Christian Jürgensen Thomsen
Christian Jürgensen Thomsen was a Danish antiquarian who developed early archaeological techniques and methods. In 1816 he was appointed head of'antiquarian' collections which developed into the National Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen. While organizing and classifying the antiquities for exhibition, he decided to present them chronologically according to the three-age system. Other scholars had proposed that prehistory had advanced from an age of stone tools, to ages of tools made from bronze and iron, but these proposals were presented as systems of evolution, which did not allow dating of artifacts. Thomsen refined the three-age system as a chronological system by seeing which artifacts occurred with which other artifacts in closed finds. In this way, he was the first to establish an evidence-based division of prehistory into discrete periods; this achievement led to his being credited as the originator of the three-age system of European antiquity. Thomsen wrote one of the first systematic treatises on gold bracteates of the Migration period.
Thomsen's study of artifacts within the Copenhagen museum were based on associations between stylistic change and context. His results were published in the Ledetraad til Nordisk Oldkyndighed in 1836. An English translation was produced in 1848. Christian Jurgensen Thomsen was born in Copenhagen in 1788 into a wealthy merchant family; as a young man he visited Paris and, once he had returned to Denmark, became interested in coin collecting. This may have helped him develop his awareness of stylistic change through time. In 1816 Thomsen was selected to curate Danish Royal Commission for the Collection and Preservation of Antiquities' first exhibition; as the post was unsalaried, Thomsen's independent means and his experience as a collector of coins were his primary qualifications. He knew of the three-age model of prehistory through the works of Lucretius, Vedel Simonsen and Mahudel, decided to sort the material in the collection chronologically. Before Thomsen, this might have been done by mechanically sorting the materials according to their materials or the level of craftsmanship they displayed, but as the provenance of many of the materials were known, he could see that crude artifacts were sometimes found with fine ones and metal artifacts with artifacts of stone.
Rather than take a simple technological or evolutionary approach, he realized that the task was to determine in which periods the artifacts had been made. Thomsen decided to map out which kinds of phenomena co-occurred in deposits and which did not, as this would allow him to discern any trends that were exclusive to certain periods. In this way he discovered that stone tools were found in connection with amber, glass beads, whereas bronze was found with both iron and gold, but silver was only found in connection with iron, he found that bronze weapons did not occur with iron artifacts - so that each period could be defined by its preferred cutting material. He found that the types of grave goods varied between burial types: stone tools were found with uncremated corpses and stone-chamber tombs, bronze weapons and lurs in relation to stone-schist graves, iron with chamber tombs in barrows; when detractors asked rhetorically why there was no ”glass age,” Thomsen responded that glass beads were found in all three periods, but bowls of glass only in the Iron Age.
To Thomsen the find circumstances were the key to dating. As early as 1821, he wrote in a letter to fellow antiquarian Schröder that, ”othing is more important than to point out that hitherto we have not paid enough attention to what was found together,” and, the next year, that ” still do not know enough about most of the antiquities either … only future archaeologists may be able to decide, but they will never be able to do so if they do not observe what things are found together and our collections are not brought to a greater degree of perfection.”This analysis emphasizing coöcurrence and systematic attention to archaeological context allowed Thomsen to build a chronological framework of the materials in the collection and to classify new finds in relation to the established chronology without much knowledge of its provenience. In this way, Thomsen's system was a true chronological system rather than an evolutionary or technological system, his chronology was established by 1825, visitors to the museum were instructed in his methods.
Thomsen published journal articles and pamphlets in which he emphasized the importance of the find circumstances for interpretation and dating. In 1836, he published the illustrated monograph Guide to Northern Antiquity, in which he described his chronology together with comments about which things occurred together in finds. Like previous antiquarians, such as Winckelmann, Thomsen paid attention to stylistic analysis as well, but he used his chronological framework as evidence that stylistic developments had taken place, not the other way round. Thomsen may have been able to make his early advances in the development of archaeology because he had such a wide variety of material to review, consisting of collective finds from a large homogeneous culture area, he was the first to develop it into a chronological system rather than a speculative evolutionary model. Thomsen was an important influence on subsequent generations of prehistorians in Scandinavia, he taught his methods to archaeologists such as J. J. A. Worsaae and Bror Emil Hildebrand and Oscar Montelius.
He importantly influenced and was inf
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica
Hagestedgaard is a manor house and estate located at the village of Hagested, near Holbæk, Holbæk Municipality, some 60 kilometres west of Copenhagen, Denmark. The estate traces its history back to the 13th century but the current asymmetrical complex of single-storey, white-washed buildings surrounding a central courtyard was constructed for Hans Didrik Brinck-Seidelin in 1747 with the exception of the remains of a tower built by Johan Friis in 1555; the estate has been owned by members of the Castenskiold family since 1769. Hagestedgård is first mentioned in the Danish Census Book from 1230 when it was owned by the Crown and known as "Hakastæthe", It is only mentioned sporadically during the following centuries but the estate served as a field. Vassals included Peder Jensen Pilegrim in 1347, Markvard Tiinhuus in 1502 and Otte Tiinhuus in 1521 and 1540. In 1540, Hagestedgaard was granted to chancellor Johan Friis in exchange for property in Odsherred and the estate was at the same time expanded with land from the shut-down village of Orderup.
Friis was for many years one of the most influential men in the country. Through marriage, the estate was transferred from the Friis family to the Huitfeldts, it was passed on to Henrik Thott through his marriage to a daughter of Henrik Huitfeldt. The ravages and looting of Swedish troops during the Dano-Swedish War economically ruined Thott. In 1663, he had to sell Hagestedgård to Thomas Bartholin. Bartholin, just 44 years old at the time, retired from the university and settled on the estate; the main building and eight farmhouses were destroyed by fire in 1670. Bartholin's vast library and many of his works were lost; as compensation, Christian V granted him tax exemption, contributed with building materials for the rebuilding of the house and appointed him as court physician. Bartholin's son Caspar Bartholin took over the estate after his father's death, he sold the estate to Laurits Jacobsen in 1575 but reacquired it in 1695. Bartholin sold Hagestedgaard, for a second time, to Ursula von Putbus in 1704.
She had become a widow after just one and a half years of marriage to the nobleman Knud Thott in October 1702. Ole Bornamann, a district judge of Zealand and Møn and the owner of Nørager at Kalundborg, purchased the estate in 1709. Peder Benzon, another district judge, acquired the estate in 1712, he purchased Gjeddesdal from his brother Lars Benzon in 1714 and sold Hagestedgaard to him in 1715. Willum Worm, a civil servant and poet, purchased Hagestedgaard from Lars Bentzon in 1725, he sold the estate to Rachel Sophie Marschalk Fletscher in 1727. Hans Seidelin purchased Hagestedgård in 1730. A favourite of the new king Christian VI, he had just been appointed to Post Master-General of the Royal Danish Mail, Director of the Royal Vajsen House and judge at the Hofretten; the purchase of Hagestedgård emphasized his new position in society and he was ennobled the following year. Seidelin's son, Hans Hansen Seidelin, who inherited Hagestedgård in 1740, had no male heirs. After his death, Hagestedgård was therefore endowed to his nephew, Hans Diderik Brinck-Seidelin, with the intention to turn it into a stamhus for future generations of the family.
This happened when Brinck-Seidelin, in 1752, founded Stamhuset Hagested from the estates of Hagestedgaard, Holbæk Ladegård and Eriksholm. Hagestedgaards was, with royal approbation sold in 1769; the new owner was Carl Adolph von Castenschiold. His son, Christian Ludvig Castenschiold sold Hagestedgaard to his cousin Casper Holten Grevencop-Castenschiold in 1825, due to economic difficulties, his son of the same name, who inherited the estate in 1854, sold the tenant farms to the tenants on favourable conditions. He had three daughters. One of the daughters, Severine Jacobine Grevencop-Castenschiold, married the prominent archaeologist Jens Jacob Asmussen Worsaae; the couple lived there for extended periods of time. Worsaae died there in 1885. Grevencop-Castenschiold's widow, Cathrine Marie Louise Grevencop-Castenschiold, née Jensen, kept Hagestedgaard until 1901; the estate was passed on to their son, Casper Holten Jens Peter Grevenkop-Castenskiold. His only child, Addie Grevenkop-Castenskiold, married Baron Wilhelm Lerche, a son of Count Vilhelm Cornelius Magnus Lerche of Birkendegaard, on 19 may 1908.
She inherited Hagestedgaard in 1937. Her only child, Baroness Lerche, born on the estate in 1909, married Frants Hvass, a diplomat, on 17 September 1949, she bought the Hagestedgaard estate from her mother in 1953. She passed the estate on to their son Anders Michael Hvass om 1975, he was a Master of the Hunt. Most of the buildings seen today were built for Hans Didrik Brinck-Seidelin in 1748, it is an asymmetrical complex of single-storey, white-washed buildings surrounding a central courtyard. The buildings are built with timber framing on foundations of fieldstone and have roofs clad with winged, red tile; the main wing is located on the west side of the courtyard and incorporates the remains of a tower and a barrel-vaulted cellar built by Johan Friis in 1555. The tower has a pyramid roof. To the east of the central courtyard are two L-shaped residential wings surrounding an extra courtyard. Two small pavilions with half-hip roofs are located on the north side of the central courtyard; the current owner is Henning Hvass.
The estate covers 555 hectares of land of which 336 hectares are farmland, eng 84 hectares are pastures and 89 hectares are Forest. The Crown Johan Friis Frederik Friis Christian Friis Henrik Huitfeldt Henrik Thott Th
John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury
John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, 4th Baronet, known as Sir John Lubbock, 4th Baronet from 1865 until 1900, was an English banker, Liberal politician, philanthropist and polymath. Lubbock worked in his family company as a banker but made significant contributions in archaeology and several branches of biology, he coined the terms "Palaeolithic" and "Neolithic" to denote the Old and New Stone Ages, respectively. He helped establish archaeology as a scientific discipline, was influential in nineteenth-century debates concerning evolutionary theory, he introduced the first law for the protection of the UK's archaeological and architectural heritage. He was a founding member of the X Club. John Lubbock was born in 1834, the son of Sir John Lubbock, 3rd Baronet, a London banker, was brought up in the family home of High Elms Estate, near Downe in Kent; the family had two homes, one at 29 Eaton Place, Belgrave Square where John was born and another in Mitcham Grove. Lubbock senior had studied mathematics at Cambridge and had written on probability, on astronomy.
A Fellow of the Royal Society, he was keenly involved in the scientific debates of the time apart from serving in the University of London as Vice Chancellor. During 1842 his father brought home a "great piece of news": the young Lubbock said that he thought that the news might be of a new pony, was disappointed to learn it was only that Charles Darwin was moving to Down House in the village; the youth was soon a frequent visitor to Down House, became the closest of Darwin’s younger friends. Their relationship stimulated young Lubbock’s passion for science and evolutionary theory. John's mother, was religious. In 1845, Lubbock began studies at Eton College, after graduation was employed by his father's bank, of which he became a partner at the age of twenty-two. Around 1852 he assisted Darwin's research by illustrating barnacles. In 1865 he succeeded to the baronetcy. In the early 1870s Lubbock became interested in politics. In 1870, again in 1874, he was elected as a Liberal Party Member of Parliament for Maidstone.
He lost the seat at the election of 1880, but was at once elected member for London University, of which he had been vice-chancellor since 1872. As an MP, Lubbock had a distinguished political career, with four main political agendas: promotion of the study of science in primary and secondary schools, he was successful with numerous enactments in parliament, including the Bank Holidays Act of 1871 and the Ancient Monuments Act of 1882, along with another 28 acts of Parliament. When the Liberals split in 1886 on the issue of Irish Home Rule, Lubbock joined the breakaway Liberal Unionist Party in opposition to Irish home rule. A prominent supporter of the Statistical Society, he took an active part in criticizing the encroachment of municipal trading and the increase of the municipal debt. Lubbock's thoughts about the nature and value of politics were influenced by his scientific research his writings on early human society, he believed that the cognitive foundations of morality could be shaped through political economy through a national education system that implemented subjects mandated by the state.
He held that the minds of children could be shaped in the direction of democracy and morality through learning how to read and write. To this goal he was a strong supporter of the national education act of 1871 and he defended the introduction of the national curriculum during the 1870s and 1880s. In 1879 Lubbock was elected the first president of the Institute of Bankers. In 1881 he was president of the British Association, from 1881 to 1886 president of the Linnean Society of London. In March 1883 he founded the Bank Clerks Orphanage, which in 1986 became the Bankers’ Benevolent Fund – a charity for bank employees and present, their dependants. In January 1884 he founded the Proportional Representation Society to become the Electoral Reform Society. In recognition of his contributions to the sciences, Lubbock received honorary degrees from the universities of Oxford, Edinburgh, Dublin and Würzburg, he received the German Order Pour le Mérite for Science and Arts in August 1902. From 1888 to 1892 he was president of the London Chamber of Commerce, he was President of the Association of Chambers of Commerce of the United Kingdom.
In local politicas, he was from 1889 to 1890 vice-chairman and from 1890 to 1892 chairman of the London County Council. In February 1890 he was appointed a privy councillor. On 22 January 1900 he was raised to the peerage as Baron Avebury, of Avebury, in the county of Wiltshire, his title commemorating the largest Stone Age site in Britain, which he had helped to preserve, he was President of the Royal Statistical Society from 1900 to 1902. In November, 1905, Lord Avebury, together with Lord Courtney of Penwith, founded an Anglo-German Friendship Committee which sought to counteract the influence of the British war party, whose anti-German propaganda was at its zenith, smooth the way towards more amicable relations between England and Germany; the quotation, "We may sit in our library and yet be in all quarters of the earth", is attributed to Lubbock. This variation appears in his book
Gunnhild, Mother of Kings
Gunnhildr konungamóðir or Gunnhildr Gormsdóttir, whose name is Anglicised as Gunnhild is a quasi-historical figure who appears in the Icelandic Sagas, according to which she was the wife of Eric Bloodaxe. She appears prominently in sagas such as Fagrskinna, Egils saga, Njáls saga, Heimskringla; the sagas relate that Gunnhild lived during a time of great upheaval in Norway. Her father-in-law Harald Fairhair had united much of Norway under his rule. Shortly after his death and her husband were overthrown and exiled, she spent much of the rest of her life in exile in Orkney and Denmark. A number of her many children with Erik became co-rulers of Norway in the late tenth century. Many of the details of her life are disputed, including her parentage. Although she is treated in the sagas as a historical person her historicity is a matter of some debate. What details of her life are known come from Icelandic sources, which asserted that the Icelandic settlers had fled from Harald's tyranny. While the historicity of sources as the Landnámabók is disputed, the perception that Harald had exiled or driven out many of their ancestors led to an attitude among Icelanders hostile to Erik and Gunnhild.
Scholars such as Gwyn Jones therefore regard. In the sagas, Gunnhild is most depicted in a negative light, depicted as a figure known for her "power and cruelty, admired for her beauty and generosity, feared for her magic, sexual insatiability, her goading", according to Jenny Jochens, her parentage was altered from Danish royalty to a farmer in Hålogaland in northern Norway, this made her native to a land neighboring Finnmark, her tutelage in the magic arts by Finnish wizards became more plausible. This contrivance, Jones has argued, was the Icelandic saga-maker's attempt to mitigate the "defeats and explusion of his own heroic ancestors" by ascribing magical abilities to the queen. According to the 12th century Historia Norwegiæ, Gunnhild was the daughter of Gorm the Old, king of Denmark, Erik and Gunnhild met at a feast given by Gorm. Modern scholars have accepted this version as accurate. In their view, her marriage with Erik was a dynastic union between two houses, that of the Norwegian Ynglings and that of the early Danish monarchy, in the process of unifying and consolidating their respective countries.
Erik himself was the product of such a union between Harald and Ragnhild, a Danish princess from Jutland. Gunnhild being the daughter of Gorm the old would explain why she would seek shelter in Denmark after the death of her husband. Heimskringla and Egil's Saga, on the other hand, assert that Gunnhild was the daughter of Ozur Toti, a hersir from Halogaland. Accounts of her early life vary between sources. Egil's Saga relates that "Eirik fought a great battle on the Northern Dvina in Bjarmaland, was victorious as the poems about him record. On the same expedition he obtained Gunnhild, the daughter of Ozur Toti, brought her home with him."Gwyn Jones regarded many of the traditions that grew up around Gunnhild in the Icelandic sources as fictional. However, both Theodoricus monachus and the Ágrip af Nóregskonungasögum report that when Gunnhild was at the court of Harald Bluetooth after Erik's death, the Danish king offered marriage to her. Heimskringla relates that Gunnhild lived for a time in a hut with two Finnish wizards and learned magic from them.
The two wizards demanded sexual favors from her, so she induced Erik, returning from an expedition to Bjarmaland, to kill them. Erik took her to her father's house and announced his intent to marry Gunnhild; the older Fagrskinna, says that Erik met Gunnhild during an expedition to the Finnish north, where she was being "fostered and educated... with Mǫttull, king of the Finns". Gunnhild's Finnish sojourn is described by historian Marlene Ciklamini as a "fable" designed to set the stage for placing the blame for Erik's future misrule on his wife. Gunnhild and Erik are said to have had the following children: the oldest. Egil's Saga mentions a son named Rögnvald, but it is not known whether he can be identified with one of those mentioned in Heimskringla, or whether he was Gunnhild's son or Erik's by another woman. Gunnhild was reputed to be a völva, or witch. Prior to the death of Harald Fairhair, Erik's popular half-brother Halfdan Haraldsson the Black died mysteriously, Gunnhild was suspected of having "bribed a witch to give him a death-drink."
Shortly thereafter, Harald died and Erik consolidated his power over the whole country. He began to quarrel with his other brothers, egged on by Gunnhild, had four of them killed, beginning with Bjørn Farmann and Olaf and Sigrød in battle at Tønsberg; as a result of Erik's tyrannical rule he was expelled from Norway when the nobles of the country declared for his half-brother, Haakon the Good. According to the Icelandic sagas, Erik set sail with his family and his retainers to Orkney, where they settled for a number of years. During that time Erik was acknowledged as "King of Orkney" by its de facto rulers, the jarls Arnkel and Erlend Turf-Einarsson. Gunnhild went with Erik to Jorvik when, at the invitation of Bishop Wulfstan, the erstwhile Norwegian king settled as client king over northern England. At Jorvik, both Erik an
A dolmen or cromlech is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table". Most date from the early Neolithic and were sometimes covered with earth or smaller stones to form a tumulus. Small pad-stones may be wedged between supporting stones to achieve a level appearance. In many instances, the covering has weathered away, leaving only the stone "skeleton" of the mound intact, it remains unclear. The oldest known are found in Western Europe. Archaeologists still do not know who erected these dolmens, which makes it difficult to know why they did it, they are all regarded as tombs or burial chambers, despite the absence of clear evidence for this. Human remains, sometimes accompanied by artefacts, have been found in or close to the dolmens which could be scientifically dated using radiocarbon dating. However, it has been impossible to prove that these remains date from the time when the stones were set in place.
The word dolmen has an unclear history. The word entered archaeology when Théophile Corret de la Tour d'Auvergne used it to describe megalithic tombs in his Origines gauloises using the spelling dolmin; the Oxford English Dictionary does not mention "dolmin" in English and gives its first citation for "dolmen" from a book on Brittany in 1859, describing the word as "The French term, used by some English authors, for a cromlech...". The name was derived from a Breton language term meaning "stone table" but doubt has been cast on this, the OED describes its origin as "Modern French". A book on Cornish antiquities from 1754 said that the current term in the Cornish language for a cromlech was tolmen and the OED says that "There is reason to think that this was the term inexactly reproduced by Latour d'Auvergne as dolmen, misapplied by him and succeeding French archaeologists to the cromlech". Nonetheless it has now replaced cromlech as the usual English term in archaeology, when the more technical and descriptive alternatives are not used.
Dolmens are known by a variety of names in other languages, including Irish: dolmain and Portuguese: anta, Bulgarian: Долмени Dolmeni, German: Hünengrab/Hünenbett and Dutch: hunebed, Basque: trikuharri, Abkhazian: Adamra, Adyghe Ispun, dysse, dös, Korean: 고인돌 goindol, "dol", "dolmaengi", Hebrew: גַלעֵד. Granja is used in Portugal and Spain; the rarer forms anta and ganda appear. In the Basque Country, they are attributed to a race of giants; the etymology of the German: Hünenbett, Hünengrab and Dutch: hunebed - with Hüne/hune meaning "giant" - all evoke the image of giants buried there. Of other Celtic languages, Welsh: cromlech was borrowed into English and quoit is used in English in Cornwall. Great dolmen Passage grave Polygonal dolmen Rectangular, enlarged or extended dolmen Simple dolmen Holcombe, Charles. A History of East Asia: From the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-51595-5. Piccolo, Salvatore. Ancient Stones: The Prehistoric Dolmens of Sicily.
Thornham/Norfolk: Brazen Head Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9565106-2-4. Murphy, Cornelius; the Prehistoric Archaeology of the Beara Peninsula, Co. Cork. Department of Archaeology, University College Cork, 1997 Trifonov, V. 2006. Russia's megaliths: unearthing the lost prehistoric tombs of Caucasian warlords in the Zhane valley. St. Petersburg: The Institute for Study of Material Culture History, Russian Academy of Sciences. Available from Kudin, M. 2001. Dolmeni i ritual. Dolmen Path – Russian Megaliths. Available from Knight, Peter. Ancient Stones of Dorset, 1996. World heritage site of dolmen in Korea Piccolo, Salvatore. "Dolmen." Ancient History Encyclopedia. The Megalithic Portal and Megalith Map Dolmen Museum in Italian and English Goindol: Dolmen of Korea Research Centre of Dolmens in Northeast Asia Poulnabrone Dolmen in the Burren, County Clare, Ireland "Dolmen sites in Korea". on UNESCO's World Heritage List. Jersey Heritage Trust Dolmen Pictures by Robert Triest