Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Court of Chancery
The Court of Chancery was a court of equity in England and Wales that followed a set of loose rules to avoid the slow pace of change and possible harshness of the common law. The Chancery had jurisdiction over all matters of equity, including trusts, land law, the estates of lunatics and the guardianship of infants, its initial role was somewhat different: as an extension of the Lord Chancellor's role as Keeper of the King's Conscience, the Court was an administrative body concerned with conscientious law. Thus the Court of Chancery had a far greater remit than the common law courts, whose decisions it had the jurisdiction to overrule for much of its existence, was far more flexible; until the 19th century, the Court of Chancery could apply a far wider range of remedies than common law courts, such as specific performance and injunctions, had some power to grant damages in special circumstances. With the shift of the Exchequer of Pleas towards a common law court and loss of its equitable jurisdiction by the Administration of Justice Act 1841, the Chancery became the only national equitable body in the English legal system.
Academics estimate that the Court of Chancery formally split from and became independent of the curia regis in the mid-14th century, at which time it consisted of the Lord Chancellor and his personal staff, the Chancery. An administrative body with some judicial duties, the Chancery experienced an explosive growth in its work during the 15th century under the House of York, which academics attribute to its becoming an entirely judicial body. From the time of Elizabeth I onwards the Court was criticised for its slow pace, large backlogs, high costs; those problems persisted until its dissolution, despite being mitigated somewhat by reforms during the 19th century. Attempts at fusing the Chancery with the common law courts began in the 1850s, succeeded with the 1873 and 1875 Supreme Court of Judicature Acts, which dissolved the Chancery and created a new unified High Court of Justice, with the Chancery Division – one of three divisions of the High Court – succeeding the Court of Chancery as an equitable body.
For much of its existence the Court was formally led by the Lord Chancellor, assisted by the judges of the common law courts. The staff of the court included a large number of clerks, led by the Master of the Rolls, who heard cases on his own. In 1813 a Vice-Chancellor was appointed to deal with the Chancery's increasing backlogs, two more were appointed in 1841. Offices of the Chancery were sold by the Lord Chancellor for much of its history, raising large amounts of money. Many of the clerks and other officials were sinecures who, in lieu of wages, charged exorbitant fees to process cases, one of the main reasons why the cost of bringing a case to the Chancery was so high; the 19th century saw the abolition of many sinecure offices and the institution of a wage and pension for the Lord Chancellor to curb the sale of offices, the right to appoint officials was transferred from the Chancellor to the Crown. The Court of Chancery originated, as did the other High Courts before 1875, in the Norman curia regis or King's Council, maintained by most early rulers of England after 1066.
Under the feudal system, the Council was made up of the Monarch, the Great Officers of the Crown and anyone else the Monarch allowed to attend. Its jurisdiction was unlimited, with executive and legislative functions; this large body contained lawyers and members of the Church, many of whom lived far from London. It soon became apparent; as a result, a smaller curia was formed to deal with the regular business of the country, this soon split into various courts: first the exchequer of pleas, to deal with finance, the Court of Common Pleas, to deal with "common" cases. The Chancery started as the personal staff of the Lord Chancellor, described as "a great secretarial bureau, a home office, a foreign office, a ministry of justice"; the earliest reference to legal issues being sent to him is from 1280, when Edward I of England, annoyed with the number of cases coming to him which could have been dealt with by other elements of his administration, passed a statute saying that: all petitions that touch the Seal shall go first to the Chancellor, those that touch the Exchequer to the Exchequer, those that touch the justices or the law of the land to the justices, those that touch the Jurie to the justices of the Jurie.
And if the matters are so great, or so much of grace, that the Chancellor and the others cannot do what is asked without the King they shall take them to the King to know his will, that no petition come before the King and his Council except by the hands of the said Chancellor and the other chief ministers. Records show dozens of early cases being sent to the Lord Chancellor and Master of the Rolls, but at the time the Chancellor had no specific jurisdiction to deal with them. Under Edward II the Chancellor dedicated set days to hearing pleas, as documented in the records of the Parliament of Lincoln in 1315, which show that some cases were heard by his personal staff, the Chancery, not by the Chancellor. By 1320 requests were sent there, heard by the judges of the common law courts, with the rules used to settle cases being those of "law or reason", sometimes "reason", a far more liberal and adjustable approach than the common law; the Chancery came to pr
James T. Rapier
James Thomas Rapier was an African-American politician from Alabama during the Reconstruction Era. He served as a United States Representative from Alabama, for one term from 1873 until 1875. Born free in Alabama, he received his higher education and law degree in Scotland and Canada before being admitted to the bar in Tennessee. Rapier was a nationally prominent figure in the Republican Party as one of seven blacks serving in the 43rd Congress, he worked in 1874 for passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1875, which guaranteed equal access to public accommodations. James T. Rapier was born free in 1837 in Florence, Alabama to John H. Rapier, a prosperous local barber, his wife, who were established free people of color, he had three older brothers. His father had been emancipated in 1829, she died in 1841. In 1842 James and his brother John Jr. went to Nashville, Tennessee to live with their paternal grandmother Sally Thomas. There they attended a school for African-American children, learned to read and write.
In 1856 Rapier traveled to Canada with his uncle Henry Thomas, his father's half-brother, who settled in Buxton, Ontario, an all-black community made up chiefly of African Americans. It was developed with the aid of a Scots-American Presbyterian missionary. King had bought land for resettlement of black American refugees who had escaped to Canada during the slavery years via the Underground Railroad; the African Americans were building a thriving community, Rapier's uncle had property there. Rapier attended the Buxton Mission School, respected and had a classical education, he pursued higher education in three stages, first earning a teaching degree in 1856 at a normal school in Toronto. He traveled to Scotland to study at University of Glasgow. Returning to Canada, he was admitted to the bar. After teaching for a time at the Buxton Mission School, Rapier moved in 1864 to Nashville, Tennessee, he attended Franklin College, a black college, to gain a teaching certificate. Working as a reporter for a northern newspaper, Rapier bought 200 acres in Maury County and became a cotton planter.
He made a keynote speech at the Tennessee Negro Suffrage ConventionHe continued as an advocate for black voting rights but was disappointed in the return of Confederates to state office. With his father needing help, Rapier returned to his home in Alabama in 1866. There he bought 550 acres and again cultivated cotton, he became active in the Republican Party, serving as a delegate to the 1867 state constitutional convention. In 1870 Rapier lost. In 1872 he was elected to the Forty-third United States Congress from Alabama's 2nd congressional district, one of three African-American congressmen elected from the state during Reconstruction. While in Congress, he had national scope. Rapier proposed authorizing a land bureau to allocate Western lands to freedmen, he proposed that Congress appropriate $5 million to devote to public education in Southern schools. He was one of seven black Congressmen at the time. Rapier recalled being denied service at every inn at stopping points between Montgomery and Washington, DC, despite being a US Congressman.
He noted how the race issue in the United States society related to what were class and religious inequalities in other lands, said that he was "half slave and half free", having political rights but no civil rights. He said that in Europe, "they have princes and lords, he campaigned against the conservative Democratic Party's Redeemer government in Alabama, but Democrats regained control of the state legislature in 1874. After passing other restrictive laws that created Jim Crow rules, in 1901 white Democrats passed a new state constitution that required poll taxes and literacy tests for persons trying to register to vote. Under subjective white administration, these barriers disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites in Alabama, excluding them from the political system for decades into the late 20th century. Rapier died in Alabama on May 31, 1883 of pulmonary tuberculosis, he was buried in Calvary Cemetery in Missouri. The Rapier Family Papers are held by Howard University. In 1979 historian John Hope Franklin gave a presidential address to the American Historical Association.
He discussed how Walter L. Fleming of Vanderbilt University, one of the most prominent of the influential historians of the 20th-century Dunning School, had written about Rapier. Franklin observed that Fleming's viewpoint, hostile to civil and voting rights for African Americans, may have led him to make errors. Franklin said: Writing in 1905 Walter L. Fleming referred to James T. Rapier, a Negro member of the Alabama constitutional convention of 1867, as "Rapier of Canada." He quoted Rapier as saying that the manner in which "colored gentlemen and ladies were treated in America was beyond his comprehension." In a footnote to his address, Franklin added: "Fleming knew better, for in another place—deep in a footnote —he asserted that Rapier was from Lauderdale, "educated in Canada"."Franklin explained: Born in Alabam
Confederate States Army
The Confederate States Army was the military land force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, fighting against the United States forces. On February 28, 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress established a provisional volunteer army and gave control over military operations and authority for mustering state forces and volunteers to the newly chosen Confederate president, Jefferson Davis. Davis was a graduate of the U. S. Military Academy, colonel of a volunteer regiment during the Mexican–American War, he had been a United States Senator from Mississippi and U. S. Secretary of War under President Franklin Pierce. On March 1, 1861, on behalf of the Confederate government, Davis assumed control of the military situation at Charleston, South Carolina, where South Carolina state militia besieged Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor, held by a small U. S. Army garrison. By March 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress expanded the provisional forces and established a more permanent Confederate States Army.
An accurate count of the total number of individuals who served in the Confederate Army is not possible due to incomplete and destroyed Confederate records. This does not include an unknown number of slaves who were pressed into performing various tasks for the army, such as construction of fortifications and defenses or driving wagons. Since these figures include estimates of the total number of individual soldiers who served at any time during the war, they do not represent the size of the army at any given date; these numbers do not include men. Although most of the soldiers who fought in the American Civil War were volunteers, both sides by 1862 resorted to conscription as a means to force men to register and to volunteer. In the absence of exact records, estimates of the percentage of Confederate soldiers who were draftees are about double the 6 percent of United States soldiers who were conscripts. Confederate casualty figures are incomplete and unreliable; the best estimates of the number of deaths of Confederate soldiers are about 94,000 killed or mortally wounded in battle, 164,000 deaths from disease and between 26,000 and 31,000 deaths in United States prison camps.
One estimate of Confederate wounded, considered incomplete, is 194,026. These numbers do not include men who died from other causes such as accidents, which would add several thousand to the death toll; the main Confederate armies, the Army of Northern Virginia under General Robert E. Lee and the remnants of the Army of Tennessee and various other units under General Joseph E. Johnston, surrendered to the U. S. on April 9, 1865, April 18, 1865. Other Confederate forces surrendered between April 16, 1865 and June 28, 1865. By the end of the war, more than 100,000 Confederate soldiers had deserted, some estimates put the number as high as one third of Confederate soldiers; the Confederacy's government dissolved when it fled Richmond in April and exerted no control of the remaining armies. By the time Abraham Lincoln took office as President of the United States on March 4, 1861, the seven seceding slave states had formed the Confederate States; the Confederacy seized federal property, including nearly all U.
S. Army forts, within its borders. Lincoln was determined to hold the forts remaining under U. S. control when he took office Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. By the time Lincoln was sworn in as president, the Provisional Confederate Congress had authorized the organization of a large Provisional Army of the Confederate States. Under orders from Confederate President Jefferson Davis, C. S. troops under the command of General P. G. T. Beauregard bombarded Fort Sumter on April 12–13, 1861, forcing its capitulation on April 14; the United States demanded war. It rallied behind Lincoln's call on April 15, for all the states to send troops to recapture the forts from the secessionists, to put down the rebellion and to preserve the United States intact. Four more slave states joined the Confederacy. Both the United States and the Confederate States began in earnest to raise large volunteer, armies with the objectives of putting down the rebellion and preserving the Union, on the one hand, or of establishing independence from the United States, on the other.
The Confederate Congress provided for a Confederate army patterned after the United States Army. It was to consist of a large provisional force to exist only in time of war and a small permanent regular army; the provisional, volunteer army was established by an act of the Provisional Confederate Congress passed on February 28, 1861, one week before the act which established the permanent regular army organization, passed on March 6. Although the two forces were to exist concurrently little was done to organize the Confederate regular army; the Provisional Army of the Confederate States began organizing on April 27. All regular and conscripted men preferred to enter this organization since officers could achieve a higher rank in the Provisional Army than they could in the Regular Army. If the war had ended for them, the Confederates intended that the PACS would be disbanded, leaving only the ACSA; the Army of the Confederate States of America was the regular army and was authorized to include 15,015 men, including 744 officers, but this level was never achieved.
The men serving in the highest rank as Confederate States generals, such as Samuel Cooper and Robert E. Lee, were enrolled in the ACSA to ensure that they outranked all
Alabama House of Representatives
The Alabama House of Representatives is the lower house of the Alabama Legislature, the state legislature of the U. S. state of Alabama. The House is composed of 105 members representing an equal number of districts, with each constituency containing at least 42,380 citizens. There are no term limits in the House; the House is one of the five lower houses of state legislatures in the United States, elected every four years. Other lower houses, including the United States House of Representatives, are elected for a two-year term; the House meets at the Alabama State House in Montgomery. All revenue-raising matters must originate in the Alabama House, just as in the Congress of the United States; the House must have a quorum to conduct business, a majority of a quorum can pass any bill except a constitutional amendment, which requires a three-fifths vote of all those elected. An appropriation to a non-government organization, such as a private college, requires a two-thirds vote of those elected.
In order to be a member of the Alabama House of Representatives, one must be a minimum of 21 years of age. The Alabama House of Representatives is composed of 105 members, chosen from an equal number of districts across the state; each member represents a district of 42,000 people, is elected to a four-year term. Members of the House at the time of their election must have been citizens of Alabama for three years, have lived in their respective districts for at least one year preceding their election; the Speaker of the House is a member of the body and is elected by his colleagues to serve as its presiding officer. Members of the House are paid a salary of ten dollars per day, plus expenses other than travel in an amount fixed by joint resolution of the legislature; the Speaker of the House presides over the House of Representatives. The Speaker is elected by the majority party caucus followed by confirmation of the full House through the passage of a House Resolution. In addition to presiding over the body, the Speaker is the chief leadership position and controls the flow of legislation and committee assignments.
Other House leaders, such as the majority and minority leaders, are elected by their respective party caucuses relative to their party's strength in the chamber. Speaker of the House: Republican Mac McCutcheon, District 25 Majority Leader: Republican Nathaniel Ledbetter, District 24 Minority Leader: Democrat Anthony Daniels, District 53 Throughout most of the state's history, the Democratic Party has held the majority in the Alabama House of Representatives except for a few brief exceptions; the Whig Party controlled the lower house in 1819 and again in 1821-23 and for the last time in 1837-1838. After the Civil War, Republicans held the majority during the Reconstruction period from 1868-1870 and again from 1872-1874; this was followed by 136 years of Democratic control ending in November, 2010. Beginning with the 2010 General Election Republicans swept to a large majority and have increased it in the succeeding elections in 2014 and 2018. Current committees include: Government of Alabama Alabama Senate Alabama Republican Party Alabama Democratic Party Alabama House of Representatives Official Site
University of South Carolina
The University of South Carolina is a public research university in Columbia, South Carolina. It has seven satellite campuses throughout the state and its main campus covers over 359 acres in downtown Columbia not far from the South Carolina State House; the university is categorized by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching as having "highest research activity." It has been ranked as an "up-and-coming" university by U. S. News & World Report, its undergraduate and graduate International Business programs have ranked among the top three programs in the nation for over a decade, it houses the largest collection of Robert Burns and Scottish literature materials outside Scotland, the world's largest Ernest Hemingway collection. Founded in 1801 as South Carolina College, USC is the flagship institution of the University of South Carolina System and offers more than 350 programs of study, leading to bachelor's, master's, doctoral degrees from fourteen degree-granting colleges and schools.
The University of South Carolina has a total enrollment of 50,000 students, with over 34,000 on the main Columbia campus as of fall 2017 - making it the largest university in the Carolinas. USC has several thousand future students in feeder programs at surrounding technical colleges. Professional schools on the Columbia campus include business, law, medicine and social work; the university was founded as South Carolina College on December 19, 1801, by an act of the South Carolina General Assembly initiated by Governor John Drayton in an effort to promote harmony between the Lowcountry and the Backcountry. On January 10, 1805, having an initial enrollment of nine students, the college commenced classes with a traditional classical curriculum; the first president was theologian Reverend Jonathan Maxcy. He was an alumnus of Brown University, with an honorary degree from Harvard University. Before coming to the college, Maxcy had served as the second president of Brown and the third president of Union College.
Maxcy's tenure lasted from 1804 through 1820. When South Carolina College opened its doors in 1801, the building now known as Rutledge College was the only building on campus. Located one block southeast of the State Capitol, it served as an administrative office, academic building, residence hall, chapel. However, the master plan for the original campus called for a total of eleven buildings, all facing a large lush gathering area. In 1807, the original President's House was the next building to be erected; the building now known as DeSaussure College followed shortly thereafter, the remaining eight buildings were constructed over the next several decades. When completed, all eleven buildings formed a U-shape open to Sumter Street; this modified quadrangle became known as the Horseshoe. As with other southern universities in the antebellum period, the most important organizations for students were the two literary societies, the Clariosophic Society and the Euphradian Society; these two societies, which arose from a split in an earlier literary society known as the Philomathic, grew to encapsulate the majority of the student body from the 1820s onward.
The College became a symbol of the South in the antebellum period as its graduates were on the forefront of secession from the Union. With the generous support of the General Assembly, South Carolina College acquired a reputation as the leading institution of the South and attracted several noteworthy scholars, including Francis Lieber, Thomas Cooper, Joseph LeConte. Seventy-two students were present for classes in January 1862 and the college functioned as best it could until a call by the Confederate government for South Carolina to fill its quota of 18,000 soldiers. A system of conscription would begin on March 20 for all men between the ages of eighteen and forty-five, so on March 8 all of the students at the college volunteered for service in order to avoid the dishonor of having been conscripted. Despite the depletion of students, the professors issued a notice that the college would temporarily close and would reopen to those under eighteen; when the college reopened on March 17, only nine students showed up for classes and it became quite apparent to all that the college would not last past the end of the term in June.
On June 25 with the consent of the state government, the Confederate authorities took possession of the college buildings and converted them into a hospital. After many unsuccessful attempts to reopen the college, the trustees passed a resolution on December 2, 1863, that closed the college. By February 1865, Sherman's army had reached the outskirts of Columbia and the college was spared from destruction by the Union forces because of its use as a hospital. In addition, a company of the 25th Iowa Volunteer Infantry Regiment was stationed at the campus on February 17 to protect it from harm and to thwart off pillaging Yankee soldiers; the Union army took possession of the college on May 24, 1865, although the future for the college appeared bleak with it under military control, General John Porter Hatch sent a letter on June 19 to the remaining professors at the college that it should reopen as soon as possible. The appointment of Benjamin Franklin Perry as provisional governor of South Carolina on June 30 by President Andrew Johnson restored civilian rule to the state.
Perry reinstated the trustees to their positions and the board met on September 20 to authorize the college to reopen on the first Monday of January in 1866. In a message to the legislature in October, Perry sought to convert the college into a university because with the state in an impoverished situation, it would provide a more practical education. Little opposition deve
Alabama's 3rd congressional district
Alabama's 3rd congressional district is a United States congressional district in Alabama that elects a representative to the United States House of Representatives. It is based in east central Alabama and encompasses portions of Montgomery and the entirety of Calhoun, Cherokee, Cleburne, Macon, Russell, St. Clair and Tallapoosa counties; the district takes in some of the city of Montgomery. Other cities in the district include Talladega and Auburn. At the federal level, the district is Republican-leaning, albeit not as as many of the other districts in the state. John McCain carried the district in 2008 with 56.21% of the vote while Barack Obama clinched 43.04% of the vote. The district is represented by Republican Mike Rogers and was once represented by Bob Riley, the former Governor of Alabama; as of February 2017, there are two former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Alabama's 3rd congressional district that are living; the most recent representative to die was Elizabeth B. Andrews on December 2, 2002.
The most serving representative to die was William Flynt Nichols, who died in office on December 13, 1988. Alabama's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present CNN coverage of the 2006 election CNN coverage of the 2004 election CNN coverage of the 2002 election CNN coverage of the 2000 election