amazonian rivers into black and whitewater was first proposed by Alfred Russel Wallace in 1853 based on water colour, but the types were more defined by chemistry and physics by Harald Sioli from the 1950s to the 1980s.
Although many Amazonian rivers fall into one of these categories, others show a mix of characteristics and may vary depending on season and flood levels. Black and white waters differ in their ionic composition, as shown in Table 1. Black waters are more acidic, resulting in an aluminum concentration greater than that of the more neutral white waters; the major difference is the concentrations of sodium, magnesium and potassium. This has ecological implications; some animals need more calcium than is available in blackwaters, so for example, which need much calcium to build shells, are not abundant in blackwaters. The lack of dissolved ions in black waters results in a low conductivity, similar to that of rainwater. Black and white waters differ in their planktonic flora. Tables 2 and 3 compare the number of planktonic animals caught in black and white water localities only a few meters apart; the black water was not as extreme an example as the Rio Negro system. However, it can be seen that the black water held greater numbers of rotifers but fewer crustaceans and mites.
These crustaceans are important foods for larval fish. The zones where the two waters mix are attractive to young fish; these mixing zones tend to have many animals. The abundance is shown in Table 3. Blackwater rivers resemble clearwater rivers in having a low conductivity and low levels of dissolved solids, but clearwater rivers have water that only is somewhat acidic and clear with a greenish color; the main Amazonian clearwater rivers have their source in the Brazilian Plateau, but some originate in the Guiana Shield. Apaporis River: a tributary of the Japurá River Arapiuns River: a tributary of the Tapajós River Coari River Potaro River: a tributary of the Mazaruni River Mazaruni River Mirití-Paraná River Rio Negro: The largest blackwater river in the world. Piorini River Tahuayo River Tefé River Uatumã River Urubu River Vaupés River Morichal Largo River Atabapo River: from the Guiana highlands of Venezuela west into the Orinoco Caroní River: from the Guiana Highlands of Venezuela north into the Orinoco.
Caura River: from the Guiana Highlands of Venezuela north into the Orinoco Inírida River: from Colombia northeast into the Guaviare River which flows into the Orinoco Ventuari River: from eastern Venezuela southwest into the Orinoco Vichada River: from Colombia east into the Orinoco Tomo River: from Colombia east into the Orinoco Tuparro River: from Colombia east into the Orinoco Ashepoo River: along with the Edisto and the Combahee Rivers in South Carolina makes up the ACE Basin National Wildlife Refuge. Big Cypress, Black Cypress, Little Cypress and the small rivers in the watershed of Caddo Lake in Texas and Louisiana Blackwater River: a tributary of the Chowan River in Virginia Blackwater River: a major river in the western Florida panhandle Blackwater River, West Virginia: Located in the Blackwater Canyon in Tucker County. Blackwater Falls, a five-story waterfall, is located along this river with rapids ranging from Class III-V+. Black River: a tributary of the Pee Dee River in North and South Carolina Cape Fear River, North Carolina: flows into the Atlantic Ocean.
Cashie River, North Carolina: flows into Albemarle Sound. Caloosahatchee River, Florida: flows west from Lake Okeechobee to the Gulf of Mexico. Chowan River, North Carolina: flows into Albemarle Sound. Edisto River, South Carolina: flows into the Atlantic Ocean. Econlockhatchee River, a tributary of the St. Johns River in Central Florida. Forked Deer River: located in West Tennessee Four Hole Swamp, a tributary of the Edisto River in South Carolina. Little Manatee River, Florida: flows into Tampa Bay. Great Coharie Creek, North Carolina: flows into the Black River. Little Pee Dee River, South Carolina: flows into the Pee Dee River. Lynches River, South Carolina: flows into the Pee Dee River. Lumber/Drowning Creek: located in North and South Carolina. Part of Lumber River State Park Obion River: located in Northwest Tennessee Ogeechee River: a 245-mile river in eastern Georgia that passes to the south of the city of Savannah and enters the Atlantic Ocean at Ossabaw Sound. Ohoopee River: a 119-mile-long river in east-central Georgia.
It is a tributary of the Altamaha River. Peace River: located in central Florida, flows into Charlotte Harbor. Pithlachascotee River: a small river in central Florida Pocomoke Rive
Florence County, South Carolina
Florence County is a county located in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, its population was 136,885, its county seat is Florence. Florence County is included in SC Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county's population is about 60% urban. Florence County was formed from main sections of Darlington and Marion Counties plus other townships from Williamsburg and Clarendon Counties, starting in 1888; the last section of Williamsburg County was not added until 1921. Florence County was named for the daughter of General W. W. Harlee. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 804 square miles, of which 800 square miles is land and 3.8 square miles is water. Williamsburg County – south Marion County – east Dillon County – north Marlboro County – north Darlington County – northwest Lee County – west Sumter County – southwest Clarendon County – southwest As of the census of 2000, there were 125,761 people, 47,147 households, 33,804 families residing in the county.
The population density was 157 people per square mile. There were 51,836 housing units at an average density of 65 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 58.65% White, 39.34% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.70% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.39% from other races, 0.68% from two or more races. 1.10% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 47,147 households out of which 33.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.70% were married couples living together, 18.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.30% were non-families. 24.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.08. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.90% under the age of 18, 9.70% from 18 to 24, 28.90% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, 11.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years.
For every 100 females, there were 88.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,144, the median income for a family was $41,274. Males had a median income of $32,065 versus $21,906 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,876. About 13.50% of families and 16.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.30% of those under age 18 and 16.50% of those age 65 or over. In census 2000, the population of Florence County was classified as 58% urban and 42% rural, containing the two urban areas of Florence and Lake City. Along with Darlington County, it comprises part of the Florence Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 136,885 people, 52,653 households, 36,328 families residing in the county. The population density was 171.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 58,666 housing units at an average density of 73.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 54.9% white, 41.3% black or African American, 1.2% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 1.1% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 8.4% were American, 7.8% were English, 6.7% were Irish, 6.2% were German. Of the 52,653 households, 35.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.7% were married couples living together, 19.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.0% were non-families, 26.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.06. The median age was 37.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $40,487 and the median income for a family was $48,896. Males had a median income of $38,934 versus $30,163 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,932. About 14.5% of families and 18.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.1% of those under age 18 and 14.0% of those age 65 or over. Florence Johnsonville Lake City Effingham Mars Bluff National Register of Historic Places listings in Florence County, South Carolina Florence County Website 1905 Reprint of Bishop Gregg's History of the Old Cheraws with additional material as an appendix.
Florence County History and Images
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
A bridge is a structure built to span a physical obstacle, such as a body of water, valley, or road, without closing the way underneath. It is constructed for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle something that can be detrimental to cross otherwise. There are many different designs that each serve a particular purpose and apply to different situations. Designs of bridges vary depending on the function of the bridge, the nature of the terrain where the bridge is constructed and anchored, the material used to make it, the funds available to build it. Most the earliest bridges were fallen trees and stepping stones, while Neolithic people built boardwalk bridges across marshland; the Arkadiko Bridge dating from the 13th century BC, in the Peloponnese, in southern Greece is one of the oldest arch bridges still in existence and use. The Oxford English Dictionary traces the origin of the word bridge to an Old English word brycg, of the same meaning; the word can be traced directly back to Proto-Indo-European *bʰrēw-.
The word for the card game of the same name has a different origin. Before the rise of humanity, ants have been making bridges by using their own to allow others to cross; the simplest type of a bridge is stepping stones, so this may have been one of the earliest types. Neolithic people built a form of boardwalk across marshes, of which the Sweet Track and the Post Track, are examples from England that are around 6000 years old. Undoubtedly ancient peoples would have used log bridges; some of the first man-made bridges with significant span were intentionally felled trees. Among the oldest timber bridges is the Holzbrücke Rapperswil-Hurden crossing upper Lake Zürich in Switzerland; the first wooden footbridge led across Lake Zürich, followed by several reconstructions at least until the late 2nd century AD, when the Roman Empire built a 6-metre-wide wooden bridge. Between 1358 and 1360, Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, built a'new' wooden bridge across the lake, used to 1878 – measuring 1,450 metres in length and 4 metres wide.
On April 6, 2001, the reconstructed wooden footbridge was opened, being the longest wooden bridge in Switzerland. The Arkadiko Bridge is one of four Mycenaean corbel arch bridges part of a former network of roads, designed to accommodate chariots, between the fort of Tiryns and town of Epidauros in the Peloponnese, in southern Greece. Dating to the Greek Bronze Age, it is one of the oldest arch bridges still in use. Several intact arched stone bridges from the Hellenistic era can be found in the Peloponnese; the greatest bridge builders of antiquity were the ancient Romans. The Romans built arch bridges and aqueducts that could stand in conditions that would damage or destroy earlier designs; some stand today. An example is the Alcántara Bridge, built over the river Tagus, in Spain; the Romans used cement, which reduced the variation of strength found in natural stone. One type of cement, called pozzolana, consisted of water, lime and volcanic rock. Brick and mortar bridges were built after the Roman era.
In India, the Arthashastra treatise by Kautilya mentions the construction of bridges. A Mauryan bridge near Girnar was surveyed by James Princep; the bridge was swept away during a flood, repaired by Puspagupta, the chief architect of emperor Chandragupta I. The use of stronger bridges using plaited bamboo and iron chain was visible in India by about the 4th century. A number of bridges, both for military and commercial purposes, were constructed by the Mughal administration in India. Although large Chinese bridges of wooden construction existed at the time of the Warring States period, the oldest surviving stone bridge in China is the Zhaozhou Bridge, built from 595 to 605 AD during the Sui dynasty; this bridge is historically significant as it is the world's oldest open-spandrel stone segmental arch bridge. European segmental arch bridges date back to at least the Alconétar Bridge, while the enormous Roman era Trajan's Bridge featured open-spandrel segmental arches in wooden construction. Rope bridges, a simple type of suspension bridge, were used by the Inca civilization in the Andes mountains of South America, just prior to European colonization in the 16th century.
During the 18th century there were many innovations in the design of timber bridges by Hans Ulrich Grubenmann, Johannes Grubenmann, others. The first book on bridge engineering was written by Hubert Gautier in 1716. A major breakthrough in bridge technology came with the erection of the Iron Bridge in Shropshire, England in 1779, it used cast iron for the first time as arches to cross the river Severn. With the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, truss systems of wrought iron were developed for larger bridges, but iron does not have the tensile strength to support large loads. With the advent of steel, which has a high tensile strength, much larger bridges were built, many using the ideas of Gustave Eiffel. In Canada and the U. S. numerous timber Covered bridges were built in the late 1700s to the late 1800s, reminiscent of earlier designs in Germany and Switzerland. In years, some were made of stone or metal but the trusses were still made of wood. Hundreds of these structures still stand in North America.
They were brought to the attention of the general public in
Florence, South Carolina
Florence is a city in, the county seat of, Florence County, South Carolina, United States. It is best known for being the intersection of I-95 and I-20, the eastern terminus of I-20, it is the primary city within the Florence metropolitan area. The area forms the core of the historical "Pee Dee" region of South Carolina, which includes the eight counties of northeastern South Carolina, along with sections of southeastern North Carolina; as of the 2010 census, the population of Florence was 37,056, the estimated population in 2015 was 38,228. Florence is one of the major cities in South Carolina. In 1965, Florence was named an All-American City, presented by the National Civic League; the city was founded as a railroad hub and became the junction of three major railroad systems, including the Wilmington and Manchester, the Northeastern, the Cheraw and Darlington. As of today, the city retains its status as a major hub in the coastal plain region of South Carolina, both for industry and infrastructure, while establishing itself as a regional center for business, medicine and finance.
The City of Florence was chartered in 1871 and incorporated in 1890 following the 1888 creation of Florence County. Prior to its charter, the city was part of one of the original townships laid out by the Lords Proprietors in 1719; the area was settled through the late 19th and early 20th century. Early settlers practiced subsistence farming and produced indigo, naval stores and timber, which were shipped down the Great Pee Dee River to the port at Georgetown and exported. In the mid-19th century two intersecting railroads were built, the Wilmington and Manchester, the Northeastern. Gen. W. W. Harllee, the president of the W & M, built his home at the junction, named the community "Florence", after his daughter. During the Civil War the town was an important supply and railroad repair center for the Confederacy, the site of the Florence Stockade, which held between 12,000 and 18,000 Union prisoners of war. Over 2,800 of the prisoners died of disease, the burial ground adjacent to the prison became the Florence National Cemetery after the war and now has expanded.
After the war, Florence grew and prospered, using the railroad to supply its cotton, by the turn of the century, tobacco. During the 20th century the economy of Florence came to rely on the healthcare industry, driven by two major hospitals and a number of pharmaceutical plants. Industry grew after World War II, when Florence became known for textiles, pharmaceuticals and manufacturing, in addition to agricultural products. Florence is located in the coastal plain of South Carolina, it is in the northern part of Florence County. The average elevation above sea level is around 140 ft. Jeffries Creek is a tributary of the Great Pee Dee River and is the main waterway that flows through the city, passing south of the city center. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 20.9 square miles, of which 20.9 square miles are land and 0.04 square miles, or 0.22%, is water. The climate experienced is humid subtropical of the type found in the deep south far from the coast.
Autumn and spring are mild, with occasional winter nights below freezing but extended cold and rigorous. Florence's summers can be hot and humid; the city, like other cities of the Southeast, is prone to inversions, which trap ozone and other pollutants over the area. The city of Florence has a council-manager form of government. City council members are elected every four years, without term limits; the council consists of seven members, as well as the mayor. The council responsible for making policies and enacting laws and regulations in order to provide for future community and economic growth; the council additionally provides the necessary support for the orderly and efficient operation of city services. Florence holds elections for mayor every four years, alongside national Presidential elections. Mayors serve without term limits; the council appoints a city manager to serve as chief administrative officer to run the day-to-day business of the city and to serve at the pleasure of the council.
Current members of the Florence City Council: During the latter part of the 20th century and early 21st century, Florence's economy was transformed from being based on rail and farming into a diversified economy as the major commerce, finance and trucking services, health care, industrial center of the Eastern Carolinas. There are over fourteen Fortune 500 companies in the region; the gross domestic product of the Florence metropolitan statistical area as of 2009 was $6.8 billion, one of the highest among MSAs in the state. Milken Institute 2008 Best Performing Cities Index showed the Florence MSA as the 5th largest gainer in their evaluation of the top 124 small metropolitan areas in the United States; the report ranks U. S. metropolitan areas by how well they are creating and sustaining jobs and economic growth. The components include job and salary and technology growth. Florence has blossomed into a strong center for medical care, with four major medical providers McLeod Regional Medical Center, Carolinas Hospital System, Regency Hospital and HealthSouth.
The growth of these providers has led to the transformation of the Florence skyline over the last 10 years, with development for demand with multi-story high-rises as well as community relation projects. With such a strong medical community several companies have their global, continental
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish. Fish are caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, netting and trapping. “Fishing” may include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs, cephalopods and echinoderms. The term is not applied to catching farmed fish, or to aquatic mammals, such as whales where the term whaling is more appropriate. In addition to being caught to be eaten, fish are caught as recreational pastimes. Fishing tournaments are held, caught fish are sometimes kept as preserved or living trophies; when bioblitzes occur, fish are caught and released. According to the United Nations FAO statistics, the total number of commercial fishermen and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million. Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over 500 million people in developing countries. In 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms.
Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back to at least the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period about 40,000 years ago. Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a 40,000-year-old modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he consumed freshwater fish. Archaeology features such as shell middens, discarded fish bones, cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival and consumed in significant quantities. Fishing in Africa is evident early on in human history. Neanderthals were fishing by about 200,000 BC to have a source of food for their families and to trade or sell. People could have developed basketry for fish traps, spinning and early forms of knitting in order to make fishing nets to be able to catch more fish in larger quantities. During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and were, of necessity on the move. However, where there are early examples of permanent settlements such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are always associated with fishing as a major source of food.
The British dogger was an early type of sailing trawler from the 17th century, but the modern fishing trawler was developed in the 19th century, at the English fishing port of Brixham. By the early 19th century, the fishermen at Brixham needed to expand their fishing area further than before due to the ongoing depletion of stocks, occurring in the overfished waters of South Devon; the Brixham trawler that evolved there was of a sleek build and had a tall gaff rig, which gave the vessel sufficient speed to make long distance trips out to the fishing grounds in the ocean. They were sufficiently robust to be able to tow large trawls in deep water; the great trawling fleet that built up at Brixham, earned the village the title of'Mother of Deep-Sea Fisheries'. This revolutionary design made large scale trawling in the ocean possible for the first time, resulting in a massive migration of fishermen from the ports in the South of England, to villages further north, such as Scarborough, Grimsby and Yarmouth, that were points of access to the large fishing grounds in the Atlantic Ocean.
The small village of Grimsby grew to become the largest fishing port in the world by the mid 19th century. An Act of Parliament was first obtained in 1796, which authorised the construction of new quays and dredging of the Haven to make it deeper, it was only in the 1846, with the tremendous expansion in the fishing industry, that the Grimsby Dock Company was formed. The foundation stone for the Royal Dock was laid by Albert the Prince consort in 1849; the dock covered 25 acres and was formally opened by Queen Victoria in 1854 as the first modern fishing port. The elegant Brixham trawler spread across the world. By the end of the 19th century, there were over 3,000 fishing trawlers in commission in Britain, with 1,000 at Grimsby; these trawlers were sold to fishermen including from the Netherlands and Scandinavia. Twelve trawlers went on to form the nucleus of the German fishing fleet; the earliest steam powered fishing boats first appeared in the 1870s and used the trawl system of fishing as well as lines and drift nets.
These were large boats 80–90 feet in length with a beam of around 20 feet. They travelled at 9 -- 11 knots; the earliest purpose built fishing vessels were designed and made by David Allan in Leith, Scotland in March 1875, when he converted a drifter to steam power. In 1877, he built. Steam trawlers were introduced at Hull in the 1880s. In 1890 it was estimated; the steam drifter was not used in the herring fishery until 1897. The last sailing fishing trawler was built in 1925 in Grimsby. Trawler designs adapted as the way they were powered changed from sail to coal-fired steam by World War I to diesel and turbines by the end of World War II. In 1931, the first powered drum was created by Laurie Jarelainen; the drum was a circular device, set to the side of the boat and would draw in the nets. Since World War II, radio navigation aids and fish finders have been used; the first trawlers fished over the side, rather than over the stern. The first purpose built stern trawler was Fairtry built in 1953 at Scotland.
The ship was much larger than any other trawlers in operation and inaugurated the era of the'super trawler'. As the ship pulled its nets over the stern, it could lift out a much greater haul of up to 60 tons; the ship served as a basis for the expansion of'su
South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U. S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties; the capital is Columbia with a 2017 population of 133,114. The Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2017 population estimate of 895,923. South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles".
South Carolina is known for its 187 miles of coastline, beautiful lush gardens, historic sites and Southern plantations, colonial and European cultures, its growing economic development. The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to the other two regions as Upstate; the Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is a chain of tidal and barrier islands; the border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain; the bays tend to be oval. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed of recent sediments such as sand and clay.
Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region; the Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher. The Upstate region contains the roots of an eroded mountain chain, it is hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry; these forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain; the fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia; the larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line. The northwestern part of the Piedmont is known as the Foothills.
The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is. Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet, is in this area. In this area is Caesars Head State Park; the environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles. All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made; the following are the lakes listed by size. Lake Marion 110,000 acres Lake Strom Thurmond 71,100 acres Lake Moultrie 60,000 acres Lake Hartwell 56,000 acres Lake Murray 50,000 acres Russell Lake 26,650 acres Lake Keowee 18,372 acres Lake Wylie 13,400 acres Lake Wateree 13,250 acres Lake Greenwood 11,400 acres Lake Jocassee 7,500 acres Lake Bowen Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area.
South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3. The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States; this 7.2 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F on the coast and from 66–73 °F inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F and overnight lows around 40 °F. Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F i