Charles Bonnet, Genevan naturalist and philosophical writer, was born at Geneva, of a French family driven into the region by the religious persecution in the 16th century. The last twenty five years of his life he spent quietly in the country, at Genthod, near Geneva and his wife was a lady of the family of De la Rive. They had no children, but Madame Bonnets nephew, the celebrated Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, was brought up as their son and he made law his profession, but his favourite pursuit was the study of natural science. The account of the ant-lion in Noël-Antoine Pluches Spectacle de la nature and he procured RAF de Réaumurs work on insects, and with the help of live specimens succeeded in adding many observations to those of Réaumur and Pluche. During that year he had been in correspondence with his uncle Abraham Trembley who had discovered the hydra. This little creature became the hit of all the salons across Europe once philosophers and natural scientists saw its amazing regenerative capabilities.
In 1743, he was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society, in 1753, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and on 15 December 1769 a foreign member of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters. But Bonnets eyesight, which threatened to fail altogether, caused him to turn to philosophy, in 1754 his Essai de psychologie was published anonymously in London. This was followed by the Essai analytique sur les facultés de lâme, in 1760 he described a condition now called Charles Bonnet Syndrome, in which vivid, complex visual hallucinations occur in psychologically normal people. Bonnets philosophical system may be outlined as follows, man is a compound of two distinct substances and body, the one immaterial and the other material. All knowledge originates in sensations, sensations follow vibrations in the nerves appropriate to each, and lastly, the nerves are made to vibrate by external physical stimulus. A nerve once set in motion by a particular object tends to reproduce that motion, the sensation accompanying this increased flexibility in the nerve is, according to Bonnet, the condition of memory.
That which puts the mind into activity is pleasure or pain, the divine Being originally created a multitude of germs in a graduated scale, each with an inherent power of self-development. Thus not man only but all forms of existence are immortal. Nor is mans mind alone immortal, his will pass into the higher stage, indeed, the body he now possesses. It is impossible, however, to absolute perfection, because the distance is infinite. In this final proposition, Bonnet violates his own principle of continuity and it is difficult to understand whether the constant advance to perfection is performed by each individual, or only by each race of beings as a whole. In Philosophical Palingesis, or Ideas on the Past and Future States of Living Beings, Bonnets complete works appeared at Neuchâtel in 1779–1783, partly revised by himself
Frederiksborg Castle is a palatial complex in Hillerød, Denmark. Situated on three islets in the Slotssøen, it is adjoined by a formal garden in the Baroque style. After a serious fire in 1859, the castle was rebuilt on the basis of old plans, thanks to public support and the brewer J. C. Jacobsen, the building and its apartments were fully restored by 1882 when it was reopened to the public as the Danish Museum of National History, open throughout the year, the museum contains the largest collection of portrait paintings in Denmark. The estate originally known as Hillerødsholm near Hillerød had traditionally belonged to the Gøyes, in the 1520s and 1530s, Mogens Gøye, Steward of the Realm, had been instrumental in introducing the Danish Reformation. He lived in a building on the most northerly of three adjoining islets on the estates lake. The property was known as Hillerødsholm, after his daughter, married the courtier and naval hero Herluf Trolle in 1544, the couple became its proprietors.
In the 1540s, Trolle replaced the old building with a manor house. As the old building with towers was too small for the king. At the kings request, Trolle remained on the premises until the work was completed, the king renamed the estate Frederiksborg. Interested in deer hunting, he used the castle with the neighbouring Bath House as a hunting lodge, centred as it was in the fields. The additions included a wall to the south, separating the estate from the town. Still standing today is the quadrangular red-brick, tip-roofed house on Staldgade known as Herluf Trolles Tower, adjoining this are two long, narrow red-brick stable buildings, the Kings Stables to the west and the Hussars Stables to the east. These in turn lead to a wall along the lake with two round towers completed in 1562 bearing the arms of Frederick II and his motto Mein Hoffnung zu Gott allein, on the central islet, the long pantry house with stepped gables can be seen today. The most important building from Frederick IIs times is the Bath House in the park northwest of the islets, completed in 1581 in the Renaissance style with three protruding step-gabled wings, it served the king as a hunting lodge during the summer months.
Frederiksborg Castle was the first Danish castle to be built inland, all previous castles had been on the coast or close to ports as the sea had traditionally been the principal means of travel. It was the first to be built for recreational purposes rather than for defence. Its location in Hillerød led to the development of improved roads
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock
Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock was a German poet. His best known work is his epic poem Der Messias, one of his major contributions to German literature was to open it up to exploration outside of French models. Klopstock was born at Quedlinburg, the eldest son of a lawyer, both in his birthplace and on the estate of Friedeburg on the Saale, which his father rented, he spent a happy childhood. Having been given attention to his physical than to his mental development, he grew up strong. In his thirteenth year, he returned to Quedlinburg and attended the gymnasium there, here he soon became adept in Greek and Latin versification, and wrote some meritorious idylls and odes in German. While still at school, he had drafted the plan of Der Messias on which most of his fame rests. Finding life at that university not to his liking, he transferred in the spring of 1746 to Leipzig, in this periodical the first three cantos of Der Messias were published anonymously in hexameter verse in 1748. A new era in German literature had commenced, and the identity of the author became known.
In Leipzig he wrote a number of odes, the best known of which is An meine Freunde and he left the university in 1748 and became a private tutor in the family of a relative at Langensalza, where unrequited love for a cousin disturbed his peace of mind. Bodmer, was disappointed to find in the poet of the Messias a man of strong worldly interests. On his way to the Danish capital, Klopstock met in Hamburg the woman who in 1754 became his wife, Margareta Möller and she was the daughter of a Hamburg merchant and an enthusiastic admirer of his poetry. His happiness was short, as she died in 1758, leaving him broken-hearted and his grief at her loss finds pathetic expression in the fifteenth canto of the Messias. The poet subsequently published his wifes writings, Hinterlassene Werke von Margareta Klopstock, see Memoirs of Frederick and Margaret Klopstock and her correspondence with Samuel Richardson, published 1818. Klopstock now relapsed into melancholy, new ideas failed him, in 1770, when King Christian VII dismissed Count Bernstorff from office, he retired with the latter to Hamburg but retained his pension, together with the rank of councillor of legation.
In 1773 were published the last five cantos of the Messias, in the following year he published a scheme for the regeneration of German letters, Die Gelehrtenrepublik. In 1775 he traveled south, and making the acquaintance of Goethe on the way, however, he was enthusiastic about the American War of Independence and the French Revolution. The French Republic sent him a diploma of citizenship, horrified at the terrible scenes the Revolution had enacted in the name of liberty. At the age of 67 he undertook a second marriage, to Johanna Elisabeth von Winthem, a widow and a niece of his late wife, who for many years had been one of his most intimate friends
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
The encyclopedia is published by a foundation under the patronage of the Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Swiss Historical Society and is financed by national research grants. Besides a staff of 35 at the offices, the contributors include 100 academic advisors,2500 historians and 100 translators. The encyclopedia is being edited simultaneously in three languages of Switzerland, German and Italian. The first of 13 volumes was published in 2002, the last volume was published in 2014. The 36,000 headings are grouped in, Biographies Articles on families and it makes accessible, for free, all articles ready for publication in print, but no illustrations. It lists all 36,000 topics that are to be covered, lexicon Istoric Retic is a two volume version with a selection of articles published in Romansh. It includes articles not available in the other languages, the first volume was published in 2010, the second in 2012. An on-line version is available
Falster is an island in south-eastern Denmark with an area of 486.2 km2 and 43,398 inhabitants as of 1 January 2010. Located in the Baltic sea, it is part of Region Sjælland and is administered by Guldborgsund Municipality, Falster includes Denmarks southernmost point, Gedser Odde, near Gedser. The largest town is Nykøbing Falster with over 40% of the islands inhabitants, other towns include Stubbekøbing, Nørre Alslev and Gedser. Falster has motor and railway links both to the island of Zealand to the north and to the island of Lolland to the south-west. These links lead to the islands of Masnedø and Farø. European route E47 links Copenhagen to Hamburg via Falster, from medieval times until 1766, most of Falster belonged to the crown. King Valdemars Census Book from c.1231 lists all the parishes, Falsters two main towns, Nykøbing and Stubbekøbing, were both founded towards the end of the 12th century. In medieval times, the island was marked by wars with the Wends in 1158, the census of 1509 includes only 90 of the 110 villages mentioned earlier.
By contrast, it mentions 29 new settlements mainly along the coast. In the 16th century, Falster had a number of farms which were owned by the nobility but, from 1560 to 1630. Therefore, Falster could therefore be used as the dowry for Frederick IIIs wife, Sophie Amalie but as a result of the taxes which resulted. Falster was managed as an estate from 1718 until 1766 when it was sold by auction and divided up into ten large farms. But as the fields had to be prepared through the serfdom of local peasants, the villages were replaced by the community from 1778 to 1814, and gradually moved to freehold tenants, a process which was only completed in about 1860. There was an increase in the cultivation of sugar beet which was processed in factories at Nykøbing and Stubbekøbing between 1890 and 1914, many seasonal workers, especially women, from Sweden and Poland came to help with harvesting the sugar beet and some of them stayed. With the new railway from Orehoved to Nykøbing in 1872 and railway ferries to Masnedø and Warnemünde and its position was reinforced by the construction of the Storstrøm Bridge and Farø Bridges.
Since 1975, Falster has been marked by high unemployment as a result of harder times for farming and industry. As of 2012, populations were as follows, With its marinas, sandy beaches and cycle tracks, one of the most popular resorts is Marielyst on the east coast. Nykøbing offers a number of attractions including its atmosphere with narrow streets
Funen, with an area of 3,099.7 square kilometres, is the third-largest island of Denmark, after Zealand and Vendsyssel-Thy. It is the 165th-largest island in the world and it is in the central part of the country and has a population of 466,284. The main city is Odense which is connected to the sea by a seldom-used canal, the citys shipyard, Odense Steel Shipyard, has been relocated outside Odense proper. Funen belongs administratively to the Region of Southern Denmark, from 1970 to 2006 the island formed the biggest part of Funen County, which included the islands of Langeland, Ærø, Tåsinge, and a number of smaller islands. Funen is linked to Zealand, Denmarks largest island, by the Great Belt Bridge which carries both trains and cars, two bridges connect Funen to the Danish mainland, Jutland. The Old Little Belt Bridge was constructed in the 1930s shortly before World War II for both cars and trains, the New Little Belt Bridge, a suspension bridge, was constructed in the 1970s and is used for cars only.
Apart from the city, all major towns are located in coastal areas. Beginning in the north-east of the island and moving clockwise, they are Kerteminde, Svendborg, Fåborg, Middelfart, the highest natural point on Funen is Frøbjerg Bavnehøj. Broholm Egeskov Castle Fynske Livregiment Horne Church Hvedholm Castle Korshavn, Denmark Skrøbelev Gods The Funen Village Funen brachteate in the collections of the National Museum of Denmark, official tourist information site for Funen
Danish art is the visual arts produced in Denmark or by Danish artists. It goes back thousands of years with significant artifacts from the 2nd millennium BC, for many early periods, it is usually considered as part of the wider Nordic art of Scandinavia. Art from what is today Denmark forms part of the art of the Nordic Bronze Age, Danish medieval painting is almost entirely known from church frescos such as those from the 16th-century artist known as the Elmelunde Master. The Reformation greatly disrupted Danish artistic traditions, and left the body of painters and sculptors without large markets. Thereafter for an extended period art in Denmark was either imported from Germany, from the late 18th century on, the situation changed radically and beginning with the Danish Golden Age, a distinct tradition of Danish art has continued to flourish until today. Due to generous art subsidies, contemporary Danish art has a big production per capita, lurs are a distinctive type of giant curving Bronze Age horn, of which 35 of the 53 known examples have been found in bogs in Denmark, very often in pairs.
They are normally made of bronze, and often decorated, a possibly alien find in Denmark is the Gundestrup cauldron, a richly decorated silver vessel, thought to date to the 1st century BC. It was found in 1891 in a bog near the hamlet of Gundestrup in north-eastern Jutland. The silversmithing of the plates is very skilled, the bowl,70 cm across, was beaten from a single ingot. Now in the National Museum of Denmark, it is the largest known example of European silver work from the period, the style and workmanship suggest Thracian origin, while the imagery seems Celtic, so it may not reflect local styles. Danish sites have given their names to two of the six main styles of Viking or Norse art, Jelling style and its successor Mammen style, only one Danish ship burial is known, from Ladbyskibet. The images on the runestones at Jelling are probably the best known Danish works of the period, church wall paintings are to be found in some 600 churches across Denmark, probably representing the highest concentration of surviving church murals anywhere in the world.
Most of them back to the Middle Ages. They lay hidden for centuries as after the Reformation in Denmark, of most interest to Danish art are the Gothic paintings from the 15th and 16th centuries as they were painted in a style typical of native Danish painters. Adopting the Biblia pauperum approach, they present many of the most popular stories from the Old, albrecht Dürers portrait of her father Christian II of Denmark, painted in Brussels in 1521, has not survived, though portraits of him by other foreign artists have. After a period of development its pupils were indeed to lead the creation of a distinct Danish style, leading Danish artists teaching at the Academy included Christian August Lorentzen and Jens Juel, later Director. Among his works are the series of statues of Christ. Motifs for his works were mostly from Greek mythology, but he created portraits of important personalities, as in his tomb monument for Pope Pius VII in St Peters Basilica
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records