Social media are interactive computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks. The variety of stand-alone and built-in social media services available introduces challenges of definition. User-generated content, such as text posts or comments, digital photos or videos, data generated through all online interactions, is the lifeblood of social media. Users create service-specific profiles for the website or app that are designed and maintained by the social media organization. Social media facilitate the development of online social networks by connecting a user's profile with those of other individuals or groups. Users access social media services via web-based technologies on desktops and laptops, or download services that offer social media functionality to their mobile devices; as users engage with these electronic services, they create interactive platforms through which individuals and organizations can share, co-create and modify user-generated content or pre-made content posted online.
Networks formed through social media change the way groups of people communicate. They "introduce substantial and pervasive changes to communication between organizations and individuals." These changes are the focus of the emerging fields of technoself studies. Social media differ from paper-based media and traditional electronic media such as TV broadcasting in many ways, including quality, frequency, usability and performance. Social media outlets operate in a dialogic transmission system; this is in contrast to traditional media which operates under a monologic transmission model, such as a newspaper, delivered to many subscribers, or a radio station which broadcasts the same programs to an entire city. Some of the most popular social media websites, with over 100 million registered users, include Facebook, YouTube, WeChat, Instagram, QQ, QZone, Twitter, Telegram, Baidu Tieba, LinkedIn, LINE, Pinterest, VK. Observers have noted a range of negative impacts of social media use. Social media can help to improve an individual's sense of connectedness with real or online communities, can be an effective communication tool for corporations, nonprofit organizations, advocacy groups, political parties, governments.
Social media may have been influenced by the 1840s introduction of the telegraph in the US, which connected the country. The PLATO system launched in 1960, developed at the University of Illinois and subsequently commercially marketed by Control Data Corporation, offered early forms of social media with 1973-era innovations such as Notes, PLATO's message-forum application. ARPANET, which first came online in 1967, had by the late 1970s developed a rich cultural exchange of non-government/business ideas and communication, as evidenced by the network etiquette described in a 1982 handbook on computing at MIT's Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. ARPANET became the foundation of Usenet, conceived by Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis in 1979 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University, established in 1980. A precursor of the electronic bulletin board system, known as Community Memory, had appeared by 1973. True electronic bulletin board systems arrived with the Computer Bulletin Board System in Chicago, which first came online on 16 February 1978.
Before long, most major cities had more than one BBS running on TRS-80, Apple II, Atari, IBM PC, Commodore 64, similar personal computers. The IBM PC was introduced in 1981, subsequent models of both Mac computers and PCs were used throughout the 1980s. Multiple modems, followed by specialized telecommunication hardware, allowed many users to be online simultaneously. Compuserve, Prodigy and AOL were three of the largest BBS companies and were the first to migrate to the Internet in the 1990s. Between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, BBSes numbered in the tens of thousands in North America alone. Message forums arose with the BBS phenomenon throughout early 1990s; when the Internet proliferated in the mid-1990s, message forums migrated online, becoming Internet forums due to cheaper per-person access as well as the ability to handle far more people than telco modem banks. GeoCities was one of the Internet's earliest social networking websites, appearing in November 1994, followed by Classmates in December 1995 and Six Degrees in May 1997.
According to CBS news, Six Degrees is "widely considered to be the first social networking site", as it included "profiles, friends lists and school affiliations" that could be used by registered users. Open Diary was launched in October 1998. 360° in March 2005.
Slashdot is a social news website that billed itself as "News for Nerds. Stuff that Matters", it features news stories on science and politics that are submitted and evaluated by site users and editors. Each story has a comments section attached to it; the website was founded in 1997 by Hope College students Rob Malda known as "CmdrTaco", classmate Jeff Bates known as "Hemos". In 2012, they sold it to DHI Group, Inc.. In January 2016, BizX acquired Slashdot Media, including SourceForge. Summaries of stories and links to news articles are submitted by Slashdot's own users, each story becomes the topic of a threaded discussion among users. Discussion is moderated by a user-based moderation system. Randomly selected moderators are assigned points. Moderation applies either −1 or +1 to the current rating, based on whether the comment is perceived as either "normal", "offtopic", "insightful", "redundant", "interesting", or "troll"; the site's comment and moderation system is administered by its own open source content management system, available under the GNU General Public License.
In 2012, Slashdot had around 3.7 million unique visitors per month and received over 5300 comments per day. The site has won more than 20 awards, including People's Voice Awards in 2000 for "Best Community Site" and "Best News Site". At its peak use, a news story posted to the site with a link could overwhelm some smaller or independent sites; this phenomenon was known as the "Slashdot effect". Slashdot was preceded by Rob Malda's personal website "Chips & Dips", launched in October 1997, featured a single "rant" each day about something that interested its author – something to do with Linux or open source software. At the time, Malda was a student at Hope College in Holland, majoring in computer science; the site became "Slashdot" in September 1997 under the slogan "News for Nerds. Stuff that Matters," and became a hotspot on the Internet for news and information of interest to computer geeks; the name "Slashdot" came from a somewhat "obnoxious parody of a URL" – when Malda registered the domain, he desired to make a name, "silly and unpronounceable" – try pronouncing out, "h-t-t-p-colon-slash-slash-slashdot-dot-org".
By June 1998, the site was seeing as many as 100,000 page views per day and advertisers began to take notice. Slashdot was co-founded by Jeff Bates. By December 1998, Slashdot had net revenues of $18,000, yet its Internet profile was higher, revenues were expected to increase. On June 29, 1999, the site was sold to Linux megasite Andover.net for $1.5 million in cash and $7 million in Andover stock at the Initial public offering price. Part of the deal was contingent upon the continued employment of Malda and Bates and on the achievement of certain "milestones". With the acquisition of Slashdot, Andover.net could now advertise itself as "the leading Linux/Open Source destination on the Internet". Andover.net merged with VA Linux on February 3, 2000, which changed its name to SourceForge, Inc. on May 24, 2007, became Geeknet, Inc. on November 4, 2009. Slashdot's 10,000th article was posted after two and a half years on February 24, 2000, the 100,000th article was posted on December 11, 2009 after 12 years online.
During the first 12 years, the most active story with the most responses posted was the post-2004 US Presidential Election article "Kerry Concedes Election To Bush" with 5,687 posts. This followed the creation of a new article section, politics.slashdot.org, created at the start of the 2004 election on September 7, 2004. Many of the most popular stories are political, with "Strike on Iraq" the second-most-active article and "Barack Obama Wins US Presidency" the third-most-active; the rest of the 10 most active articles are an article announcing the 2005 London bombings, several articles about Evolution vs. Intelligent Design, Saddam Hussein's capture, Fahrenheit 9/11. Articles about Microsoft and its Windows Operating System are popular. A thread posted in 2002 titled "What's Keeping You On Windows?" was the 10th-most-active story, an article about Windows 2000/NT4 source-code leaks the most visited article with more than 680,000 hits. Some controversy erupted on March 9, 2001 after an anonymous user posted the full text of Scientology's "Operating Thetan Level Three" document in a comment attached to a Slashdot article.
The Church of Scientology demanded that Slashdot remove the document under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. A week in a long article, Slashdot editors explained their decision to remove the page while providing links and information on how to get the document from other sources. Slashdot Japan is an official offshoot of the US-based Web site; as of January 2010 the site was owned by OSDN-Japan, Inc. and carried some of the US-based Slashdot articles as well as localized stories. An external site, New Media Services, has reported the importance of Online Moderation last December 1, 2011. On Valentine's Day 2002, founder Rob Malda proposed to longtime girlfriend Kathleen Fent using the front page of Slashdot, they were married on December 2002, in Las Vegas, Nevada. Slashdot implemented a paid subscription service on March 1, 2002. Slashdot's subscription model works by allowing users to pay a small fee to be able to view pages without banner ads, starting at a rate of $5 per 1,000 page views – non-subscribers may still view articles and respo
Cable News Network is an American news-based pay television channel owned by WarnerMedia News & Sports, a division of AT&T's WarnerMedia. CNN was founded in 1980 by American media proprietor Ted Turner as a 24-hour cable news channel. Upon its launch, CNN was the first television channel to provide 24-hour news coverage, was the first all-news television channel in the United States. While the news channel has numerous affiliates, CNN broadcasts from the Time Warner Center in New York City, studios in Washington, D. C. and Los Angeles. Its headquarters at the CNN Center in Atlanta is only used for weekend programming. CNN is sometimes referred to as CNN/U. S. to distinguish the American channel from CNN International. As of August 2010, CNN is available in over 100 million U. S. households. Broadcast coverage of the U. S. channel extends to over 890,000 American hotel rooms, as well as carriage on subscription providers throughout Canada. As of July 2015, CNN is available to about 96,374,000 pay-television households in the United States.
Globally, CNN programming airs through CNN International, which can be seen by viewers in over 212 countries and territories. The Cable News Network was launched at 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on June 1, 1980. After an introduction by Ted Turner, the husband and wife team of David Walker and Lois Hart anchored the channel's first newscast. Burt Reinhardt, the executive vice president of CNN at its launch, hired most of the channel's first 200 employees, including the network's first news anchor, Bernard Shaw. Since its debut, CNN has expanded its reach to a number of cable and satellite television providers, several websites, specialized closed-circuit channels; the company has 42 bureaus, more than 900 affiliated local stations, several regional and foreign-language networks around the world. The channel's success made a bona-fide mogul of founder Ted Turner and set the stage for conglomerate Time Warner's eventual acquisition of the Turner Broadcasting System in 1996. A companion channel, CNN2, was launched on January 1, 1982 and featured a continuous 24-hour cycle of 30-minute news broadcasts.
The channel, which became known as CNN Headline News and is now known as HLN focused on live news coverage supplemented by personality-based programs during the evening and primetime hours. The first Persian Gulf War in 1991 was a watershed event for CNN that catapulted the channel past the "Big Three" American networks for the first time in its history due to an unprecedented, historical scoop: CNN was the only news outlet with the ability to communicate from inside Iraq during the initial hours of the Coalition bombing campaign, with live reports from the al-Rashid Hotel in Baghdad by reporters Bernard Shaw, John Holliman and Peter Arnett; the moment when bombing began was announced on CNN by Shaw on January 16, 1991, as follows: This is Bernie Shaw. Something is happening outside.... Peter Arnett, join me here. Let's describe to our viewers what we're seeing... The skies over Baghdad have been illuminated.... We're seeing bright flashes going off all over the sky. Unable to broadcast live pictures from Baghdad, CNN's coverage of the initial hours of the Gulf War had the dramatic feel of a radio broadcast – and was compared to legendary CBS news anchor Edward R. Murrow's gripping live radio reports of the German bombing of London during World War II.
Despite the lack of live pictures, CNN's coverage was carried by television stations and networks around the world, resulting in CNN being watched by over a billion viewers worldwide. The Gulf War experience brought CNN some much sought-after legitimacy and made household names of obscure reporters. In 2000, media scholar and director of the Center for the Study of Popular Television at Syracuse University, Robert Thompson, stated that having turned 20, CNN was now the "old guard." Shaw, known for his live-from-Bagdhad reporting during the Gulf War, became CNN's chief anchor until his retirement in 2001. Others include then-Pentagon correspondent Wolf Blitzer and international correspondent Christiane Amanpour. Amanpour's presence in Iraq was caricatured by actress Nora Dunn as ruthless reporter Adriana Cruz in the 1999 film Three Kings. Time Warner-owned sister network HBO produced a television movie, Live from Baghdad, about CNN's coverage of the first Gulf War. Coverage of the first Gulf War and other crises of the early 1990s led officials at the Pentagon to coin the term "the CNN effect" to describe the perceived impact of real time, 24-hour news coverage on the decision-making processes of the American government.
CNN was the first cable news channel. Anchor Carol Lin was on the air to deliver the first public report of the event, she broke into a commercial at 8:49 a.m. Eastern Time that morning and said:This just in. You are looking at a disturbing live shot there; that is the World Trade Center, we have unconfirmed reports this morning that a plane has crashed into one of the towers of the World Trade Center. CNN Center right now is just beginning to work on this story calling our sources and trying to figure out what happened, but something devastating happening this morning there on the south end of the island of Manhattan; that is once again, a picture of one of the towers of the World Trade Center. Sean Murtagh, CNN vice president of finance and administration, was the first network employe
Today (U.S. TV program)
Today called The Today Show, is an American news and talk morning television show that airs on NBC. The program debuted on January 14, 1952, it was the first of its genre on American television and in the world, after 67 years of broadcasting it is the fifth-longest-running American television series. A weekday two-hour program from 7 to 9 a.m. it expanded to Sundays in 1987 and Saturdays in 1992. The weekday broadcast expanded to three hours in 2000, to four hours in 2007. Today's dominance was unchallenged by the other networks until the late 1980s, when it was overtaken by ABC's Good Morning America. Today retook the Nielsen ratings lead the week of December 11, 1995, held onto that position for 852 consecutive weeks until the week of April 9, 2012, when Good Morning America topped it again. Today maintained its No. 2 status behind GMA from the summer of 2012 until it regained the lead in the aftermath of anchor Matt Lauer's departure in November 2017. In 2002, Today was ranked No. 17 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time.
The entertainment magazine Variety reported the 2016 advertising revenue during the first two hours of the show was $508.8 million. The show's first broadcast aired on January 14, 1952 as the brainchild of television executive Sylvester Weaver, vice president of NBC. Weaver was president of the company from 1953 to 1955, during which time Today's late-night companion The Tonight Show premiered. In pre-production, the show's proposed working title was Shine Revue. Today was the first program of its genre; the program blended national news headlines, interviews with newsmakers, lifestyle features, other light news and gimmicks, local news updates from the network's stations. It has spawned several other shows of a similar type, including ABC's Good Morning America, CBS' now-defunct The Early Show. In other countries, the format was copied – most notably in the United Kingdom with the BBC's Breakfast Time and TV-am's Good Morning Britain, in Canada with Canada AM on CTV; when Today debuted, it was seen live only in the Eastern and Central time zones, broadcasting for three hours each morning but seen for only two hours in each time zone.
Since 1958, Today has been tape-delayed for the five other U. S. time zones. To accommodate host Dave Garroway's declining health, the program ceased live broadcasts in the summer of 1958, opting instead to broadcast an edition taped the previous afternoon; the experiment, which drew criticism from many sides, ended when John Chancellor replaced Garroway in July 1961. Today was a two-hour program for many years, airing from 7:00 to 9:00 a.m. in all time zones except for Alaska and the U. S. Virgin Islands, until NBC expanded the program to three hours on October 2, 2000. A fourth hour was added on September 10, 2007. NBC stations in some markets, such as WYFF in Greenville, South Carolina, air the third and fourth hours of Today on tape delay. In August 2013, Today released a mobile app for tablets; the program airs live in the Eastern Time Zone and on tape delay beginning at 7:00 a.m. in each of the five remaining time zones. When breaking news stories warrant, Today will broadcast a live West Coast edition.
The live updates do not last longer than the 7:00 a.m. hour and once completed, will return to the taped East Coast feed. When the anchors welcome the viewers to the show, they will note the current time as being "Pacific Time" and continue to note it as such until the tape delay is started. In some instances, when an NBC News Special Report of breaking news occurs during the Today timeslot, the show's anchors will assume hosting responsibilities and the show will go live across all time zones until such time when the Special Report segment finishes. At that point, viewers outside the Eastern Time Zone will return to regularly-scheduled programming. During the first three and a half hours of the program, local affiliates are offered a five-minute window at:25 and:55 minutes past the hour to insert a local newsbreak and local advertisements, although the show provides additional segments for those affiliates who do not provide such a news insert. Certain NBC affiliates that produce an additional morning newscast for a sister station or digital subchannel may pre-tape the local inserts aired during the first one to two hours of Today to focus production responsibilities on their local broadcast.
Starting in June 2014, Sirius XM Satellite Radio began simulcasting Today on a new channel called "Today Show Radio", Channel 108, with The Best of Today starting at 6 am and the Today Show's live broadcast from Studio 1A at Rockefeller Center in New York City starting at 7 am, with a tape delayed broadcast at beginning 7 am Pacific time. On Mondays The Hoda Show with Hoda Kotb is broadcast exclusive on the Today Show Radio channel. On Tuesdays Off the Rails with Al Roker, Dylan Dreyer and Sheinelle Jones airs at 1 pm. On Wednesdays The Happy Hour with the producers of Kathie Lee and Hoda airs, on Thursdays Today Show Confidential with the producers of TODAY airs; the channel simulcasts NBC Nightly News with Lester Holt at 6
Big Brother (franchise)
Big Brother is a Dutch reality competition television franchise created by John de Mol Jr. first broadcast in the Netherlands in 1999, subsequently syndicated internationally. The show features contestants called "housemates" who live together in a specially-constructed house, isolated from the outside world. Inspired by Big Brother from George Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four, the housemates are continuously monitored during their stay in the house by live television cameras as well as personal audio microphones. Throughout the course of the competition, the housemates are voted out until only one remains and wins the cash prize; as of 26 November 2018, there have been 445 seasons of Big Brother in over 54 franchise countries and regions. English-language editions of the program are referred to by its initials "BB"; the title of many Spanish-language editions of the program are translated as Gran Hermano. At regular intervals, the housemates nominate a number of their fellow housemates whom they wish to be evicted from the house.
The housemates with the most nominations are announced, viewers are given the opportunity to vote via telephone for the nominee they wish to be evicted or saved from eviction. The last person remaining is declared the winner; some more recent editions have since included additional methods of voting, such as voting through social media and smartphone applications. Non-standard votes occur, where two houseguests are evicted at once or no one is voted out. In the earlier series of Big Brother, there were 10 contestants with evictions every two weeks. However, the UK version introduced a larger number of contestants with weekly evictions. Most versions of Big Brother follow the weekly eviction format, broadcast over three months for 16 contestants; the contestants are assigned tasks by the producers of the show. The tasks are designed to test their teamwork community spirit. In some countries, the housemates' shopping budget or weekly allowance depends on the outcome of assigned tasks; the term Big Brother originates from George Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four, with its theme of continuous oppressive surveillance.
The program relies on other techniques, such as a stripped back-to-basic environment, weekly tasks and competitions set by Big Brother, the "Diary Room" where housemates convey their private thoughts to the camera and reveal their nominees for eviction. The first version of Big Brother was broadcast in 1999 on Veronica in the Netherlands. In the first season of Big Brother, the house was basic. Although essential amenities such as running water, furniture and a limited ration of food were provided, luxury items were forbidden; this added a survivalist element to the show. Nearly all series provide a modern house for the contest with a jacuzzi, sauna, VIP suite and other luxuries; the format has become an international TV franchise. While each country or region has its own variation, the common theme is that the contestants are confined to the house and have their every action recorded by cameras and microphones, that no contact with the outside world is permitted. Most international versions of the show remain quite similar to each other: their main format remains true to the original fly on the wall observational style with the emphasis on human relationships, to the extent that contestants are forbidden from discussing nominations or voting strategy.
In 2001, the US version adopted a different format during its second season, where the contestants are encouraged to strategize to advance in the game. In 2011, the UK version controversially adapted the discussion of nominations before reversing this rule after a poll by Big Brother broadcaster Channel 5. From a sociological and demographic perspective, Big Brother allows an analysis of how people react when forced into close confinement with people outside of their comfort zone; the viewer has the opportunity to see how a person reacts from the inside. The Diary Room is where contestants can express their feelings about the game and the other contestants; the results range from angry confrontations to genuine and tender connections. The show is notable for involving the Internet. Although the show broadcasts daily updates during the evening, viewers can watch a continuous feed from multiple cameras on the Web in most countries; these websites were successful after some national series began charging for access to the video stream.
In some countries, Internet broadcasting was supplemented by updates via email, WAP and SMS. The house is shown live on satellite television, although in some countries there is a 10–15 minute delay to allow libelous or unacceptable content to be removed. Contestants develop sexual relationships. Big Brother contestants are isolated in the house, witho