Worcester County, Maryland
Worcester County is the easternmost county of the U. S. state of Maryland. As of the 2010 census, the population was 51,454, its county seat is Snow Hill. The county was named for Mary Arundell, the wife of Sir John Somerset, a son of Henry Somerset, 1st Marquess of Worcester, she was sister to Anne Arundell, wife of Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, the first Proprietor and Proprietary Governor of the Province of Maryland. Worcester County is included in MD-DE Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county includes the entire length of the state's ocean and tidewater coast along the Intracoastal Waterway bordering Assawoman Bay, Isle of Wight Bay, Sinepuxent Bay, Chincoteague Bay between the sand barrier islands of Fenwick Island and Assateague Island bordering the Atlantic Ocean coast. It is home to the popular vacation resort area of Ocean City, founded 1875, as well as wild habitats on the primitive wilderness areas on Assateague Island and in the Pocomoke River and Swamp. Worcester County was created by the division of the larger Eastern Shore's Somerset County in 1742.
The county seat, located near the confluence of Dividing Creek with the Pocomoke River, was transferred to the river port of Snow Hill, at the head of navigation of the Pocomoke, now near the center of the new county. Both the areas of Somerset and Worcester Counties were divided into old colonial divisions of "hundreds", from south to north: Mattapony, Boquetenorton and Baltimore Hundreds. Subdivisions of these hundreds added Pitts Creek, Acquango and Buckingham & Worcester Hundreds, all of which in turn became election districts for the newly independent state following American independence. Competing territorial claims between the Proprietor family of the Calverts and the Lords Baltimore in the old Province of Maryland and the Penns of the neighboring Province of Pennsylvania to the north and of what became the state of Delaware to the east led to the surveying of Worcester County's northern border, the "Transpeninsular Line" in 1751, though boundary disputes continued through the rest of the colonial period, not settled until the work of the famous Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon with their "Mason–Dixon line".
In 1779, Stephen Decatur, the famous United States Navy officer and hero of the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War in the early 1800s, leading into the War of 1812, was born at Sinepuxent, near what is today the town of Berlin. Settled by European immigrants of British and Irish stock, along with slaves of West African descent, Worcester County was divided during the colonial period into several Church of England parishes, though Quakers and Methodists set up meeting houses. Like the border states in general, Worcester County had a high proportion of free people of color for many decades before the Civil War, due in part to the influence of Quakerism, Methodism. Worcester County was an agricultural area from its inception, first planting tobacco, but when the quality produced in the area's sandy soil could not compete with that produced elsewhere, they began growing wheat and livestock. Early industrial activity included the smelting of bog iron ore in a brick blast furnace to make pig iron at Furnacetown in the first half of the 19th century.
The presence of large bald cypress swamps along the Pocomoke River led to logging, the manufacture of roofing shingles, shipbuilding along the river at Newtown. The arrival of steam-powered water transport and the railroad opened urban markets to another of Worcester County's principal products: seafood shellfish. Oysters and crabs were shipped to Baltimore and New York. Soon after the Civil War, parts of both Worcester and Somerset Counties were combined to create, in 1867, Wicomico County. In the 19th century, the seaside resort of Ocean City was founded. Truck farming and the canning industry came to the fore during the early 20th century. However, both the seafood industry and truck farming declined after mid-century, due to overfishing on the one hand, the opening of California's Central Valley to irrigated agriculture on the other, but the advent of the large-scale poultry industry filled this gap; the expansion of Ocean City since the 1960s has turned the northern part of the county from a summer resort to an expanding year-round community.
Two major storms influenced the course of Worcester County history in the 20th Century: the hurricane of August 1933, which badly damaged Ocean City and Public Landing, but cut the Ocean City Inlet and passageway between the inner bays west of the sandy barrier islands of Assawoman Bay, Sinepuxent Bay and Assateague Channel and Bay and the Atlantic Ocean, the Ash Wednesday "Nor'easter" of 1962, which destroyed much of the residential development on Assateague Island and led to the creation of the National Seashore and State Park. The county has a number of properties on the National Register of Historic Places. Worcester County was granted home rule in 1976 under a state code under the amendments to the fourth Maryland Constitution of 1867; the Circuit Court of Maryland and District Court of Maryland are located in Snow Hill with two district courthouses. The county is governed by a Board of Commissioners elected from seven districts; the current president is Diana Purnell. Theodore J. Elder serves as vice president.
The remaining commissioners are Madison James Bunting, Jr. James C. Church, Merrill Lockfaw, Anthony W. Bertino, Jr. and Joseph Mitrecic. According to the U. S. Census Bur
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, the District of Columbia to its south and west. The state's largest city is Baltimore, its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the Chesapeake Bay State, it is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary. Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U. S. it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography and history combines elements of the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic regions of the country. One of the original Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain, Maryland was founded by George Calvert, a Catholic convert who sought to provide a religious haven for Catholics persecuted in England.
In 1632, Charles I of England granted Calvert a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Queen Mary. Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who enforced religious conformity in their settlements, Calvert envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this principle by penalizing anyone who "reproached" a fellow Marylander based on religious affiliation. Religious strife was common in the early years, Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other English colony. Maryland's early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay, its economy was plantation-based, centered on the cultivation of tobacco. The need for cheap labor led to a rapid expansion of indentured servants, penal labor, African slaves. In 1760, Maryland's current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running border dispute with Pennsylvania.
Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, by 1776 its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C. Although a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the U. S. Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, mass immigration from Europe. Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown to six million residents, it is among the most densely populated states in the nation; as of 2015, Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to Washington, D. C. and a diversified economy spanning manufacturing, higher education, biotechnology. Maryland has been ranked as one of the best governed states in the country.
The state's central role in American history is reflected by its hosting of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per capita. Maryland is comparable in overall area with Belgium, it is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next smaller state. The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature, it ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west. Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its west by West Virginia, on its east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, on its south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia; the mid-portion of this border is interrupted by District of Columbia, which sits on land, part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia.. The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County, the eastern half of Worcester County, a small portion of the state's northeast corner. So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname, used by Massachusetts for decades; the highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet, is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the bo
New Castle, Delaware
New Castle is a city in New Castle County, six miles south of Wilmington, situated on the Delaware River. According to the 2010 Census, the population of the city is 5,285. New Castle was settled by the Dutch West India Company in 1651, under the leadership of Peter Stuyvesant, on the site of a former aboriginal village, "Tomakonck", to assert their claim to the area based on a prior agreement with the aboriginal inhabitants of the area; the Dutch named the settlement Fort Casimir, but this was changed to Fort Trinity following its seizure by the colony of New Sweden on Trinity Sunday, 1654. The Dutch conquered the entire colony of New Sweden the following year and rechristened the fort Nieuw-Amstel; this marked the end of the Swedish colony in Delaware as an official entity, but it remained a semi-autonomous unit within the New Netherland colony and the cultural and religious influence of the Swedish settlers remained strong. As the settlement grew, Dutch authorities laid out a grid of streets and established the town common, which continue to this day.
In 1664, the English seized the entire New Netherland colony in the Second Anglo-Dutch War. They made it the capital of their Delaware Colony; the Dutch regained the town in 1673 during the Third Anglo-Dutch War but it was returned to Great Britain the next year under the Treaty of Westminster. In 1680, New Castle was conveyed to William Penn by the Duke of York by livery of seisin and was Penn's landing place when he first set foot on American soil on October 27, 1682; this transfer to Penn was contested by Lord Baltimore and the boundary dispute was not resolved until the survey conducted by Mason and Dixon, now famed in history as the Mason–Dixon line. The spire on top of the Court House, Delaware's colonial capitol and first state house, was used as the center of the Twelve-Mile Circle forming the northern boundary of Delaware; the Delaware River within this radius to the low water mark on the opposite shore is part of Delaware. Thus the Delaware Memorial Bridge was built as an intrastate span by Delaware, without financial participation by neighboring New Jersey.
Prior to the establishment of Penn's Philadelphia, New Castle was a center of government. After being transferred to Penn, Delaware's Swedish and English residents used to the relaxed culture of the Restoration monarchy grew uncomfortable with the more conservative Quaker influence, so Delaware petitioned for a separate legislature, granted in 1702. Delaware formally broke from Pennsylvania in 1704. New Castle again became the seat of the colonial government, thriving with the various judges and lawyers that fueled the economy. Many smaller houses were replaced in this era. In February 1777, John McKinly was elected the first President of Delaware. During the Revolution, when New Castle was besieged by William Howe, the government elected to move its functions south to Dover in May 1777. McKinley was captured by the held prisoner for several months. New Castle remained the county seat until after the Civil War, when that status was transferred to Wilmington. Three signers of the Declaration of Independence were from New Castle—Thomas McKean, George Read, George Ross.
The 16-mile portage between the Delaware River and Chesapeake Bay saved a 400-mile trip around the Delmarva Peninsula, so this brought passengers and business to New Castle's port. In the years following the Revolution, a turnpike was built to facilitate travel between the two major waterways. New Castle became the eastern terminus of the New Castle and Frenchtown Railroad, the second-oldest rail line in the country, launched in 1828 with horse-drawn rail cars converting to steam power when an engine was purchased from Great Britain in 1832; the line traversed the Delmarva Peninsula, running to the Elk River, from where passengers changed to packet boats for further travel to Baltimore and points south. This helped the New Castle economy to further boom; the decline in New Castle's economy had the long-range fortunate effect of preventing most residents from making any significant structural changes to their homes. So, the many buildings of historic New Castle look much as they did in the colonial and Federal periods.
New Castle has a tradition, dating back to 1927, of tours of historical homes and gardens. These tours, called "A Day in Olde New Castle", are held on the third Saturday of May. Householders dress in colonial costumes and an admittance fee is collected, used toward the maintenance of the town's many historic buildings. In June the town holds its annual Separation Day celebration. On April 28, 1961, an F3 tornado hit the north side. Although no fatalities or injuries occurred, it was the only tornado of this magnitude recorded in Delaware. In the City of New Castle, many small and historical neighborhoods are within the city limits. However, many larger neighborhoods are surrounding the city limits and are labeled as New Castle within the general consensus; the New Castle area ranges from the southern city limits of Wilmington to the north, the Delaware River to the East, Wrangle Hill Road to the South, Bear and Christiana to the West. City of New Castle Shawtown Dobbinsville Washington Park Battery Park 6th & DelawareOutside neighborhoods Chelsea Estates Penn Acres Collins Park Minquadale Wilmington Manor Commons Boulevard Midvale Jefferson Farms Castle H
Dover is the capital and second-largest city in the U. S. state of Delaware. It is the county seat of Kent County, the principal city of the Dover, DE Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Kent County and is part of the Philadelphia-Wilmington-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD Combined Statistical Area, it is located on the St. Jones River in the Delaware River coastal plain, it was named by William Penn of Dover in England. As of 2010, the city had a population of 36,047. First recorded in its Latinised form of Portus Dubris, the name derives from the Brythonic word for waters; the same element is present in the towns Modern Welsh forms. The city is named after Kent in England. Dover was founded as the court town for newly established Kent County in 1683 by William Penn, the proprietor of the territory known as the "Lower Counties on the Delaware." In 1717, the city was laid out by a special commission of the Delaware General Assembly. The capital of the state of Delaware was moved here from New Castle in 1777 because of its central location and relative safety from British raiders on the Delaware River.
Because of an act passed in October 1779, the assembly elected to meet at any place in the state they saw fit, meeting successively in Wilmington, Dover, New Castle, Lewes again, until it settled down permanently in Dover in October 1781. The city's central square, known as The Green, was the location of many rallies, troop reviews, other patriotic events. To this day, The Green remains the heart of Dover's historic district and is the location of the Delaware Supreme Court and the Kent County Courthouse. Dover was most famously the home of Caesar Rodney, the popular wartime leader of Delaware during the American Revolution, he is known to have been buried outside Dover. A cenotaph in his honor is erected in the cemetery of the Christ Episcopal Church near The Green in Dover. Dover and Kent County were divided over the issue of slavery, the city was a "stop" on the Underground Railroad because of its proximity to slave-holding Maryland and free Pennsylvania and New Jersey, it was home to a large Quaker community that encouraged a sustained emancipation effort in the early 19th century.
There were few slaves in the area, but the institution was supported, if not practiced, by a small majority, who saw to its continuation. The Bradford-Loockerman House, Building 1301, Dover Air Force Base, John Bullen House, Carey Farm Site, Christ Church, Delaware State Museum Buildings, John Dickinson House, Dover Green Historic District, Eden Hill, Delaware Governor's Mansion, Hughes-Willis Site, Loockerman Hall, Macomb Farm, Mifflin-Marim Agricultural Complex, Old Statehouse, Palmer Home, Town Point, Tyn Head Court, Victorian Dover Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Dover is located at 39°09′29″N 75°31′28″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.7 square miles, of which 22.4 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles, or 1.32%, is water. Dover has humid subtropical climate. Summers are hot and humid, with 23 days per year reaching or surpassing 90 °F. Brief, but heavy summer thunderstorms are common. Winters are moderated by the Delaware Bay and the partial shielding of the Appalachians, though there are 8−9 days when the daily high remains below freezing and 15 nights with lows below 20 °F. Snow is light and sporadic, averaging only 15.7 inches per season, does not remain on the ground for long.
Spring and autumn provide transitions of reasonable length and are similar, though spring is more wet. The monthly mean temperature ranges from 35.2 °F in January to 77.7 °F in July. The annual total precipitation of around 46 inches is spread rather evenly year-round. Dover averages 2300 hours of sunshine annually. In 2010, Dover had a population of 36,047 people; the racial makeup of the city was 48.3% White, 42.2% African American, 0.5% Native American, 2.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.1% from other races, 4.1% from two or more races. 6.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 32,135 people, 12,340 households, 7,502 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,435.0 people per square mile. There were 13,195 housing units at an average density of 589.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 54.94% White, 37.22% African American, 0.45% Native American, 3.16% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.57% from other races, 2.62% from two or more races.
4.13% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 12,340 households out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.4% were married couples living together, 16.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.2% were non-families. 31.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.98. In the city of Dover the age distribution of the population shows 23.5% under the age of 18, 15.7% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 19.5% from 45 to 64, 13.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $38,669, the median income for a family was $48,338. Males had a median income of $34,824 versus $26,061 for females; the per
Laurel is a town in Sussex County, United States. The population was 3,708 at the 2010 census. Laurel is part of Maryland-Delaware Metropolitan Statistical Area, it once hosted the Laurel Blue Hens of the Eastern Shore Baseball League. The site of the town of Laurel was a Nanticoke Indian settlement known as Broad Creek Town during most of the eighteenth century, its Nanticoke name is unknown. The Indian settlement was created on tracts known as Bachelor's Delight and Greenland in 1711 when the government of Maryland, who claimed this part of Delaware, set aside land for the Nanticoke Indians. Nearly all the Indian settlers left within 50 years; the present town was laid out along the Broad Creek in the 1790s and was named for the laurel bushes that grew alongside the creek. The Chipman Potato House, Chipman's Mill, Collins Potato House, Hearn Potato House, E. L. Hitch Potato House, Laurel Historic District, Moore Potato House, Old Christ Church, Phillips Potato House, Ralph Potato House, Rider Potato House, Ross Point School, Spring Garden, Stanley Potato House, Wright Potato House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
On March 29, 1929 the town was merged with the neighboring town of North Laurel which comprised most of the current town north of Broad Creek. This merger was not properly reported to the United States Census Bureau, which resulted in the North Laurel's population not being included with the population of Laurel in the 1930 United States Census; as such, the US Census Bureau did not make a change to the 1930 population statistics once the error was discovered, however it acknowledged in 1940 that the correct population for Laurel in 1930 was 2,542. West Laurel is one of Delaware’s oldest free black communities. According to the Delaware Historical Society, West Laurel dates back to the 1790’s. At some point in the 1870’s Captain Theodore Marsh settled in West Laurel, brought property, broke the property down into plots and sold them to his shipmates; the graveyard for New Zion United Methodist church in West Laurel, around since the early 1800’s is the resting place of Marsh and his shipmates.
Laurel is located on the Atlantic Coastal Plain in southwestern Delaware at 38°33′23″N 75°34′17″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.7 square miles, of which 1.7 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. 957 families, 1,389 households, 3,668 people reside in the town. The population density was 2,215.9 people per square mile. There were 1,561 housing units at an average density of 943.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 55.56% White, 39.42% African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.95% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.20% from other races, 2.48% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.32% of the population. There were 1,389 households out of which 37.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.4% were married couples living together, 26.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.1% were non-families. 26.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.19. In the town, the age distribution of the population shows 33.2% under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 16.7% from 45 to 64, 12.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 72.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $28,321, the median income for a family was $30,329. Males had a median income of $28,006 versus $18,550 for females; the per capita income for the town was $13,594. About 18.7% of families and 21.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.6% of those under age 18 and 11.4% of those age 65 or over. On August 13, 2011 the District 3 All-Stars from Laurel won the Senior League Softball World Series for Little League, going undefeated in the tournament and defeating Puerto Rico in the championship game by a score of 2–0; the Laurel High School Bulldogs have won three Division 2 State Football Championships in 1986, 1987, 1991.
Mark Briscoe – Professional wrestler Jay Briscoe – Professional wrestler Bert Carvel – former Governor of Delaware William B. Cooper – former Governor of Delaware Carlton Elliott – former NFL player Alex Ellis – current NFL player Dallas Marvil – Consensus All-American football player, 1931 Joshua H. Marvil – former Governor of Delaware John Collins - former Governor of Delaware Nathaniel Mitchell – former Governor of Delaware, Member of the Continental Congress William Ross - former Governor of Delaware Ron Waller – former NFL player and coach Laurel Star Leader & State Register The News Journal Delaware State News WBOC-TV has its broadcast tower located in Laurel. FOX 21 has its broadcast tower located in Laurel. WMDT WKDB Official Website of the Town of Laurel Laurel Chamber of Commerce Laurel Historical Society
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as primary legislation. Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process; the members of a legislature are called legislators. In a democracy, legislators are most popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are used for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber. Names for national legislatures include "parliament", "congress", "diet", "assembly", depending on country; each chamber of the legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a certain number of legislators present to carry out these activities; some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of a few of the members of the chamber.
The members of a legislature represent different political parties. Legislatures vary in the amount of political power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries and executives. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures; the German Bundestag, the Italian Parliament, the Mongolian State Great Khural tied for most powerful, while Myanmar's House of Representatives and Somalia's Transitional Federal Assembly tied for least powerful. Some political systems follow the principle of legislative supremacy, which holds that the legislature is the supreme branch of government and cannot be bound by other institutions, such as the judicial branch or a written constitution; such a system renders the legislature more powerful. In parliamentary and semi-presidential systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature, which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.
On the other hand, according to the separation of powers doctrine, the legislature in a presidential system is considered an independent and coequal branch of government along with both the judiciary and the executive. Legislatures will sometimes delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies. Legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators. A legislature contains a fixed number of legislators. For example, a legislature that has 100 "seats" has 100 members. By extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can be described as a "seat", as, example, in the phrases "safe seat" and "marginal seat". A legislature may debate and vote upon bills as a single unit, or it may be composed of multiple separate assemblies, called by various names including legislative chambers, debate chambers, houses, which debate and vote separately and have distinct powers. A legislature which operates as a single unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, one divided into three chambers is tricameral.
In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house, while the other is considered the lower house. The two types are not rigidly different, but members of upper houses tend to be indirectly elected or appointed rather than directly elected, tend to be allocated by administrative divisions rather than by population, tend to have longer terms than members of the lower house. In some systems parliamentary systems, the upper house has less power and tends to have a more advisory role, but in others presidential systems, the upper house has equal or greater power. In federations, the upper house represents the federation's component states; this is a case with the supranational legislature of the European Union. The upper house may either contain the delegates of state governments – as in the European Union and in Germany and, before 1913, in the United States – or be elected according to a formula that grants equal representation to states with smaller populations, as is the case in Australia and the United States since 1913.
Tricameral legislatures are rare. Tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary in their size. Among national legislatures, China's National People's Congress is the largest with 2 980 members, while Vatican City's Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7. Neither legislature is democratically elected: the National People's Congress is indirectly elected. Legislature size is a trade off between representation. Comparative analysis of national legislatures has found that size of a country's lower house tends to be proportional to the cube root of its population.