Shoplifting is the unnoticed theft of goods from an open retail establishment. Shoplifting involves a person concealing a store item on their person, in pockets or under clothes and leaving the store without paying for it. With clothing, shoplifters may leave the store wearing the clothes; the terms "shoplifting" and "shoplifter" are not defined in law. The crime of shoplifting falls under the legal classification of larceny. Shoplifting is distinct from robbery or armed robbery. In the retail industry, the word shrinkage or shrink, can be used to refer to merchandise lost by shoplifting, but the word includes loss by other means, such as waste, uninsured damage to products, theft by store employees. Shoplifters range from amateurs acting on impulse, to career criminals who habitually engage in shoplifting as a form of income. Career criminals may use several individuals to shoplift, with some participants distracting store employees while another participant steals items. Amateurs steal products for personal use, while career criminals steal items to resell them in the underground economy.
Other forms of shoplifting include swapping price labels of different items, return fraud or eating a grocery store's food without paying for it. Shoplifted items are those with a high price in proportion to their size, such as disposable razor blades, alcoholic beverages and cigarettes. Retailers have reported. Stores use a number of strategies to reduce shoplifting, including storing small, expensive items in locked glass cases; some stores have security guards at the exit, who check receipts. Stores combat shoplifting by training employees how to detect potential shoplifters; the first documented shoplifting started to take place in 16th-century London. By the early 19th century, shoplifting was believed to be a female activity. In the 1960s, shoplifting began to be redefined again, this time as a political act. Researchers divide shoplifters into two categories: "boosters", professionals who resell what they steal, "snitches", amateurs who steal for their personal use. Shoplifting is the act of knowingly taking goods from an establishment in which they are displayed for sale, without paying for them.
Shoplifting involves concealing items on the person or an accomplice, leaving the store without paying. However, shoplifting can include price switching, refund fraud, "wardrobing", "grazing". Price switching is now an extinct form of shoplifting for two reasons. Firstly, the labels will split apart upon attempted removal, secondly all retail cashiers now scan items at the register, rather than relying on price stickers. Retailers report that shoplifting has a significant effect on their bottom line, stating that about 0.6% of all inventory disappears to shoplifters. Criminal theft involves taking possession of property illegally. In self-service shops, customers are allowed by the property owner to take physical possession of the property by holding or moving it; this leaves areas of ambiguity that could criminalize some people for simple mistakes, such as accidental putting of a small item in a pocket or forgetting to pay. For this reason penalties for shoplifting are lower than those for general theft.
Few jurisdictions have specific shoplifting legislation with which to differentiate it from other forms of theft, so reduced penalties are at a judge's discretion. Most retailers are aware of the serious consequences of making a false arrest, will only attempt to apprehend a person if their guilt is beyond a reasonable doubt. Depending on local laws, arrests made by anyone other than law enforcement officers may be illegal; some shoplifters are amateurs who do not steal from stores and who do not use shoplifting as a form of income. Researchers call these amateurs "snitches,". In several countries, criminal flash mobs made up of teenagers and young adults, enter stores with the intention of stealing merchandise while accomplices distract staff. However, there are groups who make their living from shoplifting and other crimes, they tend to be more skilled career criminals. Researchers call professional thieves "boosters," as they tend to resell what they steal on the black market. Shoplifting is subject to prosecution.
In the United Kingdom, theft is defined as "dishonestly appropriate property belonging to another with the intention of permanently depriving the other of it. It is one of the most common crimes. Shoplifting peaks between 3 p.m. and 4 p.m. and is lowest from 6 a.m. and 7 a.m. In the United States, shoplifting increases during the Christmas season, arrest rates increase during spring break. Rutgers University criminologist Ronald V. Clarke says shoplifters steal "hot products" that a
Alcoholics Anonymous is an international mutual aid fellowship with the stated purpose of enabling “its members to stay sober and help other alcoholics achieve sobriety." It was founded in 1935 by Bob Smith in Akron, Ohio. With other early members and Smith developed AA's Twelve Step program of spiritual and character development. AA's initial Twelve Traditions were introduced in 1946 to help the fellowship be stable and unified while disengaged from "outside issues" and influences; the Traditions recommend that members remain anonymous in public media, altruistically help other alcoholics, that AA groups avoid official affiliations with other organizations. They advise against dogma and coercive hierarchies. Subsequent fellowships such as Narcotics Anonymous have adapted the Twelve Steps and the Twelve Traditions to their respective primary purposes; the first female member Florence Rankin joined AA in March 1937, the first non-Protestant member, a Roman Catholic, joined in 1939. The first Black AA group was established in 1945 in Washington DC by Jim S. an African-American physician from Virginia.
AA membership has since spread internationally "across diverse cultures holding different beliefs and values", including geopolitical areas resistant to grassroots movements. Close to two million people worldwide are estimated to be members of AA as of 2016. AA derives its name from its first book Alcoholics Anonymous: The Story of How More Than One Hundred Men Have Recovered From Alcoholism referred to as the Big Book. AA sprang from The Oxford Group, a non-denominational movement modeled after first-century Christianity; some members founded the Group to help in maintaining sobriety. "Grouper" Ebby Thacher was Wilson's former drinking buddy who approached Wilson saying that he had "got religion", was sober, that Wilson could do the same if he set aside objections to religion and instead formed a personal idea of God, "another power" or "higher power". Feeling a "kinship of common suffering" and, though drunk, Wilson attended his first Group gathering. Within days, Wilson admitted himself to the Charles B.
Towns Hospital after drinking four beers on the way—the last alcohol he drank. Under the care of William Duncan Silkworth, Wilson's detox included the deliriant belladonna. At the hospital a despairing Wilson experienced a bright flash of light, which he felt to be God revealing himself. Following his hospital discharge Wilson joined the Oxford Group and recruited other alcoholics to the Group. Wilson's early efforts to help others become sober were ineffective, prompting Silkworth to suggest that Wilson place less stress on religion and more on "the science" of treating alcoholism. Wilson's first success came during a business trip to Akron, where he was introduced to Robert Smith, a surgeon and Oxford Group member, unable to stay sober. After thirty days of working with Wilson, Smith drank his last drink on 10 June 1935, the date marked by AA for its anniversaries. While Wilson and Smith credited their sobriety to working with alcoholics under the auspices of the Oxford Group, a Group associate pastor sermonized against Wilson and his alcoholic Groupers for forming a "secret, ashamed sub-group" engaged in "divergent works".
By 1937, Wilson separated from the Oxford Group. AA Historian Ernest Kurtz described the split:...more and more, Bill discovered that new adherents could get sober by believing in each other and in the strength of this group. Men who had proven over and over again, by painful experience, that they could not get sober on their own had somehow become more powerful when two or three of them worked on their common problem. This, then—whatever it was that occurred among them—was what they could accept as a power greater than themselves, they did not need the Oxford Group. In 1955, Wilson acknowledged AA's debt, saying "The Oxford Groupers had shown us what to do, and just as we learned from them what not to do." Among the Oxford Group practices that AA retained were informal gatherings, a "changed-life" developed through "stages", working with others for no material gain, AA's analogs for these are meetings, "the steps", sponsorship. AA's tradition of anonymity was a reaction to the publicity-seeking practices of the Oxford Group, as well as AA's wish to not promote, Wilson said, "erratic public characters who through broken anonymity might get drunk and destroy confidence in us."
To share their method and other members wrote the initially-titled book, Alcoholics Anonymous: The Story of How More Than One Hundred Men Have Recovered from Alcoholism, from which AA drew its name. Informally known as "The Big Book", it suggests a twelve-step program in which members admit that they are powerless over alcohol and need help from a "higher power", they seek guidance and strength through prayer and meditation from God or a Higher Power of their own understanding. The second half of the book, "Personal Stories", is made of AA members' redemptive autobiographical sketches. In 1941, interviews on American radio and favorable articles in US magazines, including a piece by Jack Alexander in The Saturday Evening Post, led to increased book sales and membership. By 1946, as the growing fellowship quarreled over structure and authority, as well as finances and publicity, Wilson began to form and promote what became known as AA's "Twe
Lancashire is a ceremonial county in North West England. The administrative centre is Preston; the county has an area of 1,189 square miles. People from Lancashire are known as Lancastrians; the history of Lancashire begins with its founding in the 12th century. In the Domesday Book of 1086, some of its lands were treated as part of Yorkshire; the land that lay between the Ribble and Mersey, Inter Ripam et Mersam, was included in the returns for Cheshire. When its boundaries were established, it bordered Cumberland, Westmorland and Cheshire. Lancashire emerged as a major industrial region during the Industrial Revolution. Liverpool and Manchester grew into its largest cities, with economies built around the docks and the cotton mills respectively; these cities dominated the birth of modern industrial capitalism. The county contained the collieries of the Lancashire Coalfield. By the 1830s 85% of all cotton manufactured worldwide was processed in Lancashire. Accrington, Bolton, Bury, Colne, Manchester, Oldham, Preston and Wigan were major cotton mill towns during this time.
Blackpool was a centre for tourism for the inhabitants of Lancashire's mill towns during wakes week. The historic county was subject to a significant boundary reform in 1974 which created the current ceremonial county and removed Liverpool and Manchester, most of their surrounding conurbations to form the metropolitan and ceremonial counties of Merseyside and Greater Manchester; the detached northern part of Lancashire in the Lake District, including the Furness Peninsula and Cartmel, was merged with Cumberland and Westmorland to form Cumbria. Lancashire lost 709 square miles of land to other counties, about two fifths of its original area, although it did gain some land from the West Riding of Yorkshire. Today the ceremonial county borders Cumbria to the north, Greater Manchester and Merseyside to the south, North and West Yorkshire to the east; the county palatine boundaries remain the same as those of the pre-1974 county with Lancaster serving as the county town, the Duke of Lancaster exercising sovereignty rights, including the appointment of lords lieutenant in Greater Manchester and Merseyside..
The county was established in 1182 than many other counties. During Roman times the area was part of the Brigantes tribal area in the military zone of Roman Britain; the towns of Manchester, Ribchester, Burrow and Castleshaw grew around Roman forts. In the centuries after the Roman withdrawal in 410AD the northern parts of the county formed part of the Brythonic kingdom of Rheged, a successor entity to the Brigantes tribe. During the mid-8th century, the area was incorporated into the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria, which became a part of England in the 10th century. In the Domesday Book, land between the Ribble and Mersey were known as "Inter Ripam et Mersam" and included in the returns for Cheshire. Although some historians consider this to mean south Lancashire was part of Cheshire, it is by no means certain, it is claimed that the territory to the north formed part of the West Riding of Yorkshire. It bordered on Cumberland, Westmorland and Cheshire; the county was divided into hundreds, Blackburn, Lonsdale and West Derby.
Lonsdale was further partitioned into Lonsdale North, the detached part north of the sands of Morecambe Bay including Furness and Cartmel, Lonsdale South. Lancashire is smaller than its historical extent following a major reform of local government. In 1889, the administrative county of Lancashire was created, covering the historic county except for the county boroughs such as Blackburn, Barrow-in-Furness, Wigan and Manchester; the area served by the Lord-Lieutenant covered the entirety of the administrative county and the county boroughs, was expanded whenever boroughs annexed areas in neighbouring counties such as Wythenshawe in Manchester south of the River Mersey and in Cheshire, southern Warrington. It did not cover the western part of Todmorden, where the ancient border between Lancashire and Yorkshire passes through the middle of the town. During the 20th century, the county became urbanised the southern part. To the existing county boroughs of Barrow-in-Furness, Bolton, Burnley, Liverpool, Oldham, Rochdale, Salford, St. Helens and Wigan were added Warrington and Southport.
The county boroughs had many boundary extensions. The borders around the Manchester area were complicated, with narrow protrusions of the administrative county between the county boroughs – Lees urban district formed a detached part of the administrative county, between Oldham county borough and the West Riding of Yorkshire. By the census of 1971, the population of Lancashire and its county boroughs had reached 5,129,416, making it the most populous geographic county in the UK; the administrative county was the most populous of its type outside London, with a population of 2,280,359 in 1961. On 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, the administrative county was abolished, as were the county boroughs; the urbanised southern part became part of two metropolitan counties and Greater Manchester. The new county of Cumbria incorporates the Furness exclave; the boroughs of Liverpool, Knowsley, St. Helens and Sefton were included in Merseyside. In Greater Manchester the successor boroughs were
Hetty Wainthropp Investigates
Hetty Wainthropp Investigates is a British television cozy crime drama series, starring Patricia Routledge as the title character, Henrietta "Hetty" Wainthropp, that aired for four series between 3 January 1996 and 4 September 1998 on BBC One. The series, spawned from a pilot episode entitled "Missing Persons" aired by ITV in 1989, was co-created by writers David Cook and John Bowen, co-starred Derek Benfield as Hetty's patient husband Robert and Dominic Monaghan as her assistant and lodger Geoffrey Shawcross. Other co-stars in the series include John Graham Davies as local chief of police DCI Adams. In the United States, episodes have broadcast as part of PBS's anthology series Mystery!. A parody of the series, entitled Wetty Hainthropp Investigates, aired on 12 March 1999 as part of the Comic Relief telethon, it starred Julie Walters and Duncan Preston. Hetty Wainthropp Investigates is based on characters from the novel Missing Persons by David Cook, who co-wrote the episodes with John Griffith Bowen.
The incidents in Cook's novel were inspired by his own mother's experiences. Prior to the pilot going into production, Patricia Routledge read the story Missing Persons for BBC Radio 4's A Book At Bedtime in February 1987. In 1989 ITV broadcast a feature-length pilot, Missing Persons, featuring Tony Melody as Robert Wainthropp and Garry Halliday as Geoffrey Shawcross, but ITV opted not to pursue a series; the storyline of this episode is ignored in the subsequent BBC series, with the first episode establishing Hetty as a detective in her first case and meeting Geoffrey for the first time. The characterization of Hetty was altered for the series from the pilot. The'original' Hetty was far more ` theatrical' in her manner. Additionally, the pilot character lived in better circumstances than the home seen in the series; the BBC series was filmed in Burnley, Blackburn, Rossendale and other locations in Lancashire. The music for the series was composed by Nigel Hess, the cornet solo was performed by Phillip McCann and in 1997 the title track was awarded the Ivor Novello Award for best television theme.
The BBC series was popular with viewers, but no further episodes were commissioned after 1998. In 2008 Patricia Routledge said in an interview that the cast and crew had been told by the BBC at the end of the fourth series that a fifth series would be commissioned, but it never was. In 2017 Suzanne Maddock shared her memories of making Hetty Wainthropp Investigates in a 45-minute interview for "The Bill Podcast" and explained how she felt disappointed for the fans of the series that they did not get to see a proper conclusion to the series. Hetty Wainthropp is a retired working-class woman from Darwen in North West England, who has a knack for jumping to conclusions and solving crimes of varying bafflement which are too minor to concern the police. Although on occasion her husband offers assistance, he more than not tends to the home while Hetty gads about the countryside with young Geoffrey in search of resolution and justice. In many episodes Hetty seeks the advice of DCI Adams of the local constabulary.
Patricia Routledge as Henrietta "Hetty" Wainthropp Derek Benfield as Robert Wainthropp Dominic Monaghan as Geoffrey Shawcross John Graham Davies as DCI Adams Suzanne Maddock as Janet Frazer Frank Mills as Frank Wainthropp All four series have been released on DVD in the United Kingdom and United States by Acorn Media. In Australia, the series was released by Madman Films. In Belgium and the Netherlands, the series was released by Lime-Lights Pictures. Hetty Wainthropp Investigates on IMDb Missing Persons on IMDb
Anthony McVay Simpson, better known by his stage name Tony Warren, was an English television screenwriter, best known for creating the ITV soap opera Coronation Street. He created other television dramas and wrote critically acclaimed novels. Warren was born at 3 Wilton Avenue, Lancashire, he attended Eccles Grammar School. He trained at the Elliott-Clarke theatre school in Liverpool, he adopted Warren as a stage name in his early acting career. He became a regular on BBC Radio Children's Hour and acted in many radio plays, performing with many actors who became household names through Coronation Street, most notably Violet Carson who played Ena Sharples and Doris Speed who played Annie Walker. In his memoirs, Over the Airwaves, Children's Hour producer, Trevor Hill, explains how Warren was an excitable young teenager at rehearsals, so much so that on one occasion Violet Carson warned "If that boy doesn't shut up, I'll smack his bottom!" During a unexpected transmission break from London while performing at the Leeds studio, Carson played and sang to the children a dialect song called "Bowtons Yard" in which the storyteller speaks about his neighbours.
Starting at Number 1 and ending at Number 12, he describes each person in turn and Warren admitted this is what gave him the inspiration for Coronation Street. Warren acted in several early ITV Plays of the Week. According to BBC producer Olive Shapley who had worked with Warren on Children's Hour, the idea for Florizel Street came to him late one night in 1959 while they were returning to Manchester by train. Shapley recalled: In 1960, Harry Elton at Granada commissioned a script from Warren for a show about "a street out there". Warren wrote all 13 episodes of the serial that ITV decided to air; when the show became a success, as creator of the show, he continued to write scripts until 1968, after which he moved on to other fields. However, he continued to write occasional scripts until the late-1970s, he was retained by ITV Studios as consultant to Coronation Street. Warren made a cameo appearance in the 50th anniversary live episode of Coronation Street in December 2010, he was played by David Dawson in the BBC drama The Road to Coronation Street in September that year.
In the 1990s he wrote a series of critically acclaimed novels, The Lights of Manchester, Foot of the Rainbow, Behind Closed Doors and Full Steam Ahead. He was the subject of a This Is Your Life television programme on 11 October 1995. Warren won a number of awards, all in relation to devising Coronation Street, he received a Special Achievement Award in Soap at the British Soap Awards 2000 and the National Television Landmark Award in 2005. His most recent accolade was at the Royal Television Society awards in which he was honoured with a Lifetime Achievement Award; the society described the show as "the most successful television programme in British history". In 1994, Warren was appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire. In 2008 he was awarded an honorary degree from Manchester Metropolitan University "in recognition for his contribution to ground-breaking television and creative writing which has helped put Manchester and Salford on the cultural map". Warren was gay from his early years on Coronation Street, at a time when homosexuality was illegal.
He said. Warren battled with alcohol addiction before attending rehabilitation. Warren died on 1 March 2016 after a short illness, his death was announced on Coronation Street's Twitter account. Tony Warren on IMDb
The Herald (Glasgow)
The Herald is a Scottish broadsheet newspaper founded in 1783. The Herald is the longest running national newspaper in the world and is the eighth oldest daily paper in the world; the title was simplified from The Glasgow Herald in 1992. A Sunday edition was launched on 9 September 2018; the newspaper was founded by an Edinburgh-born printer called John Mennons in January 1783 as a weekly publication called the Glasgow Advertiser. Mennons' first edition had a global scoop: news of the treaties of Versailles, reached Mennons via the Lord Provost of Glasgow just as he was putting the paper together. War had ended with the American colonies, he revealed; the Herald, therefore, is as old as the United States give or take an hour or two. The story was, only carried on the back page. Mennons, using the larger of two fonts available to him, put it in the space reserved for late news. In 1802, Mennons sold the newspaper to Benjamin Mathie and Dr James McNayr, former owner of the Glasgow Courier, which. Along with the Mercury, was one of two papers Mennons had come to Glasgow to challenge.
Mennons' son Thomas retained an interest in the company. The new owners changed the name to The Herald and Advertiser and Commercial Chronicle in 1803. In 1805 the name changed again, this time to The Glasgow Herald when Thomas Mennons severed his ties to the paper. From 1836 to 1964, The Glasgow Herald was owned by George Outram & Co. becoming the first daily newspaper in Scotland in 1858. The company took its name from the paper's editor of 19 years, George Outram, an Edinburgh advocate best known in Glasgow for composing light verse. Outram was an early Scottish nationalist, a member of the National Association for the Vindication of Scottish Rights; the Glasgow Herald, under Outram, argued that the promised privileges of the Treaty of Union had failed to materialise and demanded that, for example, that the heir to the British throne be called "Prince Royal of Scotland". "Any man calling himself a Scotsman should enrol in the National Association," said The Herald. In 1895, the publication moved to a building in Mitchell Street designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh, which now houses the architecture centre, The Lighthouse.
In 1980, the publication moved to offices in Albion Street in Glasgow into the former Scottish Daily Express building. It is now based at in a purpose-built building in Glasgow. One of the most traumatic episodes in the history of The Glasgow Herald was the battle for control and ownership of the paper in 1964. Millionaires Hugh Fraser and Roy Thomson, whose newspaper empire included The Glasgow Herald's archrival, The Scotsman, fought for control of the title for 52 days. Sir Hugh Fraser was to win; the paper's editor James Holburn was a "disapproving onlooker". The Labour Party condemned the battle as "big business at its worst"; the newspaper changed its name to The Herald on 3 February 1992, dropping Glasgow from its title, but not its masthead. That same year the title was bought by Caledonia Newspaper Glasgow. In 1996 was purchased by Scottish Television; as of 2013, the newspaper along with its related publications, the Evening Times and Sunday Herald, were owned by the Newsquest media group.
Graeme Smith assumed editorship of The Herald in January 2017, replacing Magnus Llewellin, who had held the post since 2013. Notable past editors include: John Mennons, 1782; the Herald's main political commentator is Iain Macwhirter, who writes twice a week for the paper and, broadly supportive of independence. Columnist and political pundit David Torrance, however, is more sceptical about the need for - and prospect of - a new Scottish state. Other prominent columnists include Alison Rowat, who covers everything from cinema to international statecraft. Foreign editor David Pratt and business editor Ian McConnell, both multi-award-winning journalists, provide analysis of their fields every Friday. Edited by Ken Smith, the column has been spun off in to a popular series of books since the 1980s; the Herald Diary used to be edited by writer Tom Shields. Sean Connery once said: "First thing each morning I turn to The Herald on my computer - first for its witty Diary, which helps keep my Scots sense of humour in tune."
It is printed at Carmyle, just south east of Glasgow. The paper is published Monday to Saturday in Glasgow and as of 2017 it had an audited circulation of 28,900; the Herald's website is protected by a paywall. It is part of the Newsquest Scotland stable of sites; the Herald in every edition declares. However, the newspaper backed a'No' vote in the 2014 referendum on Scottish independence; the accompanying headline stated, "The Herald's view: we back staying within UK, but only if there's more far-reaching further devolution." List of newspapers in Scotland Sunday Herald, former sister paper. Griffiths, Dennis, ed.. The Encyclopedia of the British Press, 1422–1992. London & Basingstoke: Macmillan. Phillips, Alastair. Glasgow's Herald: Two Hundred Years of a Newspaper 1783–1983. Glasgow: Richard Drew Publishing. ISBN 0-86267-008-X. Reid, Harry. Deadline: The Story of the Scottish Press. Edinburgh: Saint Andrew Press. ISBN 978-0-7152-0836-6. Official website Google news archive of The Glasgow Herald