Glen Cove, New York
Glen Cove is a city in Nassau County, New York, United States, on the North Shore of Long Island. As of the United States 2010 Census, the city population was 26,964; the city was considered part of the early 20th century Gold Coast of the North Shore, as the areas along the waterfront were developed as large country estates by wealthy entrepreneurs and businessmen such as J. P. Morgan, Phipps and Prybil. Glen Cove had manufacturing and a diverse population that worked in industry, local agriculture and retail businesses. Of Nassau County's five municipalities, Glen Cove is one of the two municipalities, a city, rather than a town, the other being Long Beach on the South Shore; the city was the location of several successful manufacturing facilities in the 20th century. It attracted numerous immigrants from Ireland and eastern Europe. More it has been settled by immigrants of migrations, from Central and South America, Asia; the city is on Long Island Sound. The hills that stretch along the shore are terminal moraines left by glaciers of the last ice age.
Glen Cove is located at 40°52′2″N 73°37′40″W. The city of Glen Cove is bordered on three sides by the Town of Oyster Bay, on the fourth by the Sound. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has 19.2 square miles, including 6.7 square miles of land and 12.6 square miles of water. As of the 2010 census, Glen Cove was 74.2% White, 7.2% African American, 4.6% Asian, 10.1% some other race, 3.2% two or more races, 0.4% Native American, 0.1% Hawaiian or Pacific Islander. Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 27.9% of the population. As of the census of 2000, there were 26,622 people, 9,461 households, 6,651 families residing in the city; the population density was 4,006.0 people per square mile. There were 9,734 housing units at an average density of 1,464.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 60.28% White, 26.40% African American, 0.29% Native American, 4.11% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 5.72% from other races, 23.15% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 20.0% of the population.
There were 9,461 households out of which 29.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.5% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.7% were non-families. 24.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.22. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.2% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 30.6% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, 17.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $89,000 and the median income for a family was $108,000. Males had a median income of $61,900 versus $40,581 for females; the per capita income for the city was $26,627. The mayor is Tim Tenke, he succeeded Reginald Spinello. The eight-member city council is elected from single-member districts.
The town of Oyster Bay had jurisdiction over the area from the 1680s until 1917, when Glen Cove became an independent city. It has its own police, fire protection, emergency medical services; the fire department and emergency medical services are volunteer agencies. The Office of Emergency Management is responsible for the planning and response to natural and man-made emergencies that occur within the city of Glen Cove. Succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples had lived in the area for thousands of years. At the time of European contact, bands of the Lenape nation inhabited western Long Island, the areas of New York and New Jersey around the harbor, along the coast through present-day Pennsylvania and Delaware, as well as along the Delaware River, they spoke an Algonquian language. By 1600 the band inhabiting this local area was called the Matinecock after their location. Glen Cove was used as a port by English migrants from New England and named "Moscheto" before 1668. On May 24, 1668 Joseph Carpenter of Warwick, Rhode Island purchased about 2,000 acres of land to the northwest of the Town of Oyster Bay from the Matinecock.
In that year he admitted four residents of Oyster Bay as co-partners in the project: brothers Nathaniel and Robert Coles. The five young men named the settlement Musketa Cove Plantation, "musketa" meaning "place of rushes" in the Lenape language. In the 1830s, steamboats started regular service on Long Island Sound between New York City and Musketa Cove, arriving at a point still called "The Landing." As "Musketa" was negatively associated with mosquito, in 1834 village residents changed the name to Glen Cove. The village added population as workers arrived for jobs at the Duryea Corn Starch factory, which operated until 1900; the name "Duryea" rejected. By 1850 the village of Glen Cove had become a popular summer resort community for New York City residents; the Long Island Rail Road was extended to Glen Cove in 1867, providing quicker, more frequent service to New York City. The availability of the train and the town's location on Long Island Sound made it attractive to year-round residents, the population increased.
The vistas afforded of Long Island Sound from the town's rolling hills attracted late 19th-century wea
Adelphi University is a private university in Garden City, New York. Adelphi has centers in Manhattan, Hudson Valley, Suffolk County, it is the oldest institution of higher education in suburban Long Island. Adelphi University began with the Adelphi Academy, founded in Brooklyn, New York, in 1863; the academy was a private preparatory school located at 412 Adelphi Street, in the Fort Greene neighborhood of Brooklyn, but moved to Clinton Hill. It was formally chartered in 1869 by the board of trustees of the City of Brooklyn for establishing "a first class institution for the broadest and most thorough training, to make its advantages as accessible as possible to the largest numbers of our population." One of the teachers at the Adelphi Academy was Harlan Fiske Stone, who served as the Chief Justice of the United States. In 1893, Dr. Charles Herbert Levermore was appointed as the head of Adelphi Academy. Seeking to establish a liberal arts college for the City of Brooklyn, Levermore received a charter from the Board of Regents of the State of New York establishing Adelphi College on June 24, 1896.
The college received its charter through the efforts of Timothy Woodruff, former Lieutenant Governor of New York and future first president of the board of trustees. Adelphi was one of the first coeducational institutions to receive a charter from the State of New York. At the time of its foundation, the college numbered 16 instructors; the Adelphi Academy continued to exist as a separate but nonetheless connected entity to the college. The new college was located in a building behind the Adelphi Academy, on the corner of St. James's Place and Clifton Place, in Brooklyn; the building that housed Adelphi is now used by Pratt Institute for their School of Architecture. In 1912, Adelphi became a women's college. In 1922, the school raised over one million dollars to expand the overcrowded facilities in Brooklyn. In 1925, Adelphi College severed its ties with the Adelphi Academy, the latter closing in 1930. In 1929, the college moved from its founding location in Brooklyn to the current location of its main campus in Garden City, New York.
The original "academy" continues to function as a P–12 school in Brooklyn. The original three buildings of the Garden City campus, Levermore Hall, Blodgett Hall and Woodruff Hall, were designed by McKim and White. In 1938, the Dance Program was founded by the world-famous dancer Ruth St. Denis. In 1943, the School of Nursing was established in response to the need for nurses due to American involvement in World War II. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt presided over the opening of two federally funded residence halls on campus, in a speech entitled "The Challenge of Nursing for Young Women Today." In 1946, after World War II ended, Adelphi reverted to a coeducational college and started admitting new students on the federal GI Bill. New sports teams were created following the readmission of men to the school. In 1952, the first program for clinical psychology was established at the school. In 1963, the New York State Board of Regents granted the college university status, the name was changed to Adelphi University.
In 1964, the School of Business was founded. In 1966, the Institute for Advanced Psychological Studies was founded. In 1973, the University established ABLE for the education of adults. Now known as University College, it was one of the earliest programs created for nontraditional students. In 1984, the Institute for Teaching and Educational Studies was founded. In 1993, the Society of Mentors was established, giving students faculty advisors that they could consult on an as-needed basis to assist them in their studies. In 1995, the Honors College was founded. In January 1963, Adelphi Suffolk College purchased the former W. K. Vanderbilt estate in Oakdale, New York. In 1968 it was spun off to Dowling College after Robert Dowling. Adelphi faced a serious scandal in 1996. University president Peter Diamandopoulos and the board of trustees were accused of neglect of duty and failure to carry out the educational purposes of Adelphi; the New York State Board of Regents was called in to investigate. The university was in dire financial straits until Dr. Robert A. Scott was installed in the position of President in 2000.
Scott saved the school by decreasing tuition, increasing scholarships offered for the students, launching an advertising campaign to increase enrollment. Since that time, the school has surpassed many of its previous gains, is said to be undergoing a new renaissance. Adelphi University has been ranked as a "Best Buy" college by the Fiske Guide to Colleges for the last ten years for its quality education offered at a comparatively affordable price. Adelphi University participates in the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities's University and College Accountability Network. Charles H. Levermore, 1896–1912 S. Parkes Cadman, 1912–1915 Frank D. Blodgett, 1915–1937 Paul Dawson Eddy, 1937–1963 The university's School of Social Work is home to the Adelphi New York Statewide Breast Cancer Hotline and Support Program, which marks its 30th anniversary in 2010; the program began in 1980 as the Woman-to-Woman Hotline, a free and confidential service to help women with breast cancer.
It is the second oldest breast cancer hotline in the United States.
Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor 0.35 miles from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean. The island comprises four counties in the U. S. state of New York. Kings and Queens Counties and Nassau County share the western third of the island, while Suffolk County occupies the eastern two-thirds. More than half of New York City's residents now live in Brooklyn and Queens. However, many people in the New York metropolitan area colloquially use the term Long Island to refer to Nassau and Suffolk Counties, which are suburban in character, conversely employing the term the City to mean Manhattan alone. Broadly speaking, "Long Island" may refer both to the main island and the surrounding outer barrier islands. North of the island is Long Island Sound, across which lie Westchester County, New York, the state of Connecticut. Across the Block Island Sound to the northeast is the state of Rhode Island. To the west, Long Island is separated from the island of Manhattan by the East River.
To the extreme southwest, it is separated from Staten Island and the state of New Jersey by Upper New York Bay, the Narrows, Lower New York Bay. To the east lie Block Island—which belongs to the State of Rhode Island—and numerous smaller islands. Both the longest and the largest island in the contiguous United States, Long Island extends 118 miles eastward from New York Harbor to Montauk Point, with a maximum north-to-south distance of 23 miles between Long Island Sound and the Atlantic coast. With a land area of 1,401 square miles, Long Island is the 11th-largest island in the United States and the 149th-largest island in the world—larger than the 1,214 square miles of the smallest U. S. state, Rhode Island. With a Census-estimated population of 7,869,820 in 2017, constituting nearly 40% of New York State's population, Long Island is the most populated island in any U. S. state or territory, the 18th-most populous island in the world. Its population density is 5,595.1 inhabitants per square mile.
If Long Island geographically constituted an independent metropolitan statistical area, it would rank fourth most populous in the United States. S. state, Long Island would rank 13th in population and first in population density. Long Island is culturally and ethnically diverse, featuring some of the wealthiest and most expensive neighborhoods in the Western Hemisphere near the shorelines as well as working-class areas in all four counties; as a hub of commercial aviation, Long Island contains two of the New York City metropolitan area's three busiest airports, JFK International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, in addition to Islip MacArthur Airport. Nine bridges and 13 tunnels connect Brooklyn and Queens to the three other boroughs of New York City. Ferries connect Suffolk County northward across Long Island Sound to the state of Connecticut; the Long Island Rail Road is the busiest commuter railroad in North America and operates 24/7. Nassau County high school students feature prominently as winners of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair and similar STEM-based academic awards.
Biotechnology companies and scientific research play a significant role in Long Island's economy, including research facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, the New York University Tandon School of Engineering, the City University of New York, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine. Prior to European contact, the Lenape people inhabited the western end of Long Island, spoke the Munsee dialect of Lenape, one of the Algonquian language family. Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to record an encounter with the Lenapes, after entering what is now New York Bay in 1524; the eastern portion of the island was inhabited by speakers of the Mohegan-Montauk-Narragansett language group of Algonquian languages. In 1609, the English navigator Henry Hudson explored the harbor and purportedly landed at Coney Island. Adriaen Block followed in 1615, is credited as the first European to determine that both Manhattan and Long Island are islands.
Native American land deeds recorded by the Dutch from 1636 state that the Indians referred to Long Island as Sewanhaka. Sewan was one of the terms for wampum, is translated as "loose" or "scattered", which may refer either to the wampum or to Long Island; the name "'t Lange Eylandt alias Matouwacs" appears in Dutch maps from the 1650s. The English referred to the land as "Nassau Island", after the Dutch Prince William of Nassau, Prince of Orange, it is unclear. Another indigenous name from colonial time, comes from the Native American name for Long Island and means "the island that pays tribute." The first settlements on Long Island were by settlers from England and its colonies in present-day New England. Lion Gardiner settled nearby Gardiners Island. T
Doubt: A History
Doubt: A History: The Great Doubters and Their Legacy of Innovation from Socrates and Jesus to Thomas Jefferson and Emily Dickinson is a book by Jennifer Michael Hecht that appeared in 2003. The title may appear misleading, as Hecht concentrates on the history of religious doubt. In a podcast interview Hecht says it was the publishers who didn't want it to be called'A History of Atheism'. "I set out to write'A History of Atheism'... and for a large part that's what I did". The work provides a detailed history of religious doubt in both the West and the East, reaching back to the earliest recorded evidence of disbelief, the materialist, atheist philosophy of the Carvaka, which flourished in India ca. 600 BCE. Her study leads up to examples from the beginning of the 21st century; the story of doubt. Book review; the Humanist, 1 March 2005
The New School
The New School is a private non-profit research university centered in Manhattan, New York City, located in Greenwich Village. It was founded in 1919 as The New School for Social Research with an original mission dedicated to academic freedom and intellectual inquiry and a home for progressive thinkers. Since the school has grown to house five divisions within the university; these include the Parsons School of Design, the Eugene Lang College of Liberal Arts, The New School for Social Research, the Schools of Public Engagement, the College of Performing Arts which consists of the Mannes School of Music, the School of Drama, the School of Jazz and Contemporary Music. In addition, the university maintains the Parsons Paris campus and has launched or housed a range of institutions, such as the international research institute World Policy Institute, the Philip Glass Institute, the Vera List Center for Art and Politics, the India China Institute, the Observatory on Latin America, the Center for New York City Affairs.
Its faculty and alumni include numerous notable designers, musicians and political activists. 10,000 students are enrolled in undergraduate and postgraduate programs and disciplines including social sciences, liberal arts, architecture, fine arts, music, finance and public policy. From its founding in 1919 by progressive New York educators, for most of its history, the university was known as The New School for Social Research. Between 1997 and 2005 it was known as New School University; the university and each of its colleges were renamed in 2005. The New School established the University in Exile and the École libre des hautes études in 1933 as a graduate division to serve as an academic haven for scholars escaping from Nazi Germany among other adversarial regimes in Europe. In 1934, the University in Exile was chartered by New York State and its name was changed to the Graduate Faculty of Political and Social Science. In 2005, it adopted what had been the name of the whole institution, the New School for Social Research, while the larger institution was renamed The New School.
The New School for Social Research was founded by a group of university professors and intellectuals in 1919 as a modern, free school where adult students could "seek an unbiased understanding of the existing order, its genesis and present working". Founders included economist and literary scholar Alvin Johnson, historian Charles A. Beard, economists Thorstein Veblen and James Harvey Robinson, philosophers Horace M. Kallen and John Dewey. Several founders were former professors at Columbia University. In October 1917, after Columbia University imposed a loyalty oath to the United States upon the entire faculty and student body, it fired several professors. Charles A. Beard, Professor of Political Science, resigned his professorship at Columbia in protest, his colleague James Harvey Robinson resigned in 1919 to join the faculty at the New School. The New School plan was to offer the rigorousness of postgraduate education without degree matriculation or degree prerequisites, it was theoretically open to anyone, as the adult division today called Schools of Public Engagement remains.
The first classes at the New School took the form of lectures followed by discussions, for larger groups, or as smaller conferences, for "those equipped for specific research". In the first semester, 100 courses in economics and politics, were offered by an ad hoc faculty that included Thomas Sewall Adams, Charles A. Beard, Horace M. Kallen, Harold Laski, Wesley Clair Mitchell, Thorstein Veblen, James Harvey Robinson, Graham Wallas, Charles B. Davenport, Elsie Clews Parsons, Roscoe Pound. John Cage pioneered the subject of Experimental Composition at the school; the New School uses "To the Living Spirit" as its motto. In 1937, Thomas Mann remarked that a plaque bearing the inscription "be the Living Spirit" had been torn down by the Nazis from a building at the University of Heidelberg, he suggested that the University in Exile adopt that inscription as its motto, to indicate that the'living spirit,' mortally threatened in Europe, would have a home in this country. Alvin Johnson adopted that idea, the motto continues to guide the division in its present-day endeavors The Graduate Faculty of Political and Social Science was founded in 1933 as the University in Exile for scholars, dismissed from teaching positions by the Italian fascists or had to flee Nazi Germany.
The University in Exile was founded by the director of the New School, Alvin Johnson, through the financial contributions of Hiram Halle and the Rockefeller Foundation. The University in Exile and its subsequent incarnations have been the intellectual heart of the New School. Notable scholars associated with the University in Exile include psychologists Erich Fromm, Max Wertheimer and Aron Gurwitsch, political theorists Hannah Arendt and Leo Strauss, philosopher Hans Jonas. In 1934, the University in Exile was chartered by New York State and its name was changed to the Graduate Faculty of Political and Social Science. In 2005 the Graduate Faculty was again renamed, this time taking the original name of the university, The New School for Social Research; the New School played a similar role with the founding of the École Libre des Hautes Études after the Nazi invasion of France. Receiving a charter from de Gaulle's Free French government in exile, the École attracted refugee scholars who taught in French, including philosopher Jacques Maritain, anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss, linguist Roman Jakobson.
The École Libre evolved into one of the leading institutions of research in Paris, the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, with which the New School maintains
The Washington Post
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper published in Washington, D. C. with a particular emphasis on national politics and the federal government. It has the largest circulation in the Washington metropolitan area, its slogan "Democracy Dies in Darkness" began appearing on its masthead in 2017. Daily broadsheet editions are printed for the District of Columbia and Virginia; the newspaper has won 47 Pulitzer Prizes. This includes six separate Pulitzers awarded in 2008, second only to The New York Times' seven awards in 2002 for the highest number awarded to a single newspaper in one year. Post journalists have received 18 Nieman Fellowships and 368 White House News Photographers Association awards. In the early 1970s, in the best-known episode in the newspaper's history, reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein led the American press' investigation into what became known as the Watergate scandal, their reporting in The Washington Post contributed to the resignation of President Richard Nixon.
In years since, the Post's investigations have led to increased review of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. In October 2013, the paper's longtime controlling family, the Graham family, sold the newspaper to Nash Holdings, a holding company established by Jeff Bezos, for $250 million in cash; the Washington Post is regarded as one of the leading daily American newspapers, along with The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, The Wall Street Journal. The Post has distinguished itself through its political reporting on the workings of the White House and other aspects of the U. S. government. Unlike The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post does not print an edition for distribution away from the East Coast. In 2009, the newspaper ceased publication of its National Weekly Edition, which combined stories from the week's print editions, due to shrinking circulation; the majority of its newsprint readership is in the District of Columbia and its suburbs in Maryland and Northern Virginia.
The newspaper is one of a few U. S. newspapers with foreign bureaus, located in Beirut, Beijing, Bogotá, Hong Kong, Jerusalem, London, Mexico City, Nairobi, New Delhi and Tokyo. In November 2009, it announced the closure of its U. S. regional bureaus—Chicago, Los Angeles and New York—as part of an increased focus on "political stories and local news coverage in Washington." The newspaper has local bureaus in Virginia. As of May 2013, its average weekday circulation was 474,767, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, making it the seventh largest newspaper in the country by circulation, behind USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Daily News, the New York Post. While its circulation has been slipping, it has one of the highest market-penetration rates of any metropolitan news daily. For many decades, the Post had its main office at 1150 15th Street NW; this real estate remained with Graham Holdings when the newspaper was sold to Jeff Bezos' Nash Holdings in 2013.
Graham Holdings sold 1150 15th Street for US$159 million in November 2013. The Washington Post continued to lease space at 1150 L Street NW. In May 2014, The Washington Post leased the west tower of One Franklin Square, a high-rise building at 1301 K Street NW in Washington, D. C; the newspaper moved into their new offices December 14, 2015. The Post has its own exclusive zip code, 20071. Arc Publishing is a department of the Post, which provides the publishing system, software for news organizations such as the Chicago Tribune and the Los Angeles Times; the newspaper was founded in 1877 by Stilson Hutchins and in 1880 added a Sunday edition, becoming the city's first newspaper to publish seven days a week. In 1889, Hutchins sold the newspaper to Frank Hatton, a former Postmaster General, Beriah Wilkins, a former Democratic congressman from Ohio. To promote the newspaper, the new owners requested the leader of the United States Marine Band, John Philip Sousa, to compose a march for the newspaper's essay contest awards ceremony.
Sousa composed "The Washington Post". It became the standard music to accompany the two-step, a late 19th-century dance craze, remains one of Sousa's best-known works. In 1893, the newspaper moved to a building at 14th and E streets NW, where it would remain until 1950; this building combined all functions of the newspaper into one headquarters – newsroom, advertising and printing – that ran 24 hours per day. In 1898, during the Spanish–American War, the Post printed Clifford K. Berryman's classic illustration Remember the Maine, which became the battle-cry for American sailors during the War. In 1902, Berryman published another famous cartoon in the Post—Drawing the Line in Mississippi; this cartoon depicts President Theodore Roosevelt showing compassion for a small bear cub and inspired New York store owner Morris Michtom to create the teddy bear. Wilkins acquired Hatton's share of the newspaper in 1894 at Hatton's death. After Wilkins' death in 1903, his sons John and Robert ran the Post for two years before selling it in 1905 to John Roll McLean, owner of the Cincinnati Enquirer.
During the Wilson presidency, the Post was credited with the "most famous newspaper typo" in D. C. history according to Reason magazine. When John McLean died in 1916, he put the newspap
Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Established in 1754, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, it is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world. Columbia was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain in reaction to the founding of Princeton University in New Jersey, it was renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the Revolutionary War and in 1787 was placed under a private board of trustees headed by former students Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In 1896, the campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its current location in Morningside Heights and renamed Columbia University. Columbia scientists and scholars have played an important role in the development of notable scientific fields and breakthroughs including: brain-computer interface.
The Columbia University Physics Department has been affiliated with 33 Nobel Prize winners as alumni, faculty or research staff, the third most of any American institution behind MIT and Harvard. In addition, 22 Nobel Prize winners in Physiology and Medicine have been affiliated with Columbia, the third most of any American institution; the university's research efforts include the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Goddard Institute for Space Studies and accelerator laboratories with major technology firms such as IBM. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university administers the Pulitzer Prize annually. Columbia is organized into twenty schools, including three undergraduate schools and numerous graduate schools, it maintains research centers outside of the United States known as Columbia Global Centers. In 2018, Columbia's undergraduate acceptance rate was 5.1%, making it one of the most selective colleges in the United States, the second most selective in the Ivy League after Harvard.
Columbia is ranked as the 3rd best university in the United States by U. S. News & World Report behind Princeton and Harvard. In athletics, the Lions field varsity teams in 29 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference; the university's endowment stood at $10.9 billion in 2018, among the largest of any academic institution. As of 2018, Columbia's alumni and affiliates include: five Founding Fathers of the United States — among them an author of the United States Constitution and co-author of the Declaration of Independence. S. presidents. Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704, at which time Colonel Lewis Morris wrote to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the missionary arm of the Church of England, persuading the society that New York City was an ideal community in which to establish a college. However, it was not until the founding of the College of New Jersey across the Hudson River in New Jersey that the City of New York considered founding a college.
In 1746, an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the Church of England, to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college. Classes were held in July 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson. Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan; the college was founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of King George II, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queen's College, an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his chief opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777, Alexander Hamilton.
The American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental Army. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783; the college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and British forces. Loyalists were forced to abandon their King's College in New York, seized by the rebels and renamed Columbia College; the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where the