Jenkins County Courthouse
Jenkins County Courthouse is a historic county courthouse in Millen, Georgia. Designed in a Neoclassical Revival architecture style by L. F. Goodrich, it was built in 1910. Unlike most courthouses in Georgia of the period, this one is three stories tall, it has columns which are on high bases. The building has a bracketed cornice. On top is a copper-domed clock tower, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places on September 18, 1980. National Register of Historic Places listings in Jenkins County, Georgia Media related to Jenkins County Courthouse at Wikimedia Commons Jenkins Court House historical marker
Georgia State Route 17
State Route 17 is a 294-mile-long state highway that travels south-to-north through portions of Chatham, Screven, Burke, Warren, McDuffie, Elbert, Franklin, Habersham and Towns counties in the east-central and northeastern parts of the U. S. state of Georgia. The highway connects Interstate 16 in Bloomingdale to the North Carolina state line, northwest of Hiawassee, via Millen, Wrens, Washington, Royston, Toccoa and Hiawassee. SR 17 begins at exit 152 on the westernmost exit for I-16 in Chatham County. SR 17 travels north to Bloomingdale. After entering Effingham County, SR 17 departs US 80/SR 26, continues northwest, paralleling the Ogeechee River through rural parts of Effingham and Jenkins Counties before arriving in Millen. After a short concurrency with SR 23 and SR 67 in Millen, SR 17 continues west northwest, still parallel to the Ogeechee River, to Louisville. SR 17 travels concurrent with US 1/US 221/SR 4 from Louisville north to Wrens. In Wrens, SR 17 continues to the northwest to Thomson.
In Thomson, SR 17 travels concurrent with US 78/SR 10 north to Washington. Just north of Thomson is an interchange with I-20. In Washington, SR 17 intersects US 378, departs the concurrency with US 78/SR 10, before leaving the town. After traveling through Washington, SR 17 travels through the small town of Tignall as it continues into the mountains of northeast Georgia, first passing through Elberton, where it has a short concurrency with SR 72 Bowman, where it intersects SR 172, bypassing the main part of the city of Royston. In Canon, it intersects and begins to travel concurrent with SR 51. In Lavonia, SR 17 goes through downtown before becoming a divided highway as it has a partial cloverleaf interchange with I-85 just north of downtown Lavonia. Afterwards, the divided highway ends, SR 17 continues on its way through rural Stephens County before reaching the city of Toccoa. Southeast of Toccoa, the highway turns to a westerly direction, bypassing the city on another divided highway towards Clarkesville, traveling concurrent with US 123/SR 365 in the process.
Sometime after entering Habersham County, the highway departs northwest, with US 123 ending soon after and SR 365 heading southwest towards the cities of Gainesville and Atlanta. There is a concurrency with SR 115 somewhere around the Clarkesville area. Outside of Clarkesville, the highway continues northwest, traveling through the historic Nacoochee Valley. SR 17 begins a concurrency with SR 75; the highways travel north through the tourist town of Helen. The two highway continue north over Unicoi Gap descend into the Hiawassee River valley. East of the town of Hiawassee, the highways begin a concurrency with US 76/SR 2. In Hiawassee, SR 75 departs to the northeast. A few miles to the west, north-northeast of Young Harris, SR 17 departs US 76/SR 2, begins a short concurrency to the north with SR 515 until they both reach their northern terminus at the North Carolina state line; the road continues into North Carolina as North Carolina Highway 69. The following sections of SR 17 are included as part of the National Highway System, a system of roadways important to the nation's economy and mobility: From Louisville to a point southeast of Clarkesville The concurrency with US 76/SR 2 SR 17 was established at least as early as 1919 from SR 26 in Swainsboro to Warrenton.
It extended from SR 12 in Thomson, with no indication on the 1920 map as to whether it was concurrent with SR 12 between these segments to the South Carolina state line northeast of Toccoa. Between Royston and Toccoa, SR 17 took a more western path, through Canon and Carnesville, than it does today. At this time, an unnumbered road was built from Canon to Toccoa, on the current path of SR 17. SR 2 was built on an alignment from west-northwest of Clayton to west-southwest of Hiawassee. By the end of 1921, SR 17 was proposed to be extended southward through Lyons to Baxley; the Louisville–Gibson segment was shifted eastward to become the Louisville–Wrens segment. This new path was concurrent with SR 24. SR 17 traveled west from Wrens to Gibson and resumed its previous path. SR 17 was indicated to be concurrent with SR 12 between Thomson; the Canon–Carnesville segment was redesignated as part of SR 51. SR 17 was designated on the unnumbered road from Canon to Toccoa; the segment from Toccoa to the South Carolina state line was redesignated as part of SR 13.
An unnumbered road was built from Hiawassee to the North Carolina state line north of that city. By the end of 1926, US 1 was designated on the Swainsboro–Wrens segment, while US 78 was designated on the Thomson–Washington segment. SR 17, concurrent with SR 32, was built from Baxley to Lyons, was built on the Lyons–Swainsboro segment; the Emanuel County portion of the Swainsboro–Louisville segment, as well as the segment of SR 17 and SR 24 from Louisville to Wrens, was under construction. The Jefferson County portion of the Swainsboro–Louisville segment half of the Thomson–Washington segment, a segment just north of Washington, from just south of the Wilkes–Elbert county line to the Elbert–Hart county line, from the Franklin–Stephens county line to Toccoa, from west of Clayton to Hiawassee, had a "sand clay or top soil" surface; the segment in the vicinity of Washington, as well as a longer segment farther north of Washington, had a completed hard surface
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Burke County, Georgia
Burke County is a county located along the eastern border of the U. S. state of Georgia in the Piedmont. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,316; the county seat is Waynesboro. Burke County is part of the Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC Metropolitan Statistical Area. Burke County is an original county of Georgia, created February 5, 1777. In 1779, Col. John Twiggs and brothers Col. William Few and Benjamin Few, along with 250 men, defeated British in the Battle of Burke Jail. Burke County is located within the CSRA. During the antebellum period, it was developed by slave labor for large cotton plantations; the county was majority African American in population in this period, as slaveholders needed high numbers of slaves for laborers to cultivate and process cotton. The military tradition continued during the American Civil War, when Burke County provided volunteers for numerous units: the 2nd Regiment Georgia Infantry Company D, 3rd Regiment Georgia Infantry Company A, 32nd Regiment Georgia Infantry Company C, 32nd Regiment Georgia Infantry Company K, 48th Regiment Georgia Infantry Company D, Cobb's Legion Infantry company E, the Cobb's Legion Cavalry Company F. Agriculture continued as the basis of the economy for decades after the American Civil War, when most freedmen worked as sharecroppers or tenant farmers.
Cotton was the major commodity crop. In the early 20th century, mechanization of agriculture caused many African-American farm workers to lose their jobs; as can be seen from the census tables below, the county lost population from 1910-1920, from 1930-1970. Part of the decline was related to the Great Migration, as millions of African Americans left the rural South and Jim Crow oppression for jobs and opportunities in industrial cities of the Midwest, North. From World War II on, primary migration destinations were West Coast cities because of the buildup of the defense industry. In addition, whites left rural areas for industrial jobs in the North, in cities such as Chicago and Detroit. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 835 square miles, of which 827 square miles is land and 8.0 square miles is water. It is the second-largest county by area in Georgia; the southern half of Burke County, defined by a line running along State Route 80 to Waynesboro southeast to east of Perkins, is located in the Upper Ogeechee River sub-basin of the Ogeechee River basin.
North of Waynesboro, bordered on the north by a line running from Keysville southeast to Girard, the territory is part of the Brier Creek sub-basin of the Savannah River basin. The most northern sliver of Burke County is located in the Middle Savannah River sub-basin of the same Savannah River basin; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 23,316 people, 8,533 households, 6,110 families residing in the county. The population density was 28.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 9,865 housing units at an average density of 11.9 per square mile. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 23,316 people residing in the county. 49.5% were Black or African American, 47.5% White, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.1% from some other race and 1.3% from two or more races. 2.6 % were Latino. In terms of ancestry, 49.5% have some African ancestry, 11.0% identify as of American, 9.3% are Irish, 5.5% were English, 5.1% were German. Of the 8,533 households, 39.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.4% were married couples living together, 24.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.4% were non-families, 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.20. The median age was 35.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $33,155 and the median income for a family was $41,659. Males had a median income of $37,061 versus $24,952 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,934. About 20.0% of families and 25.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.0% of those under age 18 and 16.2% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2000, there were 22,243 people, 7,934 households, 5,799 families residing in the county; the population density was 27 people per square mile. There were 8,842 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 51.00% Black or African American, 46.90% White, 0.23% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.63% from other races, 0.97% from two or more races. 1.42% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,934 households out of which 38.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.40% were married couples living together, 22.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.90% were non-families.
23.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.27. In the county, the population was spread out with 31.30% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 27.30% from 25 to 44, 21.40% from 45 to 64, 10.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,877, the median income for a family was $31,660. Males had a median income of $29,992 and females had an income of $19,008; the per capita income for the county was $13,136. About 23.80% of families and
Millen is a city in, the county seat of, rural Jenkins County, United States. The population was 3,120 at the 2010 census, down from 3,492 at the 2000 census and 3,988 at the 1980 census; the city is intersected by U. S. Route 25 and State Route 17, the proposed Interstate 3 will pass nearby. Millen was first settled in 1835 along the border of what was Burke and Screven counties, it was named "79" due to its approximate distance in miles from the coastal city of Savannah. Planters cultivated cotton as a commodity crop with the use of enslaved Africans. In 1854, the Central of Georgia Railway and the Georgia Railroad connected at 79; the town became known as "Millen's Junction" after McPherson B. Millen, the superintendent of the Central of Georgia Railway. During the Civil War, a site for a prisoner-of-war camp to house Union soldiers was chosen just outside Millen's Junction. Camp Lawton -- referred to as Fort Lawton -- was built in. On December 3, 1864, Sherman's March to the Sea passed through Millen.
Prior to the arrival of Union forces, Confederate soldiers evacuated the Camp Lawton prisoners to Savannah. The Union soldiers destroyed Millen's Junction after finding the prison camp and to avoid use of the railway junction; the town was rebuilt after the war. In 1881, the city of Millen was incorporated by an act of the Georgia State Legislature, becoming the county seat of the newly created Jenkins County in 1905; the Downtown Millen Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1996. The county is rural and agricultural. Millen is located near the center of Jenkins County on the east side of the Ogeechee River. U. S. Route 25 passes through the west side of the city, leading north 20 miles to Waynesboro and south 29 miles to Statesboro. Georgia State Route 17 passes through the center of the city, entering from the west as Winthrope Avenue and leaving to the south as Masonic Street. SR-17 leads southeast 77 miles to Savannah. State Route 21 bypasses Millen to the northeast.
SR-21 leads east 20 miles to Sylvania. According to the United States Census Bureau, Millen has a total area of 3.6 square miles, of which 0.02 square miles, or 0.67%, are water. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,492 people, 1,321 households, 854 families residing in the city; the population density was 966.9 people per square mile. There were 1,567 housing units at an average density of 433.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 59.31% African American, 37.92% White, 0.17% Asian, 0.17% Pacific Islander, 0.06% Native American, 1.35% from other races, 1.03% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.86% of the population. There were 1,321 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.9% were married couples living together, 27.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.3% were non-families. 31.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.24.
In the city, the population was spread out with 28.4% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 16.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 80.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 74.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $18,701, the median income for a family was $23,423. Males had a median income of $25,792 versus $17,330 for females; the per capita income for the city was $11,851, placing Millen among the poorest locations in the state. About 30.0% of families and 35.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 45.2% of those under age 18 and 28.2% of those age 65 or over. The Jenkins County School District holds pre-school to grade twelve, consists of one elementary school, one middle school, one high school; the district has 119 full-time teachers and over 1,754 students. Jenkins County Elementary School Jenkins County Middle School Jenkins County High School Nathan Deal, 82nd governor of Georgia, born in Millen Melvin E. Thompson, 71st governor of Georgia, born in Millen Camp Lawton National Register of Historic Places listings in Jenkins County, Georgia The Millen News, the city's weekly newspaper
Screven County, Georgia
Screven County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,593; the county seat is Sylvania. The County was created on December 14, 1793, was named after General James Screven, who served in the American Revolutionary War. Sylvania became the county seat in 1847, moved from Jacksonborough, by an act of State legislation; the Screven County Courthouse, built in 1964, is the fourth courthouse to serve Screven County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 656 square miles, of which 645 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water; the Savannah River borders the eastern side of the county, the Ogeechee River borders the southwest portion. Elevation varies to around 40 feet on the Savannah river to 320 feet at the Bay Branch community, located a few miles west of Sylvania. Pine, oak and other trees prevalent to the South can be found in Screven County; the northern portion of Screven County, defined by a line running from Girard southeast and parallel to State Route 24 to the South Carolina border, is located in the Middle Savannah River sub-basin of the Savannah River basin.
A north-central section of the county, from Sylvania north and centered on Hiltonia, is located in the Brier Creek sub-basin of the same Savannah River basin. The southern portion of Screven County, from Newington running northwest through Sylvania, is located in the Upper Ogeechee River sub-basin of the Ogeechee River basin; the remaining southeastern corner of the county is located in the Lower Savannah River sub-basin of the larger Savannah River basin. U. S. Route 301 U. S. Route 301 Business State Route 17 State Route 21 State Route 21 Business State Route 24 State Route 73 Allendale County, South Carolina Hampton County, South Carolina Effingham County Bulloch County Jenkins County Burke County As of the census of 2000, there were 15,374 people, 5,797 households, 4,104 families residing in the county; the population density was 24 people per square mile. There were 6,853 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 53.56% White, 45.29% Black or African American, 0.14% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 0.49% from two or more races.
0.96% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,797 households out of which 33.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.00% were married couples living together, 18.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.20% were non-families. 26.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.14. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.90% under the age of 18, 8.90% from 18 to 24, 26.50% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, 14.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 91.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,312, the median income for a family was $34,753. Males had a median income of $30,228 versus $20,154 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,894.
About 15.50% of families and 20.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.40% of those under age 18 and 25.50% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 14,593 people, 5,596 households, 3,854 families residing in the county; the population density was 22.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,739 housing units at an average density of 10.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 54.6% white, 43.3% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.3% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 14.5% were American, 9.3% were Irish, 8.9% were English, 7.6% were German. Of the 5,596 households, 34.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.1% were married couples living together, 18.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.1% were non-families, 27.3% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.07. The median age was 39.5 years. The median income for a household in the county was $32,155 and the median income for a family was $44,244. Males had a median income of $32,189 versus $25,480 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,189. About 14.0% of families and 20.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.4% of those under age 18 and 19.2% of those age 65 or over. John Abbot, entomologist, wrote The Natural History of the Rarer Lepidopterous Insects of Georgia Edward Junius Black, member of the United States House of Representatives Lee Rogers Berger, paleoanthropologist Bucky Dent, New York Yankees shortstop but spent his early years in Sylvania John R. McKinney, Georgia's most decorated World War II hero. Francys Johnson, senior NAACP official Macay McBride, Major League Baseball pitcher National Register of Historic Places listings in Screven County, Georgia Dixon Hollingsworth, ed.
The History of Screven County, Georgia. Http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/13/13251.html Screven County Chamber of Commerce
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820