Delft University of Technology
Delft University of Technology known as TU Delft, is the largest and oldest Dutch public technological university, located in Delft, Netherlands. It counts as one of the best universities for engineering and technology worldwide seen within the top 20, it is considered the best university of technology in the Netherlands. With eight faculties and numerous research institutes, it hosts over 19,000 students, more than 2,900 scientists, more than 2,100 support and management staff; the university was established on 8 January 1842 by William II of the Netherlands as a Royal Academy, with the main purpose of training civil servants for the Dutch East Indies. The school expanded its research and education curriculum, becoming first a Polytechnic School in 1864, Institute of Technology in 1905, gaining full university rights, changing its name to Delft University of Technology in 1986. Dutch Nobel laureates Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, Simon van der Meer have been associated with TU Delft.
TU Delft is a member of several university federations including the IDEA League, CESAER, UNITECH International, 4TU. Delft University of Technology was founded on 8 January 1842 by William II of the Netherlands as Royal Academy for the education of civilian engineers, for serving both nation and industry, of apprentices for trade. One of the purposes of the academy was to educate civil servants for the colonies of the Dutch East India Company; the first director of the academy was Antoine Lipkens, constructor of the first Dutch optical telegraph, called as Lipkens. Royal Academy had its first building located at Oude Delft 95 in Delft. On 23 May 1863 an Act was passed imposing regulations on technical education in the Netherlands, bringing it under the rules of secondary education. On 20 June 1864, Royal Academy in Delft was disbanded by a Royal Decree, giving a way to a Polytechnic School of Delft; the newly formed school educated engineers of various fields and architects, so much needed during the rapid industrialization period in the 19th century.
Yet another Act, passed on 22 May 1905, changed the name of the school to Technical College of Delft, emphasizing the academic quality of the education. Polytechnic was allowed to award academic degrees; the number of students reached 450 around that time. The official opening of the new school was attended by Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands on 10 July 1905. First dean of the newly established College was ir. J. Kraus, hydraulic engineer. In 1905, the first doctoral degree was awarded. From 1924 until the construction of the new campus in 1966 the ceremonies were held in the Saint Hippolytus Chapel. Corporate rights were granted to the College on 7 June 1956. Most of the university buildings during that time were located within Delft city centre, with some of the buildings set on the side of the river Schie, in the Wippolder district. Student organizations grew together with the university; the first to be established on 22 March 1848 is the Delftsch Studenten Corps housed in the distinctive Sociëteit Phoenix on the Phoenixstraat.
This was followed by the KSV Sanctus Virgilius. In 1917 Proof Garden for Technical Plantation was established by Gerrit van Iterson, which today is known as Botanical Garden of TU Delft. In that period a first female professor, Toos Korvezee, was appointed. After the end of World War II, TU Delft increased its rapid academic expansion. Studium Generale was established at all universities in the Netherlands, including TU Delft, to promote a free and accessible knowledge related to culture, technology and science; because of the increasing number of students, in 1974 the first Reception Week for First Year Students was established, which became a TU Delft tradition since then. Since 2006 all buildings of the university are located outside of the historical city center of Delft; the new building of Material Sciences department was sold demolished in 2007 to give place for a newly built building of the Haagse Hogeschool. Closer cooperation between TU Delft and Dutch universities of applied sciences resulted in physical transition of some of the institutes from outside to Delft.
In September 2009 many institutes of applied sciences from the Hague region as well as Institute of Applied Sciences in Rijswijk, transferred to Delft, close to the location of the university, at the square between Rotterdamseweg and Leeghwaterstraat. In 2007 the three Dutch technical universities, TU Delft, TU Eindhoven and University of Twente, established a federation, called 3TU. On 13 May 2008, the building of the Faculty of Architecture was destroyed by fire caused by a short circuit in a coffee machine due to a ruptured water pipe. Luckily, the architecture library, containing several thousands of books and maps, as well as many architecture models, including chairs by Gerrit Rietveld and Le Corbusier, were saved; the Faculty of Architecture is housed in the university's former main building. Through the course of the years the logo of the TU Delft changed a number of times, along with its official name; the current logo is based on the three university colors cyan and white. The letter "T" bears a stylized flame on top, referring to the flame that Prometheus brought from Mount Olympus to the people, against the will of Zeus.
Because of this, Prometheus is sometimes considered as the first engineer, is an important sym
Kees Christiaanse is an architect and urban planner from the Netherlands. After working with Rem Koolhaas, he started two firms, Kees Christiaanse Architects & Planners in 1989 and Architects and Planners in 1990, where he was a partner till 2002. Christiaanse has "tackled some of the highest profile urban design schemes in the Netherlands, hosting buildings by" the finest Dutch and several international architects. Christiaanse worked with Rem Koolhaas' architecture firm, OMA, where he was made a partner in 1983 at the age of 30, worked for the firm until 1989. After OMA, he founded Planners and ASTOC Architects and Planners, he was artistic director of the Dutch Building Department from 1993 to 1996. From 1996 to 2003 he was a professor of architecture and urban planning at the Technical University of Berlin, is now the Chair of Architecture and Urbanism in the Institute for Urban Design at ETH in Zürich. Two monographs on Christiaanse's work have been published, an exhibition of the work done by his firms, "The City as Loft," was held at De Singel in Antwerp in 2003.
He is known for his urban planning work and "has become the power behind the throne of Dutch architecture." He now works in Zurich. Christiaanse was the curator of the 4th International Architecture Biennale Rotterdam, takes on large-scale projects such as the development of neglected areas for the 2012 Summer Olympics, his latest project is the design of a masterplan for an "engineering campus" in the Bavarian city of Augsburg, a 70-acre project for which the state government and the city are contributing 60 million Euros. Of particular interest to Christiaanse is the modern city its openness or lack thereof, his designs as well as his public statements propagate the idea of "mixed communities," as he explained in an interview, to counteract the modern move toward gated communities and to increase different kinds of interactions among citizens. Such interactions, the social control that comes along with it increase security, a concern in many European lower-income neighborhoods; the buildings to be built in such new neighborhoods Christiaanse calls "socializing machines."
The metaphor Christiaanse uses, of the city as a tree, is borrowed from architect and urban theorist Christopher Alexander, whose 1965 essay "A City Is Not A Tree" had suggested that cities grow like trees at their peril, with branches only connected to each other via the trunk. Alexander's fear, Christiaanse suggests, has become real, according to a keynote speech he delivered at the Holcim Forum 2007 for the Holcim Foundation, the key to his lament that "The city becomes a tree." In a presentation given to the Urban Age South America Conference, December 2008, he gave some characteristics of the openness he wants cities to encourage in order to prevent this segmentation. Cities should be: Walkable Fine maze public space grid Active street front typologies Mix use mix size mi social mix age No style. Poseidon, office building, The Hague Kavel 25, housing project, The Hague Snackbar Bram Ladage, snackbar with 18 ft Pepsi can Housing blocks on Java Island, Amsterdam Hogeschool Rotterdam, building for Arts, Education departments Kenniscentrum NISA, building for the Netherlands Institute of Ship and Underwater Archeology Het Baken, residential tower, Deventer De Witte Keizer, residential high-rise, Rotterdam The Red Apple, residential high-rise with office buildings, Rotterdam Park and ride facilities for Uithof, Utrecht Masterplan for housing festival, Hague Urban plan for Leidsche Rijn Vinex near Utrecht City plan Zuidhavenkwartier, Rotterdam Master plan for Eastern Docklands, Amsterdam Urban plan for Vinex location Schuytgraaf, Arnhem Urban plan for Lelystad South area of the Flevoland Vinex Winning proposal in 1999 for HafenCity in Hamburg, one of the largest European rebuilding projects of the 21st century "Vexierbild," three buildings in Hamburg Holzhafen, first building finished 2003 Olympic Legacy Masterplan for the 2012 Summer Olympics Stadionpark Rotterdam Europaallee Jurong Lake District Dutch architects Kees Christiaanse.
Rotterdam: Uitgeverij 010, 1999. ISBN 90-6450-324-9. Situation KCAP: Architects and Planners. Basel, Boston: Birkhäuser. ISBN 978-3-7643-7492-1. Campus and the City. Urban Design for the Knowledge Society. Kerstin Hoeger, Kees Christiaanse Zuerich: gta publishers. ISBN 978-3-85676-218-6. Urban Reports. Urban strategies and visions in mid-sized cities in a local and global context. Nicola Schüller, Petra Wollenberg and Kees Christiaanse Zuerich: gta publishers. ISBN 978-3-85676-228-5. Open City. Designing Coexistence. Tim Rieniets, Jennifer Sigler, Kees Christiaanse Amsterdam: SUN architecture. ISBN 978-90-8506-783-2. Textbook. Kees Christiaanse, Jessica Bridger Rotterdam: NAi010. ISBN 978-94-6208-442-1. Interview with Kees Christiaanse about - What is architecture? KCAP Architects & Planners Kees Christiaanse at archINFORM
Harvard Graduate School of Design
The Harvard Graduate School of Design is a professional graduate school at Harvard University, located at Gund Hall, Massachusetts. The GSD offers masters and doctoral programs in architecture, landscape architecture, urban planning, urban design, real estate, design engineering, design studies; the GSD has over 13,000 alumni and has graduated many famous architects, urban planners, landscape architects. The school is considered a global academic leader in the design fields; the GSD has the world's oldest landscape architecture program, North America's oldest urban planning program. Architecture courses were first taught at Harvard University in 1874; the Graduate School of Design was established in 1936, combining the three fields of architecture, urban planning, landscape architecture under one graduate school. The market value of the school's endowment for the fiscal year 2016 was $428 million. Charles Eliot Norton brought the first architecture classes to Harvard University in 1874. In 1900, the first urban planning courses were taught at Harvard University, by 1909, urban planning courses taught by James Sturgis Pray were added into Harvard's design curriculum as part of the landscape architecture department.
In 1923, North America's first urban planning degree was established at Harvard. In 1980, the program was temporarily moved to the Harvard Kennedy School of Government until it returned to the GSD in 1984. In 1893, the nation's first professional course in landscape architecture was offered at Harvard University. In 1900, the world's first landscape architecture program was established by Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. and Arthur A. Shurcliff; the School of Landscape Architecture was established in 1913. The three major design professions were united in 1936 to form the Harvard Graduate School of Design. In 1937, Walter Gropius joined the GSD faculty as chair of the Department of Architecture and brought modern designers, including Marcel Breuer to help revamp the curriculum. In 1960, Josep Lluís Sert established the nation's first Urban Design program. George Gund Hall, the present iconic home GSD, opened in 1972 and was designed by Australian architect and GSD graduate John Andrews; the school's now defunct Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis is recognized as the research/development environment from which the now-commercialized technology of geographic information systems emerged in the late 1960s and 1970s.
More recent research initiatives include the Design Robotics Group, a unit that investigates new material systems and fabrication technologies in the context of architectural design and construction. The degrees granted in the masters programs include the Master of Architecture, Master in Landscape Architecture, Master of Architecture in Urban Design, Master of Landscape Architecture in Urban Design, Master in Urban Planning, Master in Design Engineering, Master in Design Studies in more than eight concentrations; the school offers a doctoral degree, Doctor of Design, jointly administers a Doctor of Philosophy degree in architecture, urban planning, landscape architecture with the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Master of Architecture Master in Urban Planning Master of Landscape Architecture Master of Architecture in Urban Design Master in Design Engineering Master of Landscape Architecture in Urban Design Master in Design Studies with distinct concentrations:Art and the Public Domain Critical Conservation Energy and Environments History and Philosophy of Design Real Estate and the Built Environment Risk and Resilience Technology Urbanism, Ecology Doctor of Design Doctor of Philosophy in Architecture, Urban Planning, Landscape Architecture As of 2016, the program's ten-year average ranking, places it 1st, overall, on DesignIntelligence's ranking of programs accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board.
Executive Education operates within GSD providing continuing education classes, they are located at 7 Sumner Rd. Advanced Management Development Program in Real Estate is a six-week executive development course; the program is open to established professionals with 15+ years of experience in real estate. Upon graduating from AMDP, participants are full-fledged Harvard University Alumni; as of 2013, AMDP is in its 13th year. The other large program organized by Executive Education is summer Open Enrollment. In 2013, Executive Education held 18 classes throughout the month of July; each class lasts from 1 to 3 days and is eligible for continuing education credits through American Institute of Architects, American Society of Landscape Architects and/or American Planning Association. Open Enrollment classes are open to everyone; as of 2012–2013, there were 878 students enrolled. 362 students or 42% were enrolled in architecture, 182 students or 21% in landscape architecture, 161 students or 18% in urban planning, 173 students or 20% in doctoral or design studies programs.
65% of students were Americans. The average student is 27 years old. GSD students are represented by the Harvard Graduate Council, the main university-wide student government organization. There are several dozen internal GSD student clubs. In addition to its degree programs, the GSD administers the Loeb Fellowship, numerous research initiatives such as the Zofnass Program for Sustainable Infrastructure; the school publishes the bi-annual Harvard Design Magazine and other design books and studio work
S,M,L,XL is a book by Rem Koolhaas and Bruce Mau, edited by Jennifer Sigler, with photography by Hans Werlemann. The book was first published by Monacelli Press in 1995 in 010 Publishers in Rotterdam; this enormous, 1376-page-long book is a collection of essays, diary excerpts, photographs, architectural plans, cartoons produced by Office for Metropolitan Architecture in the twenty years prior to publication. O. M. A. is a Rotterdam-based company founded by Koolhaas in 1975. The second edition was published in 1997, printed and bound in Italy, has the name Rem Koolhaas printed in orange ink on the cover unlike the original, printed in yellow; the third, special edition was published in December 1998, printed and bound in Italy, has the name Rem Koolhaas printed in blue ink on the cover. The book weighs 6 pounds; the book became popular, selling all the 30,000 copies of the first edition within months while it was counterfeited in China. The second edition printed in 70,000 copies has been subsequently exhausted as well.
Disneyland with the Death Penalty, an article on Singapore critiqued by Koolhaas in the book
Rotterdam is the second-largest city and a municipality of the Netherlands. It is located in the province of South Holland, at the mouth of the Nieuwe Maas channel leading into the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta at the North Sea, its history goes back to 1270, when a dam was constructed in the Rotte, after which people settled around it for safety. In 1340, Rotterdam was granted city rights by the Count of Holland. A major logistic and economic centre, Rotterdam is Europe's largest port, it has a population of 633,471. Rotterdam is known for its Erasmus University, its riverside setting, lively cultural life and maritime heritage; the near-complete destruction of the city centre in the World War II Rotterdam Blitz has resulted in a varied architectural landscape, including sky-scrapers designed by renowned architects such as Rem Koolhaas, Piet Blom and Ben van Berkel. The Rhine and Scheldt give waterway access into the heart of Western Europe, including the industrialized Ruhr; the extensive distribution system including rail and waterways have earned Rotterdam the nicknames "Gateway to Europe" and "Gateway to the World".
The settlement at the lower end of the fen stream Rotte dates from at least 900 CE. Around 1150, large floods in the area ended development, leading to the construction of protective dikes and dams, including Schielands Hoge Zeedijk along the northern banks of the present-day Nieuwe Maas. A dam on the Rotte was located at the present-day Hoogstraat. On 7 July 1340, Count Willem IV of Holland granted city rights to Rotterdam, whose population was only a few thousand. Around the year 1350, a shipping canal, the Rotterdamse Schie was completed, which provided Rotterdam access to the larger towns in the north, allowing it to become a local trans-shipment centre between the Netherlands and Germany, to urbanize; the port of Rotterdam grew but into a port of importance, becoming the seat of one of the six "chambers" of the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie, the Dutch East India Company. The greatest spurt of growth, both in port activity and population, followed the completion of the Nieuwe Waterweg in 1872.
The city and harbor started to expand on the south bank of the river. The Witte Huis or White House skyscraper, inspired by American office buildings and built in 1898 in the French Château-style, is evidence of Rotterdam's rapid growth and success; when completed, it was the tallest office building in Europe, with a height of 45 m. During World War I the city was the world's largest spy centre because of Dutch neutrality and its strategic location in between Great-Britain and German-occupied Belgium. Many spies who were arrested and executed in Britain were led by German secret agents operating from Rotterdam. MI6 had its main European office on de Boompjes. From there the British occupied Belgium. During World War I, an average of 25,000 Belgian refugees lived in the city, as well as hundreds of German deserters and escaped Allied prisoners of war. During World War II, the German army invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940. Adolf Hitler had hoped to conquer the country in just one day, but his forces met unexpectedly fierce resistance.
The Dutch army was forced to capitulate on 15 May 1940, following the bombing of Rotterdam on 14 May and the threat of bombing of other Dutch cities. The heart of Rotterdam was completely destroyed by the Luftwaffe; some 80,000 civilians were made homeless and 900 were killed. The City Hall survived the bombing. Ossip Zadkine attempted to capture the event with his statue De Verwoeste Stad; the statue stands near the Leuvehaven, not far from the Erasmusbrug in the centre of the city, on the north shore of the river Nieuwe Maas. Rotterdam was rebuilt from the 1950s through to the 1970s, it remained quite windy and open until the city councils from the 1980s on began developing an active architectural policy. Daring and new styles of apartments, office buildings and recreation facilities resulted in a more'livable' city centre with a new skyline. In the 1990s, the Kop van Zuid was built on the south bank of the river as a new business centre. Rotterdam was voted 2015 European City of the Year by the Academy of Urbanism.
A Guardian profile of Rem Koolhaas begins "If you put the last 50 years of architecture in a blender, spat it out in building-sized chunks across the skyline, you would end up with something that looked a bit like Rotterdam."'Rotterdam' is divided into a northern and a southern part by the river Nieuwe Maas, connected by: the Beneluxtunnel. The former railway lift bridge De Hef is preserved as a monument in lifted position between the Noordereiland and the south of Rotterdam; the city centre is located on the northern bank of the Nieuwe Maas, although recent urban development has extended the centre to parts of southern Rotterdam known as De Kop van Zuid. From its inland core, Rotterdam reaches the North Sea by a swathe of predominantly harbour area. Built behind di
Remment Lucas "Rem" Koolhaas is a Dutch architect, architectural theorist and Professor in Practice of Architecture and Urban Design at the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University. Koolhaas studied at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London and at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Koolhaas is the founding partner of OMA, of its research-oriented counterpart AMO based in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. In 2005, he co-founded Volume Magazine together with Ole Bouman, he is regarded as one of the most important architectural thinkers and urbanists of his generation. In 2000, Rem Koolhaas won the Pritzker Prize. In 2008, Time put him in their top 100 of The World's Most Influential People. Remment Koolhaas abbreviated to Rem Koolhaas, was born on 17 November 1944 in Rotterdam, Netherlands, to Anton Koolhaas and Selinde Pietertje Roosenburg, his father was a novelist and screenwriter. Two documentary films by Bert Haanstra for which his father wrote the scenarios were nominated for an Academy Award for Documentary Feature, one won a Golden Bear for Short Film.
His maternal grandfather, Dirk Roosenburg, was a modernist architect who worked for Hendrik Petrus Berlage, before opening his own practice. Rem Koolhaas has a brother, a sister, Annabel, his paternal cousin was urban planner Teun Koolhaas. The family lived consecutively in Rotterdam, Amsterdam and Amsterdam, his father supported the Indonesian cause for autonomy from the colonial Dutch in his writing. When the war of independence was won, he was invited over to run a cultural programme for three years and the family moved to Jakarta in 1952. "It was a important age for me," Koolhaas recalls "and I lived as an Asian."In 1969, Koolhaas co-wrote The White Slave, a Dutch film noir, wrote an unproduced script for American soft-porn king Russ Meyer. He was a journalist for the Haagse Post before starting studies, in 1968, in architecture at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London, followed, in 1972, by further studies with Oswald Mathias Ungers at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, followed by studies at the Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies in New York City.
Koolhaas first came to public and critical attention with OMA, the office he founded in 1975 together with architects Elia Zenghelis, Zoe Zenghelis and Madelon Vriesendorp in London. They were joined by one of Koolhaas's students, Zaha Hadid – who would soon go on to achieve success in her own right. An early work which would mark their difference from the dominant postmodern classicism of the late 1970s, was their contribution to the Venice Biennale of 1980, curated by Italian architect Paolo Portoghesi, titled "Presence of the Past"; each architect had to design a stage-like "frontage" to a Potemkin-type internal street. Other early critically received projects included the Parc de la Villette and the residence for the Prime Minister of Ireland, as well as the Kunsthal in Rotterdam; these schemes would attempt to put into practice many of the findings Koolhaas made in his book Delirious New York, written while he was a visiting scholar at the Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies in New York, directed by Peter Eisenman.
In September 2006, Rem Koolhaas was commissioned to develop 111 First Street in Jersey City across the Hudson River from Manhattan, working with real estate developer Louis Dubin. In October 2008, Rem Koolhaas was invited for a European "group of the wise" under the chairmanship of former Spanish prime minister Felipe González to help'design' the future European Union. Other members include Nokia chairman Jorma Ollila, former European Commissioner Mario Monti and former president of Poland Lech Wałęsa. Koolhaas's book Delirious. Koolhaas celebrates the "chance-like" nature of city life: "The City is an addictive machine from which there is no escape" "Rem Koolhaas...defined the city as a collection of “red hot spots.”. As Koolhaas himself has acknowledged, this approach had been evident in the Japanese Metabolist Movement in the 1960s and early 1970s. A key aspect of architecture that Koolhaas interrogates is the "Program": with the rise of modernism in the 20th century the "Program" became the key theme of architectural design.
The notion of the Program involves "an act to edit function and human activities" as the pretext of architectural design: epitomised in the maxim Form follows function, first popularised by architect Louis Sullivan at the beginning of the 20th century. The notion was first questioned in Delirious New York, in his analysis of high-rise architecture in Manhattan. An early design method derived from such thinking was "cross-programming", introducing unexpected functions in room programmes, such as running tracks in skyscrapers. More Koolhaas unsuccessfully proposed the inclusion of hospital units for the homeless into the Seattle Public Library project; the next landmark publication by Koolhaas was S,M,L,XL, together with Bruce Mau, Jennifer Sigler, Hans Werlemann, a 1376-page tome combining essays, diaries, fiction and meditations on the contemporary city. The layout of the huge book transformed architectural publishing, such books—full-colour graphics and dense texts—have since become common.
Wilhelmus "Winy" Maas is a Dutch architect, landscape architect and urbanist. In 1993 together with Jacob van Rijs and Nathalie de Vries he set up MVRDV. Early work such as the television centre Villa VPRO and the housing estate for elderly WoZoCo, both in the Netherlands, have brought him international acclaim and established MVRDV’s leading role in international architecture. Winy Maas is married to Mirjam Veldhuizen van Zanten, they live in Rotterdam and have three sons. He completed his studies at the RHSTL Boskoop, graduating as a "landscape architect", in 1990 he got his degree from the Delft University of Technology, he is visiting professor of architectural design at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and is professor in architecture and urban design at the faculty of architecture, Delft University of Technology. Before this he was professor at among Ohio State and Yale University. In 1993, together with Jacob van Rijs and Nathalie de Vries, he founded the MVRDV studio, which produces designs and studies in the fields of architecture, urban studies and landscape design.
The studies on light urbanism for the City of Rotterdam, the headquarters of the Dutch Public Broadcasting Company VPRO and the Wozoco's senior citizens' residences in Amsterdam, which won the J. A. van Eck Prize of the Dutch Architects' Association, have brought MVRDV to the attention of a vast collection of clients, giving the studio international renown. Today, the studio is involved in numerous projects in various parts of the world. MVRDV designed the Dutch pavilion for Expo 2000 in Hanover, the Logrono Eco-City in Spain, the Gyre building in Tokyo and many others. Winy Maas presented a keynote address New solutions for new challenges at the inaugural Holcim Forum, “Basic Needs” at the ETH Zurich in 2004. In addition he designs stage sets and was curator of Indesem 2007, he is member of the research board of Berlage Institute Rotterdam, president of the spatial quality board of Rotterdam and supervisor of the Bjorvika urban development in Oslo. He is professor at the Why Factory, a research institute for the future city he founded in 2008, part of the Faculty of Architecture of the Delft University of Technology FARMAX ISBN 978-90-6450-587-4 Metacity/Datatown ISBN 90-6450-371-0 Reading MVRDV ISBN 978-90-5662-287-9 Spacefighter The evolutionary city game ISBN 978-84-96540-73-6 KM3 Excursions on Capacities ISBN 978-84-95951-85-4 Skycar City ISBN 978-84-96540-58-3 Gonzalo Herrero Delicado.
Mirador Building, Spain: MVRDV and Blanca Lleó 2005. - Galinsky, 2006 Orlandoni, Alessandra "Interview with Winy Maas" - The Plan 013, March 2006 Frey, Darcy "Crowded House" - The New York Times Magazine, June 8, 2008 Official website photo gallery: mvrdv projects Mirador building, Madrid