Bokjeong Station is a station on the Seoul Subway Line 8 and Bundang Line. This station has one of the most sophisticated and convenient transfer systems in the Seoul Subway in which the Bundang Line platform is directly beneath the Line 8 platform. Passengers can transfer between the lines by taking one flight of stairs/escalators. However, since the station is situated directly below a major highway interchange with no nearby residential or industrial area, the vicinity of the station has no significant source of passengers, so this station is used as a transfer point; the only aboveground section of Line 8 lies between here and Sanseong Station, although both stations are situated underground. The station is within walking distance of Seoul International School in the city of Seongnam. Exit 1: Jangji-dong Exit 2: Dong Seoul College, Bokjeong-dong Exit 3: Segok-dong Exit 4: Garden 5
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization, it is the official writing system of Korea, both North. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin Province, China, it is sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language spoken near the town of Indonesia. The Hangul alphabet consisted of 28 letters with 17 consonant letters and 11 vowel letters when it was created; as four became obsolete, the modern Hangul consists of total 24 letters with 14 consonant letters and 10 vowel letters. In North Korea the total is counted 40, it consists of 19 consonant letters and 21 vowel letters as it additionally includes 5 tense consonants and 20. The Korean letters are written in syllabic blocks with each alphabetic letter placed vertically and horizontally into a square dimension.
For example, the Korean word for "honeybee" is written 꿀벌, not ㄲㅜㄹㅂㅓㄹ. As it combines the features of alphabetic and syllabic writing systems, it has been described as an "alphabetic syllabary" by some linguists; as in traditional Chinese writing, Korean texts were traditionally written top to bottom, right to left, are still written this way for stylistic purposes. Today, it is written from left to right with spaces between words and western-style punctuation; some linguists consider it among the most phonologically faithful writing systems in use today. One interesting feature of Hangul is that the shapes of its consonants mimic the shapes of the speaker's mouth when pronouncing each consonant; the Korean alphabet was called Hunminjeong'eum, after the document that introduced the script to the Korean people in 1446. The Korean alphabet is called hangeul, a name coined by Korean linguist Ju Si-gyeong in 1912; the name combines the ancient Korean word han, meaning "great", geul, meaning "script".
The word han is used to refer to Korea in general, so the name means "Korean script". It has been romanized in multiple ways: Hangeul or han-geul in the Revised Romanization of Korean, which the South Korean government uses in English publications and encourages for all purposes. Han'gŭl in the McCune–Reischauer system, is capitalized and rendered without the diacritics when used as an English word, Hangul, as it appears in many English dictionaries. Hānkul in the Yale romanization, a system recommended for technical linguistic studies. In North Korea it is called Chosŏn'gŭl after Chosŏn, the North Korean name for Korea after the old name of Korea; the McCune–Reischauer system is used there. Until the mid-20th century, the Korean elite preferred to write using Chinese characters called Hanja, they referred to Hanja as jinseo or "true letters". Some accounts say the elite referred to the Korean alphabet derisively as'amkeul meaning "women's script", and'ahaetgeul meaning "children's script", though there is no written evidence of this.
Supporters of the Korean alphabet referred to it as jeong'eum meaning "correct pronunciation", gukmun meaning "national script", eonmun meaning "vernacular script". Before the creation of the new Korean alphabet, Koreans wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate the modern Korean alphabet by hundreds of years, including Idu script, Hyangchal and Gakpil. However, due to fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, the large number of characters, many lower class Koreans were illiterate. To promote literacy among the common people, the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty, Sejong the Great created and promulgated a new alphabet; the Korean alphabet was designed so that people with little education could learn to write. A popular saying about the alphabet is, "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; the project was completed in late December 1443 or January 1444, described in 1446 in a document titled Hunminjeong'eum, after which the alphabet itself was named.
The publication date of the Hunminjeongeum, October 9, became Hangul Day in South Korea. Its North Korean equivalent, Chosŏn'gŭl Day, is on January 15. Another document published in 1446 and titled Hunminjeong'eum Haerye was discovered in 1940; this document explains that the design of the consonant letters is based on articulatory phonetics and the design of the vowel letters are based on the principles of yin and yang and vowel harmony. The Korean alphabet faced opposition in the 1440s by the literary elite, including politician Choe Manri and other Korean Confucian scholars, they believed. They saw the circulation of the Korean alphabet as a threat to their status. However, the Korean alphabet entered popular culture as King Sejong had intended, used by women and writers of popular fiction. King Yeonsangun banned the study and publication of the Korean alphabet in 1504, after a document criticizing the king entered the public. King Jungjong abolished the Ministry of Eonmun, a governmental institution related to Hangul research, in 1506.
The late 16th century, saw a revival of the Korean alphabet as gasa and sijo poetry flourished. In the 17th century, the Korean alphabet novels became a major genre. However, the use of the Korea
Seoul Metropolitan Subway
The Seoul Metropolitan Subway is a metropolitan railway system consisting of 22 rapid transit, light metro, commuter rail and people mover lines located in northwest South Korea. The system serves most of the Seoul Metropolitan Area including the Incheon metropolis and satellite cities in Gyeonggi province; some regional lines in the network stretch out to rural areas in northern Chungnam province and western Gangwon province that lie over 100 km away from the capital as well as Suwon. The network consists of numbered lines 1–9, which serve Seoul City proper and its surroundings and named regional railways that serve the greater metropolitan region and beyond. Most of the system is operated by three companies – Seoul Metro and Metro 9. However, there are several other lines stretching out to regional provinces, its first metro line, Line 1, started construction in 1971 and opened in 1974, with through-operation to Korail suburban railways. Today, the network is one of the largest and most efficient urban railway systems in the world, with 331.5 km of track on lines 1–9 alone.
Under the Japanese ODA loans, the first line of the Seoul Subway network started construction in 1971. The first section of subway was cover construction method. Line 1 opened in 1974 with through services joining surrounding Korail suburban railway lines similar to the Tokyo subway. Today, many of the Seoul Metropolitan Subway's lines are operated by Korail, South Korea's national passenger and freight railway operator; this is similar to Europe and Japan, where the national railroad operates local mainline urban railways, such as the S-Bahns in Germany, operated by subsidiaries of Deutsche Bahn, or JR East in Japan, which operates many other urban rail systems in Japanese cities. It has been described as the world's longest multi-operator metro system by route length; the system was rated as one of the world's best subway systems by CNN, Jalopnik It is notable for its cleanliness and ease of use along with advanced technology such as 4G LTE, WiFi, DMB, WiBro accessible in all stations and trains.
Nearly all stations have platform screen doors installed. By 2017, Korail will install screen doors in every station and platform; the world's first virtual mart for smartphone users opened at Seolleung station in 2011. All directional signs in the system are written in Korean and Hanja. In trains there are in addition many LCD screens giving service announcements, upcoming stop names, YTN news, stock prices and animated shorts. There are prerecorded voice announcements that give the upcoming station, any possible line transfer, the exiting side in Korean, followed by English. At major stations, this is followed by Japanese Mandarin Chinese, as well. Seoul Subway uses full-color LCD screens at all stations to display real-time subway arrival times, which are available on apps for smartphones. Most trains have digital TV screens, all of them have air conditioning and climate controlled seats installed that are automatically heated in the winter. In 2014, it became the world's first metro operator to use transparent displays for ads when it installed 48 transparent displays on major stations of Line 2 in Gangnam District.
All lines use the T-money smart payment system using RFID and NFC technology for automatic payment by T-money smart cards, smartphones, or credit cards and one can transfer to any of the other line within the system for free. Trains on numbered lines run on the right-hand track, while trains on the named lines run on the left-hand track; the exceptions are the trains on Line 1, as well as those on Line 4 south of Namtaeryeong station. These lines run on the left-hand track because these rail lines are operated by Korail, South Korea's national railway operator; the system is organised such that numbered lines, with some exceptions, are considered as urban rapid transit lines located within the Seoul National Capital Area, whereas wide-area commuter lines operated by Korail provide a metro-like commuter rail service that extends far beyond the boundaries of the SNCA, rather similar to the RER in Paris. The AREX is an airport rail link that links Incheon International Airport and Gimpo Airport to central Seoul, offers both express service directly to Incheon International Airport and all-stop commuter service for people living along the vicinity of the line.
While operating hours may vary depending on the line in question, the Seoul Metropolitan Subway operates from 5.30 am until 1 am on weekdays, from 5.30 am until midnight on weekends. Line 1, from Seongbuk station to Incheon station and Suwon station, opened on 15 August 1974. On 9 December 1978, the Yongsan-Cheongnyangni line was added to Line 1. Line 2 opened on 10 October 1980. In 1985, the fare system changed from charging by distance to zone and the Edmondson railway ticket changed to a magnetic paper ticket. Line 4 opened on 20 April 1985, Line 3 on 12 July. On 1 April 1994, the Indeogwon-Namtaeryeong extension of Line 4 opened; the Bundang Line, from Suseo station to Ori station, opened on 1 September. On 15 November 1995, Line 5 opened; the Jichuk-Daehwa extension of Line 3 opened on 30 January 1996. On 20 March, the Kkachisan-Sindorim extension of Line 2 opened. Line 7 opened on 11 October, Line 8 on 23 November. On 6 October 1999, Incheon Subway Line 1 opened. Seoul Subway Line 6 opened on 7 August 2000.
In 2004 the fare system reverted to charging by distance, free bus transfers were introduced. The
The Bundang Line is a subway line in the Seoul Capital Area operated by Korail. The name'Bundang Line' refers to the fact that the line was constructed for the new planned town of Bundang; the line starts in central eastern Seoul at Cheongnyangni, crossing Gangnam District and connecting the cities of Seongnam and Yongin, terminates at Suwon Station. Trains run every 4~5 minutes during rush hours & every 7~8 minutes during off peak hours between Wangsimni and Jukjeon. Trains run except during rush hours. Most northbound trains terminate at Wangsimni; some northbound trains continue one stop to Cheongnyangni, the last few trains in the evening from Suwon terminate at Jukjeon. Half of all southbound trains head to Suwon, the other half short-turn at Jukjeon. Express train service stops at all stops between Wangsimni and Jukjeon, thereafter at Giheung, Suwon City Hall and Suwon; the express service only operates during rush hours on weekdays. 1994: September 1: The Bundang Line is opened from Suseo to Ori.2003: September 3: The line is extended northward from Suseo to Seolleung.2004: January 16: Imae Station opens as an in-fill station.
September 24: Guryong Station opens as an in-fill station. November 26: A temporary Bojeong Station opens near the Bundang Line Train Depot, south of Ori.2007: December 24: Jukjeon Station opens as an in-fill station.2011: December 28: The line is extended southward from Jukjeon to Giheung. The temporary Bojeong Station is replaced with a new underground station called Bojeong.2012: October 6: The line is extended northward from Seolleung to Wangsimni. December 1: The line is extended southward from Giheung to Mangpo.2013: November 30: The line is extended westward from Mangpo to Suwon was opened, allowing for connections to Line 1. Express service was launched.2018: December 31: The line is extended northeastward to Cheongnyangni station, allowing for connections to the Gyeongchun Line and regional rail services. Phase 3 of the Suin Line, which will extend the line east from Oido to Suwon, will allow for a through service through the Bundang Line; this will create a long line, called the "Suin-Bundang Line," from Cheongnyangni Station to Incheon Station.
The Bundang Line uses Korail Class 351000 trains. Earlier trains were the same models used on Line 4, as they were all classified as Class 2000 trains. First generation trains were introduced since the line's opening, second generation trains were introduced when the Bundang Line was extended from Suseo to Seolleung in 2003, third generation trains are being introduced as more extensions open. Trainsets 351-44 ~ 351-60 are expected to be delivered; the negative sign is only a convention for distance notation from Wangsimni Station, the terminus of most services. The reconstructed Suin Line will see direct service through the Bundang Line, but this will not happen until its final section between Suwon Station and Hanyang University at Ansan Station is completed in 2019. Bundang-gu Rapid transit in South Korea Korail Seoul Metropolitan Subway
Gwanggyo Station is a metro station located in Gwanggyo, Yeongtong-gu, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. It built on the train depot; the station is located directly in front of Kyonggi University and has many shops and bars catering for university students around it
Suseo Station is a station on the Seoul Subway Line 3 and Bundang Line. It was the southeastern terminus of Line 3, until the Line 3 extension to Ogeum Station opened on February 18, 2010. Along with Yangjae Station, this station serves as an important transfer point between Line 3 and buses from/to southern cities such as Seongnam and Suwon. Both Line 3 and Bundang Line stations are located in Gangnam-gu, Seoul. In December 2016 it became the northern connection point to the Suseo High Speed Railway running KTX. Exit 1: Sindonga APT Exit 1-1: Daejin Design High School Exit 2: Samik APT Exit 3: Sejong High School, Suseo Elementary & Middle Schools Exit 4: Suseo E-Mart Exit 5: Daegok Elementary School, Mido APT Exit 6: Gungmaeul Station information from Korail
Korea Railroad Corporation, promoted as KORAIL, is the national railway operator in South Korea. KORAIL is a public corporation, managed by Ministry of Land and Transportation. KORAIL operates intercity/regional, commuter/metro and freight trains throughout South Korea, which has headquarter located in Daejeon. South Korean railway network was managed by Railroad Administration Bureau of the Ministry of Transportation before 1963. On September 1, 1963, the bureau became an agency, known as Korean National Railroad in English. In early 2000's, split and public corporatization of KNR is decided by South Korean government, in 2003, KNR adopted the current KORAIL logo in blue to prepare corporatization. On January 1, 2005, KNR was split into Korea Railroad Corporation, which succeeded railway operation with the KORAIL logo and name, Korea Rail Network Authority, which succeeded maintaining tracks. Excluding the other high-speed service provider, SR, South Korean high-speed and intercity services are provided by KORAIL.
KORAIL provides 5 classes of railway and metro services. KTX is the highest class of KORAIL services. KTX services are provided in Gyeongbu HSR and Honam HSR, as well as their branches such as Gyeongjeon Line, Donghae Line, or Jeolla Line. ITX are group of intercity services. First ITX service was introduced in 2012, named as ITX-Cheongchun on Gyeongchun Line. Before the introduction of ITX services, intercity trains are named as Saemaul-ho, which borrowed its name from New Community Movement. Saemaul-ho services are merged into ITX as ITX-Saemaul. Remaining Saemaul-ho services are only operated on Janghang Line. Mugunghwa-ho and its planned successor Nuriro services are regional train services of KORAIL. Mugunghwa-ho, inspired its name from national floral emblem hibiscus, was introduced as express service at first, but after the introduction of KTX, it was degraded into regional services. Nuriro services are provided by only EMU trains. KORAIL has a plan of introducing Nuriro with newly ordered EMU-150.
Named as EMU services, metro services are provided in the Seoul Metropolitan Area and the Busan Metropolitan Area. Sometimes it is considered as a successor of Bidulgi-ho. Fare systems of metro services are separate from other services operated by Korail. Seoul Line 1 Gyeongbu Line — is connected with Line 1 Gyeongin Line — is connected with Line 1 Gyeongwon Line — is connected with Line 1 Janghang Line — is connected with Line 1 Line 3 Ilsan Line — underground. Korail offers a rail pass called Korea Rail Pass, or KR Pass for short, to foreign travelers, such that they can take most of the trains operated by Korail including KTX; however and tourist trains operated by KORAIL are not covered. Foreigners living in South Korea for more than six months are ineligible to use a KR Pass, but Korail offers the Happy Rail Pass, similar to the KR Pass, for a higher price. Most of the railroad's employees are members of the Korean Railway Workers' Union, at odds with KORAIL management. Strikes, such as the South Korean railroad strike of 2006, are not uncommon.
In December 2013, 23,000–100,000 union members and friends protested the privatization of KORAIL in Seoul. Airport Railroad Corporation, which operates A'REX. Korail Networks, for ticketing management and Korail frequent riders program. Korail Retail, for advertisement management and running "Storyway" convenience store. Korail Tour Service, for KTX/Saemaul-ho train crew and travel service. North Korea:Until the division of Korea following the end of the Second World War, the Gyeongui Line and Gyeongwon Line extended into what is now North Korea; the Gyeongui Line connected Seoul to Kaesong and Sinuiju on the Chinese border, while the Gyeongwon Line served Wonsan on the east coast. Another line—the Kumgangsan Electric Railway—connected the town of Cheorwon, now on the border of North and South Korea, on the Gyeongwon Line, to Mt. Geumgang, now in the North; the Gyeongui Line is one of two lines whose southern and northern halves are now being reconnected, the other line being the Donghae Bukbu Line.
On 17 May 2007, two test trains ran on the reconnected lines: one on the west line from Munsan to Kaesong. In December 2007, regular freight service started on t