Memphis is a city located along the Mississippi River in southwestern Shelby County, United States. The 2017 city population was 652,236, making Memphis the largest city on the Mississippi River, second-largest city in Tennessee, as well as the 25th largest city in the United States. Greater Memphis is the 42nd largest metropolitan area in the United States, with a population of 1,348,260 in 2017; the city is the anchor of West Tennessee and the greater Mid-South region, which includes portions of neighboring Arkansas and Mississippi. Memphis is the seat of the most populous county in Tennessee; as one of the most historic and cultural cities of the southern United States, the city features a wide variety of landscapes and distinct neighborhoods. The first European explorer to visit the area of present-day Memphis was Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto in 1541 with his expedition into the New World; the high bluffs protecting the location from the waters of the Mississippi would be contested between the Spanish and the English as Memphis took shape.
Modern Memphis was founded in 1819 by three prominent Americans: John Overton, James Winchester, future president Andrew Jackson. Memphis grew into one of the largest cities of the Antebellum South as a market for agricultural goods, natural resources like lumber, the American slave trade. After the American Civil War and the end of slavery, the city experienced faster growth into the 20th century as it became among the largest world markets for cotton and lumber. Home to Tennessee's largest African-American population, Memphis played a prominent role in the American civil rights movement and was the site of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s 1968 assassination. The city now hosts the National Civil Rights Museum—a Smithsonian affiliate institution. Since the civil rights era, Memphis has grown to become one of the nation's leading commercial centers in transportation and logistics; the city's largest employer is the multinational courier corporation FedEx, which maintains its global air hub at Memphis International Airport, making it the second-busiest cargo airport in the world.
Today, Memphis is a regional center for commerce, media and entertainment. The city has long had a prominent music scene, with historic blues clubs on Beale Street originating the unique Memphis blues sound during early 20th century; the city's music has continued to be shaped by a multi-cultural mix of influences across the blues, rock n' roll and hip-hop genres. Memphis barbecue has achieved international prominence, the city hosts the World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest, which attracts over 100,000 visitors to the city annually. Occupying a substantial bluff rising from the Mississippi River, the site of Memphis has been a natural location for human settlement by varying cultures over thousands of years; the area was known to be settled in the first millennium A. D. by people of the Mississippian Culture, who had a network of communities throughout the Mississippi River Valley and its tributaries. They built complexes with large earthwork ceremonial and burial mounds as expressions of their sophisticated culture.
The historic Chickasaw Indian tribe, believed to be their descendants occupied the site. French explorers led by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle and Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto encountered the Chickasaw tribe in that area in the 16th century. J. D. L. Holmes, writing in Hudson's Four Centuries of Southern Indians, notes that this site was a third strategic point in the late 18th century through which European powers could control United States encroachment and their interference with Indian matters—after Fort Nogales and Fort Confederación: "... Chickasaw Bluffs, located on the Mississippi River at the present-day location of Memphis. Spain and the United States vied for control of this site, a favorite of the Chickasaws."In 1795 the Spanish Governor-General of Louisiana, Francisco Luis Héctor de Carondelet sent his Lieutenant Governor, Manuel Gayoso de Lemos, to negotiate and secure consent from the local Chickasaw so that a Spanish fort could be erected on the bluff. Holmes notes that consent was reached despite opposition from "disappointed Americans and a pro-American faction of the Chickasaws", when the "pro-Spanish faction signed the Chickasaw Bluffs Cession and Spain provided the Chickasaws with a trading post…".
Fort San Fernando de las Barrancas remained a focal point of Spanish activity until, as Holmes summarizes: he Treaty of San Lorenzo or Pinckney's Treaty of 1795, all of the careful, diplomatic work by Spanish officials in Louisiana and West Florida, which has succeeded for a decade in controlling the Indians, was undone. The United States gained the right to navigate the Mississippi River and won control over the Yazoo Strip north of the thirty-first parallel; the Spanish dismantled the fort, shipping its iron to their locations in Arkansas. In 1796, the site became the westernmost point of the newly admitted state of Tennessee, located in what was called the Southwest United States; the area was still occupied and controlled by the Chickasaw nation. Captain Isaac Guion led an American force down the Ohio River to claim the land, arriving on July 20, 1797. By this time, the Spanish had departed; the fort's ruins went unnoticed twenty years when Memphis was laid out as a city, after the United States government paid the Chickasaw for land.
The city of Memphis was founded on May 22, 1819 by John Overton, James Winchester and Andrew Jackson. They named it after the ancient capita
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Sunset is a town in Crittenden County, United States. The population was 198 at the 2010 census. Sunset is located in east-central Crittenden County at 35°13′18″N 90°12′18″W, it is surrounded by the city of Marion. Via Interstate 55, which passes just west of the town, Tennessee, is 12 miles to the southeast. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.20 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 348 people, 135 households, 85 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,676.8 people per square mile. There were 156 housing units at an average density of 751.7/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 4.89% White, 91.09% Black or African American, 2.87% from other races, 1.15% from two or more races. 4.02% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 135 households out of which 26.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 22.2% were married couples living together, 34.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.0% were non-families.
33.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.35. In the city the population was spread out with 29.6% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, 16.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $17,788, the median income for a family was $17,250. Males had a median income of $21,750 versus $20,625 for females; the per capita income for the city was $7,766. About 44.4% of families and 49.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 79.6% of those under age 18 and 27.9% of those age 65 or over. Crittenden County website
Clarkedale is a town in Crittenden County, United States. Its population was 371 as of the 2010 census. Clarkedale incorporated on November 15, 2000; the L&Q International Demonstration and Training Center is located in Clarkedale
Crawfordsville Crawfordville, is a city in Crittenden County, United States. The population was 479 at the 2010 census; the late Johnnie Taylor, an important figure in both late 1960s and early 1970s Memphis-based soul as well as more recent blues, was born in Crawfordsville. Fred Smith, a former basketball player for the Harlem Globetrotters and the only Green Party member of the Arkansas House of Representatives, serving from District 50, is a Crawfordsville native and a graduate of Crawfordsville High School. Dan Young, an attorney at Rose Law Firm, is from Crawfordsville. Crawfordsville is located near the center of Crittenden County at 35°13′33″N 90°19′35″W. U. S. Route 64 passes just north of the town, leading east 8 miles to Marion and 19 miles to Memphis and west 9 miles to Earle. According to the United States Census Bureau, Crawfordsville has a total area of 0.58 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 514 people, 202 households, 142 families residing in the town.
The population density was 451.0/km². There were 222 housing units at an average density of 194.8/km². The racial makeup of the town was 49.81% White, 49.42% Black or African American, 0.19% Asian, 0.58% from two or more races. 1.17% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 202 households out of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.1% were married couples living together, 22.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.7% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.12. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.0% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 27.0% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.3 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $26,518, the median income for a family was $31,667. Males had a median income of $31,250 versus $19,205 for females; the per capita income for the town was $12,176. About 19.4% of families and 21.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.9% of those under age 18 and 16.4% of those age 65 or over. Marion School District, including Marion High School, serves Crawfordsville. On July 1, 2004 the Crawfordsville School District consolidated into the Marion School District. Crittenden County website
Anthonyville is a town in Crittenden County, United States. The population was 161 at the 2010 census, down from 250 in 2000. Anthonyville is located in southern Crittenden County at 35°2′22″N 90°20′27″W. Arkansas Highway 147 forms the eastern boundary of the town and leads north 9 miles to Interstate 40, 15 miles west of Memphis, Tennessee. Highway 147 continues south 7 miles to the Horseshoe Lake area. According to the United States Census Bureau, Anthonyville has a total area of 0.12 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 250 people, 82 households, 52 families residing in the town; the population density was 877.5/km². There were 87 housing units at an average density of 305.4/km². The racial makeup of the town was 2.80% White, 96.40% Black or African American, 0.80% from other races. 0.80% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 82 households out of which 34.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.1% were married couples living together, 23.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.4% were non-families.
32.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.05 and the average family size was 4.02. In the town, the population was spread out with 38.4% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 15.6% from 45 to 64, 15.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 115.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 108.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $23,750, the median income for a family was $32,344. Males had a median income of $25,357 versus $18,636 for females; the per capita income for the town was $8,825. About 28.4% of families and 32.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.2% of those under the age of eighteen and 48.7% of those sixty five or over. Residents are zoned to schools in the West Memphis School District, which operates Academies of West Memphis. Crittenden County website
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820