In cricket, batting is the act or skill of hitting the ball with a bat to score runs or prevent the loss of one's wicket. Any player, batting is denoted as a batsman, batswoman, or batter, regardless of whether batting is their particular area of expertise. Batsmen have to adapt to various conditions when playing on different cricket pitches in different countries - therefore, as well as having outstanding physical batting skills, top-level batsmen will have lightning reflexes, excellent decision-making and be good strategists. During an innings two members of the batting side are on the pitch at any time: the one facing the current delivery from the bowler is denoted the striker, while the other is the non-striker; when a batsman is out, they are replaced by a teammate. This continues until the end of the innings, when 10 of the team members are out, where upon the other team gets a turn to bat. Batting tactics and strategy vary depending on the type of match being played as well as the current state of play.
The main concerns for the batsmen are not to lose their wicket and to score as many runs as as possible. These objectives conflict – to score risky shots must be played, increasing the chance that the batsman will be dismissed, while the batsman's safest choice with a careful wicket-guarding stroke may be not to attempt any runs at all. Depending on the situation, batsmen may forget attempts at run-scoring in an effort to preserve their wicket, or may attempt to score runs as as possible with scant concern for the possibility of being dismissed; as with all other cricket statistics, batting statistics and records are given much attention and provide a measure of a player's effectiveness. The main statistic for batting is a player's batting average; this is calculated by dividing the number of runs he has scored, not by the innings he has played, but by the number of times he has been dismissed. Sir Donald Bradman set many batting records, some as far back as the 1930s and still unbeaten, he is regarded as the greatest batsman of all time.
Any player, regardless of their area of special skill, is referred to as a batsman while they are batting. However, a player, in the team principally because of their batting skill is referred to as a specialist batsman, or batsman, regardless of whether they are batting. In women's cricket, the term bats woman is sometimes encountered, as is batter, but'batsman' is used in both men's and women's cricket; the batsman's act of hitting the ball is called a stroke. Over time a standard batting technique has been developed, used by most batsmen. Technique refers to the batsman's stance before the ball is bowled as well as the movement of the hands, feet and body in the execution of a cricket stroke. Good technique is characterized by getting into the correct position to play the shot getting one's head and body in line with the ball, one's feet placed next to where the ball would bounce and swinging the bat at the ball to make contact at the precise moment required for the particular stroke being played.
The movement of the batsman for a particular delivery depends on the shot being attempted. Front-foot shots are played with the weight on the front foot and are played when the ball is pitched up to the batsman, while back-foot shots are played putting the weight onto the back foot to bowling, pitched short. Shots may be described as vertical bat shots, in which the bat is swung vertically at the ball, or horizontal or cross-bat shots, in which the bat is swung horizontally at the ball. While a batsman is not limited in where or how he may hit the ball, the development of good technique has gone hand in hand with the development of a standard or orthodox cricket shots played to specific types of deliveries; these "textbook" shots are standard material found in many coaching manuals. The advent of limited overs cricket, with its emphasis on rapid run-scoring, has led to increasing use of unorthodox shots to hit the ball into gaps where there are no fielders. Unorthodox shots are typical – but not always – more high-risk than orthodox shots due to some aspects of good batting technique being abandoned.
The stance is the position. An ideal stance is "comfortable and balanced", with the feet 40 centimetres apart and astride the crease. Additionally, the front shoulder should be pointing down the wicket, the head facing the bowler, the weight balanced and the bat near the back toe; as the ball is about to be released, the batsman will lift his bat up behind in anticipation of playing a stroke and will shift his weight onto the balls of his feet. By doing this he is ready to move swiftly into position to address the ball once he sees its path out of the bowler's hand. Although this textbook, the side-on stance is the most common, a few international batsmen, such as Shivnarine Chanderpaul, use an "open" or "square on" stance; the term used to describe. While the bat should be raised as vertically as possible, coaching manuals suggest that correct technique is for the bat to be angled from the perpendicular; some players have employed an exaggerated backlift. Others, who have employed the more unorthodox open stanc
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of, a 20-metre pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground; when ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches, they communicate with two off-field scorers. There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length.
Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core, layered with wound string. Cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century, it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council, which has over 100 members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches; the game's rules are held in a code called the Laws of Cricket, owned and maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in London. The sport is followed in the Indian subcontinent, the United Kingdom, southern Africa and the West Indies, its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.
Women's cricket, organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia, having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups, more than any other country, having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement. In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket, that the batsman must defend; the cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets. It is believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period. Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597.
The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that: "Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies". Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey. The view that it was a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket". One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word "cryce" meaning a staff. In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick". In Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of stick. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch "krick", meaning a stick.
Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de sen. Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but the sport itself may be of Flemish origin. Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects; the ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick.
Water polo is a competitive team sport played in the water between two teams. The game consists of four quarters in which the two teams attempt to score goals by throwing the ball into the opposing team's goal; the team with the most goals at the end of the game wins the match. Each team is made up of one goalkeeper. Except for the goalkeeper, players participate in both defensive roles. Water polo is played in an all-deep pool meaning that players cannot touch the bottom. A game of water polo consists of the players swimming to move about the pool, treading water, passing the ball and shooting at goal. Teamwork, tactical thinking and game awareness are highly important aspects in a game of water polo. Water polo is a physical and demanding sport and has been cited as one of the toughest sports to play. Special equipment for water polo includes a ball which floats on the water; the game is thought to have originated in Scotland in the late 19th century as a sort of "water rugby". William Wilson is thought to have developed the game during a similar period.
The game thus developed with the formation of the London Water Polo League and has since expanded, becoming popular in various parts of Europe, the United States, China and Australia. The history of water polo as a team sport began as a demonstration of strength and swimming skill in late 19th century England and Scotland, where water sports and racing exhibitions were a feature of county fairs and festivals. Men's water polo was among the first team sports introduced at the modern Olympic games in 1900. Water polo is now popular in many countries around the world, notably Europe, the United States and Australia; the present-day game involves teams of seven players, with a water polo ball similar in size to a soccer ball but constructed of air-tight nylon. One of the earliest recorded viewings of water polo was conducted at the 4th Open Air Fete of the London Swimming Club, held at the Crystal Palace, London on 15 September 1873. Another antecedent of the modern game of Water Polo was a game of water ‘handball’ played at Bournemouth on 13 July 1876.
This was a game between 12 members of the Premier Rowing Club, with goals being marked by four flags placed in the water near to the midpoint of Bournemouth Pier. The game lasted for 15 minutes watched by a large crowd; the rules of water polo were developed in the late nineteenth century in Great Britain by William Wilson. Wilson is believed to have been the First Baths Master of the Arlington Baths Club in Glasgow; the first games of'aquatic football' were played at the Arlington in the late 1800s, with a ball constructed of India rubber. This "water rugby" came to be called "water polo" based on the English pronunciation of the Balti word for ball, pulu. Early play allowed brute strength and holding opposing players underwater to recover the ball. Players held underwater for lengthy periods surrendered possession; the goalie stood outside the playing area and defended the goal by jumping in on any opponent attempting to score by placing the ball on the deck. The rules of water polo cover the play, procedures and officiating of water polo.
These rules are similar throughout the world, although slight variations to the rules do occur regionally and depending on the governing body. Governing bodies of water polo include FINA, the international governing organization for the rules. There are seven players in the water from each team at one time. There are one goalkeeper. Unlike most common team sports, there is little positional play; these positions consist of a center forward, a center back, the two wing players and the two drivers. Players who are skilled in all positions of offense or defense are called utility players. Utility players tend to come off of the bench. Certain body types are more suited for particular positions, left-handed players are coveted on the right-hand side of the field, allowing teams to launch two-sided attacks; the offensive positions include: one center forward, two wings, two drivers, one "point", positioned farthest from the goal. The wings and point are called the perimeter players. There is a typical numbering system for these positions in U.
S. NCAA men's division one polo. Beginning with the offensive wing to the opposing goalie's right side is called one; the flat in a counter clockwise from one is called two. Moving along in the same direction the point player is three, the next flat is four, the final wing is five, the hole set is called six
Wilpattu National Park
Wilpattu National Park is a park located on the island of Sri Lanka. The unique feature of this park is the existence of "Willus" - Natural, sand-rimmed water basins or depressions that fill with rainwater. Located in the Northwest coast lowland dry zone of Sri Lanka; the park is located 26 km north of Puttalam. The park is 1,317 square ranges from 0 to 152 meters above sea level. Nearly sixty lakes and tanks are found spread throughout Wilpattu. Wilpattu is one of the oldest National Parks in Sri Lanka. Wilpattu is among the top national parks world-renowned for its leopard population. A remote camera survey was conducted in Wilpattu from July to October 2015 by the Wilderness & Wildlife Conservation Trust. A sample of forty nine individual leopards were photo-captured in the surveyed area and the core area density was between that of Yala National Park's Block I and Horton Plains National Park. From December 1988 to March 16, 2003, the park was closed due to security concerns surrounding the Sri Lankan Civil War, before being reopened to visitors 16 years later.
Visitor access is limited to 25% of the park, the remainder of, dense forest or scrub. Popular visiting periods spans between the months of February and October, although there are a number of private eco-tourism groups that conducts safaris year round; the Mahavansa records that in 543 BC Prince Vijaya landed at Tambapanni now known as Kudrimalai Point, established the Sinhalese kingdom in Tambapanni and founded the Sinhala nation. In 1905 the area was designated a sanctuary and in 1938 it was upgraded to the National Park status.' Kudrimalai, or Horse Point, was visited by a subject of Emperor Claudius in 47 AD, blown off course by the monsoon. The local king sent his own envoys to Rome during the time of Pliny; the Annual Rainfall is about 1000mm and the annual temperature is about 27.2 degrees. Inter-monsoonal rains in March and the northeast monsoon are the main sources of rainfall. There are many types of vegetation to be found in Wilpattu, including littoral vegetation, such as salt grass and low scrub monsoon forest with tall emergents, such as palu, satin, weera and wewarna.
31 species of mammals have been identified within Wilpattu national park. Mammals that are identified as threatened species living within the Wilpattu National Park are the elephant, sloth bear and water buffalo. Sambhur, spotted deer, mongoose and shrew are more of Wilpattu's residents; the painted stork, the open bill, little cormorant, Sri Lankan junglefowl along with many species of owls, gulls, kites buzzards are to be found at Wilpattu National Park. Wetland bird species that can be seen in Wilpattu are the garganey, whistling teal, black-headed ibis, large white egret, cattle egret and purple heron; the most common reptiles found in the park are the monitor lizard, mugger crocodile, common cobra, rat snake, Indian python, pond turtle and the soft shelled turtle which are resident in the large permanent Villus. After the end of the civil war, allegations had been made that parts of the reserve has been occupied to build houses by certain politicians in an attempt to settle People. Commerce and Trade Minister Rishad Bathiudeen contends that it was the people, forcibly driven away by the LTTE in 1990 in accordance to their ethnic cleansing policy who had returned to their original villages.
Further to this the park was extended to the current size in 1999 after the ethnic cleansing where the old villages were marked as part of the park as claimed by the people in this area. Aerial images taken does show that a considerable portion of the forest has been opened up and a large number of small houses being built in the area.. Now the deforestation has been done by Minister Rishad Bathiudeen's guidance and orders initiated with help of former Minister Basil Rajapaksa. Photographs of animals taken within the national park
Stumped is a method of dismissal in cricket. The action of stumping can only be performed by a wicket-keeper and, according to the Laws of Cricket, a batsman can be given out stumped if: the wicket-keeper puts down the wicket, while the batsman is: out of his ground. Being "out of his ground" is defined as not having any part of the batsman's body or his bat touching the ground behind the crease – i.e. if his bat is elevated from the floor despite being behind the crease, or if his foot is on the crease line itself but not across it and touching the ground behind it he would be considered out. One of the fielding team must appeal for the wicket by asking the umpire; the appeal is directed to the square-leg umpire, who would be in the best position to adjudicate on the appeal. Stumping is the fifth most common form of dismissal after caught, leg before wicket and run out, though it is seen more in Twenty20 cricket because of its more aggressive batting, it is governed by Law 39 of the Laws of Cricket.
It is seen with a medium or slow bowler, as with fast bowlers a wicket-keeper takes the ball too far back from the wicket to attempt a stumping. It includes co-operation between a bowler and wicket-keeper: the bowler draws the batsman out of his ground, the wicket-keeper catches and breaks the wicket before the batsman realises he has missed the ball and makes his ground, i.e. places the bat or part of his body on the ground back behind the popping crease. If the bails are removed before the wicket-keeper has the ball, the batsman can still be stumped if the wicket-keeper removes one of the stumps from the ground, while holding the ball in his hand; the bowler is credited for the batsman's wicket, the wicket-keeper is credited for the dismissal. A batsman may be out stumped off a wide delivery but cannot be stumped off a no-ball as bowler is credited for the wicket. Notes: The popping crease is defined as the back edge of the crease marking (i.e. the edge closer to the wicket. Therefore, a batsman whose bat or foot is on the crease marking, but does not touch the ground behind the crease marking, can be stumped.
This is quite common. The wicket must be properly put down in accordance with Law 28 of the Laws of cricket: using either the ball itself or a hand or arm, in possession of the ball. Note that since the ball itself can put down the wicket, a stumping is still valid if the ball rebounds from the'keeper and breaks the wicket though never controlled by him; the wicket-keeper must allow the ball to pass the stumps before taking it, unless it has touched either the batsman or his bat first. If the wicket-keeper fails to do this, the delivery is a "no-ball", the batsman cannot be stumped
India national cricket team
The India national cricket team known as Team India and Men in Blue, is governed by the Board of Control for Cricket in India, is a full member of the International Cricket Council with Test, One Day International and Twenty20 International status. Although cricket was introduced to India by European merchant sailors in the 18th century, the first cricket club was established in Calcutta in 1792, India's national cricket team did not play its first Test match until 25 June 1932 at Lord's, becoming the sixth team to be granted Test cricket status. In its first fifty years of international cricket, India was one of the weaker teams, winning only 35 of the first 196 Test matches it played. From 1932 India had to wait until 1952 20 years for its first Test victory; the team, gained strength in the 1970s with the emergence of players such as batsmen Sunil Gavaskar and Gundappa Viswanath, all-rounder Kapil Dev and the Indian spin quartet of Erapalli Prasanna, Srinivas Venkataraghavan, Bhagwat Chandrasekhar and Bishen Singh Bedi.
Traditionally much stronger at home than abroad, the Indian team has improved its overseas form in limited-overs cricket, since the start of the 21st century, winning Test matches in Australia and South Africa. It has won the Cricket World Cup twice – in 1983 under the captaincy of Kapil Dev and in 2011 under the captaincy of Mahendra Singh Dhoni. After winning the 2011 World Cup, India became only the third team after West Indies and Australia to have won the World Cup more than once, the first cricket team to win the World Cup at home, it won the 2007 ICC World Twenty20 and 2013 ICC Champions Trophy, under the captaincy of MS Dhoni. It was the joint champions of 2002 ICC Champions Trophy, along with Sri Lanka; as of 19 October 2018, India is ranked first in Tests, second in ODIs and second in T20Is by the ICC. Virat Kohli is the current captain of the team across all formats, while the head coach is Ravi Shastri; the Indian cricket team has rivalries with other Test-playing nations, most notably with Pakistan, the political arch-rival of India.
However, in recent times, rivalries with nations like Australia, South Africa and England have gained prominence. The British brought cricket to India in the early 1700s, with the first cricket match played in 1721. In 1848, the Parsi community in Bombay formed the Oriental Cricket Club, the first cricket club to be established by Indians. After slow beginnings, the Europeans invited the Parsis to play a match in 1877. By 1912, the Parsis, Sikhs and Muslims of Bombay played a quadrangular tournament with the Europeans every year. In the early 1900s, some Indians went on to play for the England cricket team; some of these, such as Ranjitsinhji and KS Duleepsinhji were appreciated by the British and their names went on to be used for the Ranji Trophy and Duleep Trophy – two major first-class tournaments in India. In 1911, an Indian team went on their first official tour of the British Isles, but only played English county teams and not the England cricket team. India was invited to The Imperial Cricket Council in 1926, made their debut as a Test playing nation in England in 1932, led by CK Nayudu, considered as the best Indian batsman at the time.
The one-off Test match between the two sides was played at Lord's in London. The team went on to lose by 158 runs. India hosted its first Test series in the year 1933. England was the visiting team that played 2 Tests in Calcutta; the visitors won the series 2-0. The Indian team continued to improve throughout the 1930s and'40s but did not achieve an international victory during this period. In the early 1940s, India didn't play any Test cricket due to the Second World War; the team's first series as an independent country was in late 1947 against Sir Donald Bradman's Invincibles. It was the first Test series India played, not against England. Australia won the five-match series 4–0, with Bradman tormenting the Indian bowling in his final Australian summer. India subsequently played their first Test series at home not against England against the West Indies in 1948. West Indies won the 5-Test series 1–0. India recorded their first Test victory, in their 24th match, against England at Madras in 1952.
In the same year, they won their first Test series, against Pakistan. They continued their improvement throughout the early 1950s with a series win against New Zealand in 1956. However, they did not win again in the remainder of the decade and lost badly to strong Australian and English sides. On 24 August 1959, India lost by an innings in the Test to complete the only 5–0 whitewash inflicted by England; the next decade saw. They won their first Test series against England at home in 1961–62 and won a home series against New Zealand, they managed to draw another series against England. In this same period, India won its first series outside the subcontinent, against New Zealand in 1967–68; the key to India's bowling in the 1970s were the Indian spin quartet – Bishen Bedi, E. A. S. Prasanna, BS Chandrasekhar and Srinivas Venkataraghavan; this period saw the emergence of two of India's best batsmen, Sunil Gavaskar and Gundappa Viswanath. Indian pitches have had the tendency to support spin and the spin quartet exploited this to create collapses in opposing batting line-ups.
These players were responsible for the back-to-back series wins in 1971 in the West Indies and in England, under the captaincy of Ajit Wadekar
Bowling, in cricket, is the action of propelling the ball toward the wicket defended by a batsman. A player skilled at bowling is called a bowler. Bowling the ball is distinguished from throwing the ball by a specified biomechanical definition, which restricts the angle of extension of the elbow. A single act of bowling the ball towards the batsman is called a delivery. Bowlers bowl deliveries in sets of six, called an over. Once a bowler has bowled an over, a teammate will bowl an over from the other end of the pitch; the Laws of Cricket govern. If a ball is bowled illegally, an umpire will rule it a no-ball. If a ball is bowled too wide of the striker for the batsman to be able to play at it with a proper cricket shot, the bowler's end umpire will rule it a wide. There are different types of bowlers, from fast bowlers, whose primary weapon is pace, through swing and seam bowlers who try to make the ball deviate in its course through the air or when it bounces, to slow bowlers, who will attempt to deceive the batsmen with a variety of flight and spin.
A spin bowler delivers the ball quite and puts spin on the ball, causing it to turn at an angle while bouncing off the pitch. In the early days of cricket, underarm bowling was the only method employed. Many theories exist about the origins of cricket. One suggests that the game began among shepherds hitting a stone or a ball of wool with their crooks and, at the same time, defending the wicket gate into the sheep-fold. A second theory suggests the name came from a low stool known as a'cricket' in England, which from the side looked like the long, low wicket used in the early days of the game. There is a reference to'criquet' in North-East France in 1478 and evidence that the game evolved in South-East England in the Middle Ages. In 1706 William Goldwyn published the first description of the game, he wrote that two teams were first seen carrying their curving bats to the venue, choosing a pitch and arguing over the rules to be played. They pitched two sets of wickets, each with a "milk-white" bail perched on two stumps.
They had four-ball overs, the umpires leant on their staves, the scorers sat on a mound making notches. The first written "Laws of Cricket" were drawn up in 1744, they stated, "the principals shall choose from amongst the gentlemen present two umpires who shall decide all disputes. The stumps must be 22 inches high and the bail across them six inches; the ball must be between 5 & 6 ounces, the two sets of stumps 22 yards apart". There were no limits on the size of the bat, it appears that 40 notches was viewed as a big score due to the bowlers bowling at shins unprotected by pads. The world's first cricket club was formed in Hambledon in the 1760s and the Marylebone Cricket Club was founded in 1787. During the 1760s and 1770s it became common to pitch the ball through the air, rather than roll it along the ground; this innovation gave bowlers the weapons of length, deception through the air, plus increased pace. It opened new possibilities for spin and swerve. In response, batters had to master shot selection.
One immediate consequence was the replacement of the curving bat with the straight one. All of this lessened the influence of rough ground and brute force, it was in the 1770s. The weight of the ball was limited to between five and a half and five and three-quarter ounces, the width of the bat to four inches; the latter ruling followed an innings by a batter called Thomas "Daddy" White, who appeared with a bat the width of the wicket. In 1774, the first leg before law was published. Around this time, a third stump became commonplace. By 1780, the duration of a first-class cricket match was three days, this year saw the creation of the first six-seam cricket ball. In 1788, the MCC published its first revision of the laws, which prohibited charging down an opponent and provided for mowing and covering the wicket in order to standardise conditions; the desire for standardisation reflected the massive increase in the popularity of cricket during the 18th century. Between 1730 and 1740, 150 cricket matches were recorded in the papers of the time.
Between 1750 and 1760, this figure rose to 230, between 1770 and 1790 over 500. The 19th century saw a series of significant changes. Wide deliveries were outlawed in 1811; the circumference of the ball was specified for the first time in 1838. Pads, made of cork, became available for the first time in 1841, these were further developed following the invention of vulcanised rubber, used to introduce protective gloves in 1848. In the 1870s, boundaries were introduced – all hits had to be run; the biggest change, was in how the ball was delivered by the bowler. At the start of the century, all bowlers were still delivering the ball under-arm. However, so the story goes, John Willes became the first bowler to use a "round-arm" technique after practising with his sister Christina, who had used the technique, as she was unable to bowl underarm due to her wide dress impeding her delivery of the ball; the round-arm action came to be employed in matches but was determined to be illegal and banned by the MCC