The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening. According to the instrument classification of Hornbostel–Sachs, flutes are categorized as edge-blown aerophones. A musician who plays the flute can be referred to as a flute player, flutist or, less fluter or flutenist. Flutes are the earliest extant musical instruments, as paleolithic instruments with hand-bored holes have been found. A number of flutes dating to about 43,000 to 35,000 years ago have been found in the Swabian Jura region of present-day Germany; these flutes demonstrate that a developed musical tradition existed from the earliest period of modern human presence in Europe. The word flute first entered the English language during the Middle English period, as floute, or else flowte, flote from Old French flaute and from Old Provençal flaüt, or else from Old French fleüte, flaüte, flahute via Middle High German floite or Dutch fluit.
The English verb flout has the same linguistic root, the modern Dutch verb fluiten still shares the two meanings. Attempts to trace the word back to the Latin flare have been pronounced "phonologically impossible" or "inadmissable"; the first known use of the word flute was in the 14th century. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, this was in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Hous of Fame, c.1380. Today, a musician who plays any instrument in the flute family can be called a flutist, or flautist, or a flute player. Flutist dates back to at least 1603, the earliest quotation cited by the Oxford English Dictionary. Flautist was used in 1860 by Nathaniel Hawthorne in The Marble Faun, after being adopted during the 18th century from Italy, like many musical terms in England since the Italian Renaissance. Other English terms, now obsolete, are fluter and flutenist; the oldest flute discovered may be a fragment of the femur of a juvenile cave bear, with two to four holes, found at Divje Babe in Slovenia and dated to about 43,000 years ago.
However, this has been disputed. In 2008 another flute dated back to at least 35,000 years ago was discovered in Hohle Fels cave near Ulm, Germany; the five-holed flute is made from a vulture wing bone. The researchers involved in the discovery published their findings in the journal Nature, in August 2009; the discovery was the oldest confirmed find of any musical instrument in history, until a redating of flutes found in Geißenklösterle cave revealed them to be older with an age of 42,000 to 43,000 years. The flute, one of several found, was found in the Hohle Fels cavern next to the Venus of Hohle Fels and a short distance from the oldest known human carving. On announcing the discovery, scientists suggested that the "finds demonstrate the presence of a well-established musical tradition at the time when modern humans colonized Europe". Scientists have suggested that the discovery of the flute may help to explain "the probable behavioural and cognitive gulf between" Neanderthals and early modern human.
A three-holed flute, 18.7 cm long, made from a mammoth tusk was discovered in 2004, two flutes made from swan bones excavated a decade earlier are among the oldest known musical instruments. A playable 9,000-year-old Gudi was excavated from a tomb in Jiahu along with 29 defunct twins, made from the wing bones of red-crowned cranes with five to eight holes each, in the Central Chinese province of Henan; the earliest extant Chinese transverse flute is a chi flute discovered in the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng at the Suizhou site, Hubei province, China. It dates from 433 BC, of the Zhou Dynasty, it is fashioned of lacquered bamboo with closed ends and has five stops that are at the flute's side instead of the top. Chi flutes are mentioned in Shi Jing and edited by Confucius, according to tradition; the earliest written reference to a flute is from a Sumerian-language cuneiform tablet dated to c. 2600–2700 BCE. Flutes are mentioned in a translated tablet of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem whose development spanned the period of 2100–600 BCE.
Additionally, a set of cuneiform tablets knows as the "musical texts" provide precise tuning instructions for seven scale of a stringed instrument. One of those scales is named embūbum, an Akkadian word for "flute"; the Bible, in Genesis 4:21, cites Jubal as being the "father of all those who play the ugab and the kinnor". The former Hebrew term is believed by some to refer to some wind instrument, or wind instruments in general, the latter to a stringed instrument, or stringed instruments in general; as such, Jubal is regarded in the Judeo-Christian tradition as the inventor of the flute. Elsewhere in the Bible, the flute is referred to as "chalil", in particular in 1 Samuel 10:5, 1 Kings 1:40, Isaiah 5:12 and 30:29, Jeremiah 48:36. Archeological digs in the Holy Land have discovered flutes from both the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, the latter era "witness the creation of the Israelite kingdom and its separation into the two kingdoms of Israel and Judea."Some early flutes were made out of tibias.
Singin' in the Rain (musical)
Singin' in the Rain is a musical with a book by Betty Comden and Adolph Green, lyrics by Arthur Freed, music by Nacio Herb Brown. Adapted from the 1952 movie of the same name, the plot adheres to the original. Set in Hollywood in the waning days of the silent screen era, it focuses on romantic lead Don Lockwood, his sidekick Cosmo Brown, aspiring actress Kathy Selden, Lockwood's leading lady Lina Lamont, whose less-than-dulcet vocal tones make her an unlikely candidate for stardom in talking pictures; the original West End production, directed by Tommy Steele and choreographed by Peter Gennaro, opened on June 30, 1983 at the London Palladium, where it ran until September 1985. The original cast included Steele as Don, Roy Castle as Cosmo, Danielle Carson as Kathy, Sarah Payne as Lina and Julia; the original film's vocal score was embellished with additional tunes by Comden and Roger Edens, Dorothy Fields and Jimmy McHugh and Ira Gershwin, Johnny Mercer and Richard Whiting, Cole Porter. Singin' in the Rain opened on Broadway at the Gershwin Theatre on July 2, 1985 and closed on May 18, 1986 after 367 performances and 38 previews.
Directed and choreographed by Twyla Tharp, the scenic design was by Santo Loquasto, costume design by Ann Roth, lighting design by Jennifer Tipton. The cast included Don Correia as Don, Mary D'Arcy as Kathy, Peter Slutsker as Cosmo, Faye Grant as Lina; the musical was revamped. The 1983 London Palladium production was remounted in 1994 for an extensive tour of the United Kingdom, which ran until December 1995; the new production, again directed by Steele, starred Paul Nicholas as Don, Shona Lindsay as Kathy, Tony Howes as Cosmo with Sarah Payne reprising her role as Lina from the original cast. Supporting cast included Mark Donovan. A new production of the musical was staged at the Olivier Theatre, from June 2, 2000 to July 20, 2000 and again from December 18, 2000 to January 27, 2001; this production was a transfer from the West Yorkshire production, which ran from December 1999 to February 2000. The cast featured Zoe Hart as Kathy, Rebecca Thornhill as Lina, Paul Robinson as Don; the direction was by Jude Kelly, choreography was by Stephen Mear.
Thornhill received an Olivier Award nomination for her performance. The musical played at Sadler's Wells Theatre from July 29, 2004 to September 4, 2004, with direction by Paul Kerryson and choreography by Adam Cooper, who played the lead role of Don Lockwood. Cooper's choreography was nominated for the 2004 Critic's Circle National Dance award; the show transferred to Leicester Haymarket. The show was revived at the 2011 Chichester Festival Theatre, starring Adam Cooper, Daniel Crossley and Scarlett Strallen, it was choreographed by Andrew Wright, nominated for an Olivier Award and won the WhatsOnStage award for his work. The show received positive reviews, transferred to London's West End, at the Palace Theatre, in February 2012, where Cooper and Strallen all reprised their roles. From 18 February 2013 the role of Kathy Selden was played by Louise Bowden; the production closed on 8 June 2013. A cast recording of Singin' in the Rain was issued in 2012; the same production, with Adam Cooper, played in November 2014 in Japan.
The rain,which first appeared it the Chichester Production, was designed and installed by specialists Water Sculptures Limited and the rain system features in the show's ongoing Pan Asia tour and the Moscow 2015 production. A UK tour followed the show closing on the West End starting on November 9 at the Manchester Opera House; the Théâtre du Châtelet in Paris presented a new production from March 12–26, 2015, again from November 27 to January 17, 2016, directed by Robert Carsen, choreography by Stephen Mear, costumes by Anthony Powell. This production had been moving to Broadway in 2016. Playbill reported that the "Broadway cast will be a combination of new and existing cast members from the Châtelet staging." No further details were announced. This production faithfully reproduces the dialogue and action of the film, with its songs by Nacio Herb Brown and Arthur Freed, its famous splash-in-the-puddles, rain-drenched dance solo for Gene Kelly. A different production appeared on Broadway in 1985.
The New York Times reported in November 2015 that the Théâtre du Châtelet production would transfer to Broadway in the fall of 2016, produced by Weinstein Live Entertainment. However, the musical's opening on Broadway was delayed in 2016 "due to a lack of available theaters". In October 2017, Playbill reported that the Théâtre du Châtelet had informed the magazine that a Broadway transfer produced by Weinstein Live Entertainment would not take place. Don Lockwood is a silent film star with humble roots as a musician and stunt man. Don tolerates his vapid leading lady, Lina Lamont, convinced that their screen romance is real, although Don tries to tell her otherwise. After the first talking picture, The Jazz Singer, proves to be a smash hit, the head of the studio, R. F. Simpson, decides he has no choice but to convert the new Lockwood and Lamont film, The Dueling Cavalier, into a talkie; the production is beset with by far the worst being Lina's comically grating voice. After a disastrous test screening, Don's best friend, Cosmo Brown, comes up with the idea to overdub Lina's voice and they convince Simpson to turn The Dueling Cavalier into The Dancing Cavalier, a musical comedy film.
Meanwhile, Don falls in love with an aspiring actress, Kathy Selden, providing the voice for Lina. When Lina finds out, she does everything possible to sabotage the romance. She
BookCrossing is defined as "the practice of leaving a book in a public place to be picked up and read by others, who do likewise." The term is derived from bookcrossing.com, a free online book club, founded to encourage the practice, aiming to "make the whole world a library." The "crossing" or exchanging of books may take any of a number of forms, including wild-releasing books in public, direct swaps with other members of the websites, or "book rings" in which books travel in a set order to participants who want to read a certain book. The community aspect of BookCrossing.com has grown and expanded in ways that were not expected at the outset, in the form of blog or forum discussions, mailing lists and annual conventions throughout the world. Leaving reading materials in public places when no longer needed has long been a silent means of communication and sociability amongst bibliophiles. Ron Hornbaker conceived the idea for what is now known as BookCrossing in March 2001 and enlisted business partners and co-founders Bruce and Heather Pedersen to launch BookCrossing.com on April 21, 2001.
After two years the website had over 113,000 members and by 2004 it was prominent enough to be referenced in an episode of the Australian soap opera Neighbours. The same year it appeared as a new word in the Concise Oxford Dictionary, although as of 2017 only Collins of the major online dictionaries retained it as a word. Membership surpassed 1,000,000 by March 2012 and the registered book count exceeded 8,500,000. By 2017, there were over 1.7 million members and over 11.7 million books travelling through 132 countries. In July 2007 Singapore became the first country to give the practice official status, designating 2,000 locations in the country as'hotspots', similar to Official BookCrossing Zones, in an initiative launched with the National Library of Singapore; the world's first official International BookCrossing Day took place on 21 April 2014. In May 2005 BookCrossing.com won two People's Voice awards in the Webby Awards for best community website and best social/networking website. BookCrossing was featured in a BBC Radio project broadcast as 84 Book Crossing Road, which involved releasing 84 copies of Helene Hanff's book 84 Charing Cross Road around the world.
The programme was nominated for a Sony Radio Academy Award in 2006. Anyone who wishes to participate in "releasing" books, whether leaving it in a public place or passing it on to a friend, may register on the BookCrossing.com website, although there is the option to remain anonymous when "catching" or recording the find of a book. BookCrossing.com users can'go hunting', where a member will go to the website to view a list of books that have been "released" go to the location it was left to "catch" it. Books may be left at "Official BookCrossing Zones", which are located in certain coffee shops, cafes and other public places; the purpose of these locations is to get current members in the area to leave books to share with the public. This advertises BookCrossing and creates more members. There is a BookCrossing anniversary convention every April, where BookCrossers go to enjoy organized literary-related events and release books together; the location of the convention changes each year: Here is a list of past and forthcoming conventions: Many unofficial conventions or "unconventions" take place at other locations and times throughout the year, making it easier for BookCrossers who cannot travel internationally for the convention to gather and share their love of books.
In 2003, BookCrossing was criticized by the astrologer and novelist Jessica Adams, who claimed that books were being "devalued" by the website as BookCrossing could lead to lower sales of books and, the reduction in royalties being paid to authors. Most BookCrossers dispute this argument, however, they claim that the website introduces readers to authors and genres that they have not read before, that the website encourages more people to take up or reclaim reading as a hobby, that some members, having read a book that they have enjoyed, will buy extra copies to distribute through BookCrossing. In March 2005, Caroline Martin, managing director of the publisher Harper Press, said in a speech that "book publishing as a whole has its own potential Napster crisis in the growing practice of bookcrossing". BookCrossers rebutted the link to Napster, saying that while music filesharing involves duplicating audio files countless times, BookCrossing doesn't involve duplicating books; the founder of BookCrossing, Ron Hornbaker wondered if people would make this comparison when BookCrossing was first launched.
Richard Bach R J Ellory Jim Hawkins Book swapping: contains a list of other book-swapping websites Book sales club Give-away shop Library Gift economy Postcrossing Public bookcase Reuse Sharing BookCrossing.com
Tim Tam is a brand of chocolate biscuit made by the Australian biscuit company Arnott's. It consists of two malted biscuits separated by a light chocolate cream filling and coated in a thin layer of textured chocolate; the biscuit was created by Ian Norris, the director of food technology at Arnott's. During 1958, he took a world trip looking for inspiration for new products. While in Britain, he found the Penguin biscuit and decided to "make a better one". Tim Tam went on to the market in 1964, they were named by Ross Arnott, who attended the 1958 Kentucky Derby and decided that the name of the winning horse, Tim Tam, was perfect for a planned new line of biscuits. Apart from Penguins, products similar to Tim Tams include "Temptins" from Dick Smith Foods, New Zealand's "Chit Chats", Australian Woolworths' home brand product "Choccy Slams", the Coles Supermarkets' brand "Chocolate Surrenders" biscuits, various similar "home-brand" products marketed by British supermarkets. In 2003, Arnott's sued Dick Smith Foods over their Temptin' brand of chocolate biscuits, which Arnott's alleged had diluted their trademark as a similar biscuit, in similarly-designed packaging.
The case was settled out of court. Pepperidge Farm, a sister company of Arnott's, began importing the Tim Tam to the United States of America in 2008; the Tim Tams are still "Made in Australia" and packaging in the United States bears the slogan "Australia's Favorite Biscuits." In 2017, an additional flavour, dark chocolate-mint, was produced for and introduced only in the American market. The Tim Tam Slam is the practice of drinking a cold beverage through a Tim Tam. Opposite corners of the Tim Tam are bitten off, one end is submerged in the beverage, the beverage is sucked through the biscuit - as though the Tim Tam itself were a straw; the crisp interior biscuit is softened and the outer chocolate coating begins to melt, at which point the biscuit is eaten. The Tim Tam Slam can be performed with cold beverages; the Arnott's company used the name Tim Tam Suck in a 2002 advertising campaign. The original Arnott's bakery, opened in 1865, was located in New South Wales. To date, manufacture of Tim Tams and other Arnott's products has remained within Australia, including bakeries in Sydney and Brisbane.
In 2009, Arnott's invested 37 million Australian dollars in a state-of-the-art production line at its Brisbane facility, expecting to boost productivity and increase jobs. At the Huntingwood bakery in Western Sydney, the production line turns out about 3,000 Tim Tams per minute and uses 20 tons of the biscuit's cream filling and 27 tons of chocolate coating each work day. Biscuit dough, containing sugar, flour and flavours, is mixed for 20 minutes. Biscuits are cut to 1mm thick, 11 holes are punched per biscuit and they are baked in gas ovens for 90 minutes. Freezing air cools the biscuits before they are flipped and filled with cream, dunked in chocolate and cooled again. In the 2000s Arnott's sold different varieties of the product. Varieties include dark chocolate, white chocolate, dark chocolate mint and choc orange. In 2004, Arnott's caused a controversy when they released limited edition Tim Tam Tia Maria and Kahlua Mint Slice varieties, flavoured with the popular alcoholic liqueurs; the Australian Drug Foundation suggested selling the biscuits in supermarkets was "potentially dangerous" by "normalising" the taste of alcohol for children.
An Arnott's spokesperson observed that a customer "would need to consume your body weight of biscuits every hour to reach a blood-alcohol content of.05". Tim Tam chocolate sandwich biscuits are manufactured in Indonesia by Halo Arnotts. A cheese flavour of Tim Tams has been developed for the Indonesian market. In February 2014, Arnott's launched a limited edition range of three new Tim Tam flavours created by renowned Australian dessert chef Adriano Zumbo: salted caramel, choc brownie and raspberry white choc. Point of sale displays featured Zumbo pink in contrast to traditional chocolate brown Tim Tam brand colours. Red Velvet was the fourth Zumbo Tim Tam creation, launched in July 2014. In July 2014, Arnott's launched peanut butter flavoured Tim Tams. Arnott's was awarded a Shonky award for the offering, which did not contain peanuts and included two fewer biscuits than the original variety Tim Tam packet. During the Valentine's Day period of 2015, Arnott's launched Choc Raspberry and Coconut Cream flavours, again collaborating with Zumbo.
In October 2015, Arnott's launched Tim Tam Choc Banana. A limited edition'mocktail' Tim Tam range was launched in February 2016 with piña colada, espresso martini and strawberry champagne variants. Arnott's told media in May 2016 that sales of the Tim Tam mocktail range had not met their expectations. Arnott's introduced toffee apple and pineapple flavours to the market in June 2016. In October 2016 they added a mango variety to the range, in February 2017 they launched four new flavours—choc mint, salted caramel & vanilla, coconut & lychee and black forest—in partnership with Gelato Messina. In the United States, the original, dark chocolate, dark chocolate mint, caramel varieties are available for sale. Tim Tams are a discounted product in Australia's main supermarkets Coles and Woolworths. In late 2015, media reported that Coles was attempting to resist price rises to Tim Tam and other Arnott's products; when Coles refused the cost increase, Arnott's refused to supply the chain for two weeks.
In the 1990s, Arnott's cast N'fa as a wish-granting genie and Cate Blanchett as the lucky recipient of those wishes, who asks for "a packet of Tim Tams that never runs out". In October 2006
CLIC Sargent is a charity in the United Kingdom formed in 2005. CLIC Sargent is the UK's leading cancer charity for young people and their families, its care teams provide specialist support across the UK. CLIC Sargent supports people from diagnosis onwards and aims to help the whole family deal with the impact of cancer and its treatment, life after treatment and, in some cases, bereavement; the charity undertakes research into the impact of cancer on children and young people. It uses this evidence to raise awareness and to seek to influence government and policy-makers, those who provide public services across the UK. CLIC Sargent was formed in 2005 after a successful merger between Cancer and Leukaemia in Childhood and Sargent Cancer Care for Children. CLIC Sargent's chief executive is Kate Lee, who took over from Lorraine Clifton in December 2015. CLIC Sargent's main fundraising and awareness event is Childhood Cancer Awareness Month in September. People fundraise through runs and other events.
Corporate partners working with CLIC Sargent: Previous corporate partners include, ITV Text Santa, Chelsea FC, HMV and Virgin Trains West Coast. Virgin Trains West Coast have named Pendolino 390047 CLIC Sargent in honour of the charity. Colas Rail have done the same by naming locomotive 60087 CLIC Sargent. Children With Leukaemia Leukaemia & Lymphoma Research The Neuroblastoma Society Neuroblastoma Children's Cancer Alliance UK Leonora Children's Cancer FundGeneral: Cancer in the United Kingdom Charity Commission. CLIC Sargent, registered charity no. 1107328. CLIC Sargent website
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti