New Hampshire House of Representatives
The New Hampshire House of Representatives is the lower house in the New Hampshire General Court, the bicameral legislature of the state of New Hampshire. The House of Representatives consists of 400 members coming from 204 legislative districts across the state, created from divisions of the state's counties. On average, each legislator represents about 3,300 residents. Districts vary in number of seats based on their populations, with the least-populous districts electing only one member and the most populous electing 11. In multi-member districts, voters are allowed to cast as many votes; this system results in one party winning all of the seats in the district, as the results below for the current representation attest. Unlike in many state legislatures, there is no single "aisle" to cross per se, as members of both parties sit segregated in five sections; the seat section and number is put on the legislator's motor vehicle license plate, which they pay for if they wish to put one on their personal automobiles, or in the case of the chairpersons and party leaders, their title is put on the legislative plate.
Seating location is enforced, as seating is pre-assigned, although the personal preference of the legislator is asked chairmen and those with special needs are given the preferred aisle seats. The sixth section is the Speaker's seat at the head of the hall; the House of Representatives has met in Representatives Hall of the New Hampshire State House since 1819. Representatives Hall is thus the oldest chamber in the United States still in continuous legislative use. Large arched windows line the walls. On the rostrum hang portraits of John P. Hale, Abraham Lincoln, George Washington, Franklin Pierce, Daniel Webster. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election. ↓ If a candidate receives enough votes in two parties' primaries, they are listed as being the nominee of both parties in the general election. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election.
↑ Member was elected in a special election. ↓ If a candidate receives enough votes in two parties' primaries, they are listed as being the nominee of both parties in the general election. ↑ Member was elected in a special election. State of New Hampshire House of Representatives official government website Leadership Project Vote Smart – State House of New Hampshire voter information The Legislative Branch of State Government
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain, becoming the United States of America, they defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War in alliance with others. Members of American colonial society argued the position of "no taxation without representation", starting with the Stamp Act Congress in 1765, they rejected the authority of the British Parliament to tax them because they lacked members in that governing body. Protests escalated to the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the burning of the Gaspee in Rhode Island in 1772, followed by the Boston Tea Party in December 1773, during which Patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea; the British responded by closing Boston Harbor followed with a series of legislative acts which rescinded Massachusetts Bay Colony's rights of self-government and caused the other colonies to rally behind Massachusetts. In late 1774, the Patriots set up their own alternative government to better coordinate their resistance efforts against Great Britain.
Tensions erupted into battle between Patriot militia and British regulars when the king's army attempted to capture and destroy Colonial military supplies at Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775. The conflict developed into a global war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War; each of the thirteen colonies formed a Provincial Congress that assumed power from the old colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism, from there they built a Continental Army under the leadership of General George Washington. The Continental Congress determined King George's rule to be tyrannical and infringing the colonists' rights as Englishmen, they declared the colonies free and independent states on July 2, 1776; the Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, they proclaimed that all men are created equal. The Continental Army forced the redcoats out of Boston in March 1776, but that summer the British captured and held New York City and its strategic harbor for the duration of the war.
The Royal Navy blockaded ports and captured other cities for brief periods, but they failed to defeat Washington's forces. The Patriots unsuccessfully attempted to invade Canada during the winter of 1775–76, but captured a British army at the Battle of Saratoga in October 1777. France now entered the war as an ally of the United States with a large army and navy that threatened Britain itself; the war turned to the American South where the British under the leadership of Charles Cornwallis captured an army at Charleston, South Carolina in early 1780 but failed to enlist enough volunteers from Loyalist civilians to take effective control of the territory. A combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in the fall of 1781 ending the war; the Treaty of Paris was signed September 3, 1783, formally ending the conflict and confirming the new nation's complete separation from the British Empire. The United States took possession of nearly all the territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada and Spain taking Florida.
Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of the United States Constitution, establishing a strong federal national government that included an executive, a national judiciary, a bicameral Congress that represented states in the Senate and the population in the House of Representatives. The Revolution resulted in the migration of around 60,000 Loyalists to other British territories British North America; as early as 1651, the English government had sought to regulate trade in the American colonies. On October 9, the Navigation Acts were passed pursuant to a mercantilist policy intended to ensure that trade enriched only Great Britain, barring trade with foreign nations; some argue that the economic impact was minimal on the colonists, but the political friction which the acts triggered was more serious, as the merchants most directly affected were most politically active. King Philip's War ended in 1678, much of it was fought without significant assistance from England.
This contributed to the development of a unique identity from that of the British people. In the 1680s, King Charles II determined to bring the New England colonies under a more centralized administration in order to regulate trade more effectively, his efforts were fiercely opposed by the colonists, resulting in the abrogation of their colonial charter by the Crown. Charles' successor James II finalized these efforts in 1686, establishing the Dominion of New England. Dominion rule triggered bitter resentment throughout New England. New Englanders were encouraged, however, by a change of government in England that saw James II abdicate, a populist uprising overthrew Dominion rule on April 18, 1689. Colonial governments reasserted their control in the wake of the revolt, successive governments made no more attempts to restore the Dominion. Subsequent English governments continued in their efforts to tax certain goods, passing acts regulating the trade of wool and molasses; the Molasses Act of 1733 in particular was egregious to the colonists, as a significant part of colonial trade relied on the product.
The taxes damaged the N
Province of New Hampshire
The Province of New Hampshire was a colony of England and a British province in North America. The name was first given in 1629 to the territory between the Merrimack and Piscataqua rivers on the eastern coast of North America, was named after the county of Hampshire in southern England by Captain John Mason, its first named proprietor. In 1776 the province established an independent state and government, the State of New Hampshire, joined with twelve other colonies to form the United States. Europeans first settled New Hampshire in the 1620s, the province consisted for many years of a small number of communities along the seacoast, Piscataqua River, Great Bay. In 1641 the communities were organized under the government of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, until Charles II issued a colonial charter for the province and appointed John Cutt as President of New Hampshire in 1679. After a brief period as a separate province, the territory was absorbed into the Dominion of New England in 1686. Following the collapse of the unpopular Dominion, on October 7, 1691 New Hampshire was again separated from Massachusetts and organized as an English crown colony.
Its charter was enacted on May 14, 1692, during the coregency of William and Mary, the joint monarchs of England and Ireland. Between 1699 and 1741, the province's governor was concurrently the governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay; this practice ended in 1741, when Benning Wentworth was appointed governor. Wentworth laid claim on behalf of the province to lands west of the Connecticut River, east of the Hudson River, north of Massachusetts, issuing controversial land grants that were disputed by the Province of New York, which claimed the territory; these disputes resulted in the eventual formation of the Vermont Republic and the US state of Vermont. The province's economy was dominated by fishing; the timber trade, although lucrative, was a subject of conflict with the crown, which sought to reserve the best trees for use as ship masts. Although the Puritan leaders of Massachusetts ruled the province for many years, the New Hampshire population was more religiously diverse, originating in part in its early years with refugees from opposition to religious differences in Massachusetts.
From the 1680s until 1760, New Hampshire was on the front lines of military conflicts with New France and the Abenaki people, seeing major attacks on its communities in King William's War, Dummer's War, King George's War. The province was at first not in favor of independence, but with the outbreak of armed conflict at Lexington and Concord many of its inhabitants joined the revolutionary cause. After Governor John Wentworth fled New Hampshire in August 1775, the inhabitants adopted a constitution in early 1776. Independence as part of the United States was confirmed with the 1783 Treaty of Paris. Prior to English colonization, the area, now northeastern New England was populated by bands of the Abenaki, who lived in sometimes-large villages of longhouses. Depending on the season, they would either remain near their villages to fish, gather plants, engage in sugaring, trade or fight with their neighbors, or head to nearby fowling and hunting grounds; the seacoast was explored in the early years of the 17th century by English and French explorers, including Samuel de Champlain and John Smith.
Permanent English settlement began after land grants were issued in 1622 to John Mason and Sir Ferdinando Gorges for the territory between the Merrimack and Sagadahoc rivers encompassing present-day New Hampshire and western Maine. Settlers, whose early leaders included David Thomson, Edward Hilton and his brother William Hilton, began settling the New Hampshire coast as early as 1623, expanded along the shores of the Piscataqua River and the Great Bay; these settlers were intending to profit from the local fisheries. Mason and Gorges, neither of whom came to New England, divided their claims along the Piscataqua River in 1629. Mason took the territory between the Piscataqua and Merrimack, called it "New Hampshire", after the English county of Hampshire. Conflicts between holders of grants issued by Mason and Gorges concerning their boundaries led to a need for more active management. In 1630, Captain Walter Neale was sent as chief agent and governor of the lower settlements on the Piscataqua, in 1631 Captain Thomas Wiggin was sent to govern the upper settlements, comprising modern-day Dover and Stratham.
After Mason died in 1635, the colonists and employees of Mason appropriated many of his holdings to themselves. Exeter was founded in 1638 by John Wheelwright, after he had been banished from the neighboring Massachusetts Bay Colony for defending the teachings of Anne Hutchinson, his sister-in-law. In the absence of granting authority from anyone associated with the Masons, Wheelwright's party purchased the land from local Indians, his party included William Wentworth, whose descendants came to play a major role in colonial history. Around the same time, others unhappy with the strict Puritan rule in Massachusetts settled in Dover, while Puritans from Massachusetts settled what became Hampton; because of a general lack of government, the New Hampshire settlements sought the protection of their larger neighbor to the south, the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1641, they collectively agreed to be governed from Massachusetts, provided the towns retained self-rule, that Congregational Church membership was not required for their voters.
The settlements formed part of that colony until 1679, sending representat
The Federalist Party, referred to as the Pro-Administration party until the 3rd United States Congress as opposed to their opponents in the Anti-Administration party, was the first American political party. It existed from the early 1790s to the 1820s, with their last presidential candidate being fielded in 1816, they appealed to business and to conservatives who favored banks, national over state government and preferred Britain and opposed the French Revolution. The Federalists called for a strong national government that promoted economic growth and fostered friendly relationships with Great Britain as well as opposition to Revolutionary France; the party controlled the federal government until 1801, when it was overwhelmed by the Democratic-Republican opposition led by Thomas Jefferson. The Federalist Party came into being between 1792 and 1794 as a national coalition of bankers and businessmen in support of Alexander Hamilton's fiscal policies; these supporters developed into the organized Federalist Party, committed to a fiscally sound and nationalistic government.
The only Federalist President was John Adams. George Washington was broadly sympathetic to the Federalist program, but he remained non-partisan during his entire presidency. Federalist policies called for a national bank and good relations with Great Britain as expressed in the Jay Treaty negotiated in 1794. Hamilton developed the concept of implied powers and argued the adoption of that interpretation of the United States Constitution, their political opponents, the Democratic-Republicans led by Thomas Jefferson, denounced most of the Federalist policies the bank and implied powers. The Jay Treaty passed and the Federalists won most of the major legislative battles in the 1790s, they held a strong base in New England. After the Democratic-Republicans, whose base was in the rural South, won the hard-fought presidential election of 1800, the Federalists never returned to power, they recovered some strength through their intense opposition to the War of 1812, but they vanished during the Era of Good Feelings that followed the end of the war in 1815.
The Federalists left a lasting legacy in the form of a strong Federal government with a sound financial base. After losing executive power, they decisively shaped Supreme Court policy for another three decades through the person of Chief Justice John Marshall. On taking office in 1789, President Washington nominated New York lawyer Alexander Hamilton to the office of Secretary of the Treasury. Hamilton wanted a strong national government with financial credibility. Hamilton proposed the ambitious Hamiltonian economic program that involved assumption of the state debts incurred during the American Revolution, creating a national debt and the means to pay it off and setting up a national bank, along with creating tariffs. James Madison was Hamilton's ally in the fight to ratify the new Constitution, but Madison and Thomas Jefferson opposed Hamilton's programs by 1791. Political parties had not been anticipated when the Constitution was drafted in 1787 and ratified in 1788 though both Hamilton and Madison played major roles.
Parties were considered to be harmful to republicanism. No similar parties existed anywhere in the world. By 1790, Hamilton started building a nationwide coalition. Realizing the need for vocal political support in the states, he formed connections with like-minded nationalists and used his network of treasury agents to link together friends of the government merchants and bankers, in the new nation's dozen major cities, his attempts to manage politics in the national capital to get his plans through Congress "brought strong" responses across the country. In the process, what began as a capital faction soon assumed status as a national faction and as the new Federalist Party; the Federalist Party supported Hamilton's vision of a strong centralized government and agreed with his proposals for a national bank and heavy government subsidies. In foreign affairs, they supported neutrality in the war between Great Britain; the majority of the Founding Fathers were Federalists. Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and many others can all be considered Federalists.
These Federalists felt that the Articles of Confederation had been too weak to sustain a working government and had decided that a new form of government was needed. Hamilton was made Secretary of the Treasury and when he came up with the idea of funding the debt he created a split in the original Federalist group. Madison disagreed with Hamilton not just on this issue, but on many others as well and he and John J. Beckley created the Anti-Federalist faction; these men would form the Republican party under Thomas Jefferson. By the early 1790s, newspapers started calling Hamilton supporters "Federalists" and their opponents "Democrats", "Republicans", "Jeffersonians", or—much later—"Democratic-Republicans". Jefferson's supporters called themselves "Republicans" and their party the "Republican Party"; the Federalist Party became popular with businessmen and New Englanders as Republicans were farmers who opposed a strong central government. Cities were Federalist strongholds whereas frontier regions were Republican.
However, these are generalizations as there are special cases such as the Presbyterians of upland North Carolina, who had immigrated just before the Revolution and been Tories, became Federalists. The Congregationalists of New England and the Episcopalians in the larger cities supported the Federalists while other minority denominations tended toward the Republican camp. Catholics
2nd United States Congress
The Second United States Congress, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives, met at Congress Hall in Philadelphia, from March 4, 1791, to March 4, 1793, during the third and fourth years of George Washington's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the provisions of Article I, Section 2, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution. Additional House seats were assigned to the two new states of Kentucky. Both chambers had a Pro-Administration majority. April 5, 1792: President Washington used the veto for the first time, vetoing a bill designed to apportion representatives among U. S. states. April–May, 1792: the House conducted the government's first investigative hearings, examining Gen. Arthur St. Clair's Defeat in the Battle of the Wabash. October 13, 1792: Foundation of Washington, D. C.: The cornerstone of the United States Executive Mansion, now known as the White House, was laid. February 20, 1792: Postal Service Act, Sess.
1, ch. 7, 1 Stat. 232, established the U. S. Post Office March 1, 1792: Act relative to the Election of a President and Vice President of the United States, to Presidential Succession, Sess. 1, ch. 8, 1 Stat. 239, stated the process for electors and Congress to follow when electing a president and vice president, established which federal officer would act as president if both the offices of president and vice president became vacant. April 2, 1792: Coinage Act of 1792, Sess. 1, ch. 16, 1 Stat. 246, established the United States Mint and regulated coinage April 14, 1792: Apportionment Act of 1792, Sess. 1, ch. 23 1 Stat. 253, increased the size of the House of Representatives from 69 seats in the 2nd Congress to 105 in the 3rd and apportioned those seats among the several states according to the 1790 Census May 2, 1792: First Militia Act of 1792, Sess. 1, ch. 28, 1 Stat. 264, empowered the president to call out the militias of the various states in the event of an invasion or rebellion. May 8, 1792: Second Militia Act of 1792, Sess.
1, ch. 33, 1 Stat. 271, required that every free able-bodied white male citizen of the various states, between the ages of 18 and 45, enroll in the militia of the state in which they reside. February 12, 1793: Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, Sess. 2, ch. 7, 1 Stat. 302 March 2, 1793: Judiciary Act of 1793, Sess. 2, ch. 22, 1 Stat. 333 March 4, 1791: Vermont was admitted as the 14th state, 1 Stat. 191 June 1, 1792: Kentucky was admitted as the 15th state, 1 Stat. 189 December 15, 1791: The first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution, collectively known as the Bill of Rights, were ratified by the requisite number of states to become part of the Constitution. There were no political parties in this Congress. Members are informally grouped into factions of similar interest, based on an analysis of their voting record. Details on changes are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section. During this congress, two new Senate seats were added for each of the new states of Vermont and Kentucky.
During this congress, two new House seats were added for each of the new states of Vermont and Kentucky. President: John Adams President pro tempore: Richard Henry Lee John Langdon, elected November 5, 1792 Speaker: Jonathan Trumbull, Jr; this list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed by Class, Representatives are listed by district. Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, facing re-election in 1796; the names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their districts. There were no political parties in this Congress. Members are informally grouped into factions of similar interest, based on an analysis of their voting record. Vermont and Kentucky are first represented in this Congress. There were three resignations, one contested election, four new seats of admitted states, resulting in a four-seat net gain of the Anti-Administration Senators.
There were 3 resignations, 1 vacancy of a member-elect, 1 contested election, 2 late elections, 4 new seats of admitted states, resulting in a 3-seat net gain of the Anti-Administration members and a 1-seat net gain of the Pro-Administration members. Lists of committees and their party leaders. Whole Elections Rules Whole Enrolled Bills Secretary: Samuel A. Otis of Massachusetts Doorkeeper: James Mathers of New York Chaplain: William White Clerk: John Beckley of Virginia Sergeant at Arms: Joseph Wheaton of Rhode Island Doorkeeper: Gifford Dalley Chaplain: Samuel Blair (Presbyterian, elected October 24, 1791 Ashbel Green, elected November 5, 1792 Reading Clerks: United States elections, 1790 United States Senate elections, 1790 and 1791 United States House of Representatives elections, 1790 United States elections, 1792 United States presidential election, 1792 United States Senate elections, 1792 and 1793 United States House of Representatives elections, 1792 Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Statutes at
Peterborough, New Hampshire
Peterborough is a town in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 6,284 at the 2010 census; the central settlement in town, with 3,103 people at the 2010 census, is defined as the Peterborough census-designated place and is located along the Contoocook River at the junction of U. S. Route 202 and New Hampshire Route 101; the community is 72 miles northwest of Boston. Granted by Massachusetts in 1737, it was first permanently settled in 1749; the town suffered several attacks during the French and Indian War. By 1759, there were fifty families settled. Incorporated on January 17, 1760 by Governor Benning Wentworth, it was named after Lieutenant Peter Prescott of Concord, Massachusetts, a prominent land speculator; the Contoocook River and Nubanusit Brook offered numerous sites for watermills, Peterborough became a prosperous mill town. In 1810, the first cotton factory was established. By 1859, when the population was 2,222, there were four additional cotton factories, plus a woolen mill.
Other industries included two paper mills, an iron foundry, a machine shop, a carriage factory, a basket manufacturer, a maker of trusses and supporters, a boot and shoe factory, seven sawmills, three gristmills. Abiel Abbot, after being charged with heresy by the Connecticut religious establishment, came to Peterborough as minister to the Peterborough Unitarian Church in 1827. Reverend Abbot founded the town's first prep school, the Monadnock Summer Lyceum, the first free library in the US, all in Peterborough. Other early cultural institutions include Mariarden, a summer theatre where Paul Robeson played in Eugene O'Neill's The Emperor Jones at a time when roles for black Americans were scarce. Bette Davis performed there as a teen. Performance blossomed again in 1976, when Jonathon Hall founded the Peterborough Folkway. "Within a few years, it became a'must play' on the East Coast for folk musicians and continued to be a popular stop" for two decades. Regular performers included Tom Paxton, Mary Chapin Carpenter, Shawn Colvin, Suzanne Vega.
In the 1980s, thanks to publisher Wayne Green, "Peterborough was the per capita magazine production capital of the world." Over 100 magazines about computers and technology, were published there. Peterborough's leadership in environmental protection began in the 1990s, when its Earth Day USA office supported the US Air Force's annual Earth Day events around the world. Peterborough is home to the first tax-supported free public library in the United States; the Peterborough Town Library was founded at a town meeting on April 9, 1833. This idea was revolutionary in a time; the collection of materials would be owned by the people and free to access. Funds for the formation of the library were made available through the State Literacy Fund; the Reverend Abiel Abbot had experience in creating libraries. In the six years he had spent in Peterborough prior to 1833, he had established the Juvenile Library, which he operated out of his home, the Peterborough Library Company, a dues-paying membership library.
Due to the success of Abbot's libraries the Town Library, the New Hampshire State Legislature passed a law authorizing towns to raise money to establish and maintain their own libraries. This law was enacted in 1849; the library started in the town's general store, which served as the post office. The postmaster served as the librarian, until Susan Gates was appointed in 1854. By 1873, it was decided that the library materials would be moved to the Town Hall, but by 1890, there were 6,000 books and not enough space to accommodate the collection and patrons. A new library continues to operate as the town's library. Since construction, the library has been expanded twice, its collection has grown from the hundred original items to over 43,000 books. A booklet on the history of the library is available at the circulation desk. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 38.1 square miles, of which 37.7 square miles is land and 0.42 square miles is water, comprising 1.06% of the town.
Peterborough is drained by the Contoocook River. The highest point in Peterborough is South Pack Monadnock Mountain, in Miller State Park. Peterborough is home to Edward MacDowell Dam and Lake recreation area, where visitors can walk across the dam, cross-country ski, boat, play Frisbee golf, horseshoes or other recreational opportunities, many of them disabilities accessible; the town is crossed by U. S. Route 202 and Route 101; as of the census of 2010, there were 6,284 people, 2,713 households, 1,629 families residing in the town. The population density was 167.0 people per square mile. There were 2,956 housing units at an average density of 78.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.1% White, 1.8% Asian, 0.7% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.4% some other race, 0.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.4% of the population. There were 2,713 households, out of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.8% were headed by married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.0% were non-families.
33.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 15.2% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24, the average family size was 2.85. In the town, the population was sp
John Langdon (politician)
John Langdon was a politician from Portsmouth, New Hampshire, a Founding Father of the United States. He served as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention, signed the United States Constitution, was one of the first two United States senators from that state; as a member of the Continental Congress Langdon was an early supporter of the Revolutionary War. He served in United States Congress for 12 years, including as the first president pro tempore of the Senate, before becoming governor of New Hampshire, he turned down a nomination for Vice Presidential candidate in 1812. Langdon's father was a prosperous farmer and local ship builder whose family had emigrated to America before 1660 from Sheviock, Cornwall; the Langdons were among the first to settle near the mouth of the Piscataqua River, a settlement which became Portsmouth, one of New England's major seaports. Langdon attended the local grammar school run by a veteran of the 1745 Siege of Louisbourg against the French at Fortress Louisbourg in New France.
After finishing his primary education, he served an apprenticeship as a clerk. He and his older brother, Woodbury Langdon, rejected the opportunity to join pop in their father's successful agricultural livelihood and apprenticed themselves to local naval merchants instead. By age 22, Langdon was captain of a cargo ship called sailing to the West Indies. Four years he owned his first merchantman, would continue over time to acquire a small fleet of vessels engaging in the triangle trade between Portsmouth, the Caribbean, London, his older brother was more successful in international trade, by 1777 both young men were among Portsmouth's wealthiest citizens. British control of the shipping industries hurt Langdon's business, motivating him to become a vigorous and prominent supporter of the revolutionary movement in the 1770s, he served on the New Hampshire Committee of Correspondence and a nonimportation committee, attended various Patriot assemblies. In 1774, he participated in the seizure and confiscation of British munitions from Fort William and Mary.
Langdon served as a member of the Second Continental Congress from 1775 to 1776. He resigned in June 1776 to become agent for the Continental forces against the British and superintended the construction of several warships including the Raleigh, the America, the Ranger, captained by John Paul Jones. In 1777, he equipped an expedition against the British, participating in the Battle of Bennington and commanding Langdon's Company of Light Horse Volunteers at Saratoga and in Rhode Island. In 1784 he built at Portsmouth the mansion now known as the Governor John Langdon House. Langdon was elected to two terms as President of New Hampshire, once between 1785 and 1786 and again between 1788 and 1789, he was a member of the Congress of the Confederation in 1787 and became a delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1787, serving as a member of the New Hampshire delegation. Langdon was elected to the U. S. Senate and served from March 4, 1789 to March 3, 1801, he was elected the first President pro tempore of the Senate on April 6, 1789, served as president pro tempore during the second Congress.
During the 1787 constitutional debates in Philadelphia, Langdon spoke out against James Madison's proposed "negative" on state laws because he felt that should the Senate be granted this power and not the House of Representatives, it would "hurt the feelings" of House members. In 1798, Langdon assisted Oney Judge to evade Burwell Bassett, the nephew of George and Martha Washington, who had intended to kidnap Judge and return her to slavery with the Washingtons. Langdon served as a member of the New Hampshire Legislature, with the last two terms as speaker. In 1808, his niece, Catherine Whipple Langdon, married Edmund Roberts. Langdon declined the nomination to be a candidate for Vice President with James Madison in 1812, retired, he was interred at the Langdon Tomb in the North Cemetery. The town of Langdon, New Hampshire is named after him, as well as Langdon Street in Madison, Wisconsin, a town with numerous streets named after founding fathers. United States Congress. "John Langdon". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
"The Founding Fathers: New Hampshire." U. S. National Archives and Records Administration. Wright, Jr. Robert K. "John Langdon". Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. Washington, D. C.: United States Army Center of Military History. CMH Pub 71-25. State Builders: An Illustrated Historical and Biographical Record of the State of New Hampshire. State Builers Publishing Manchester, NH 1903 Mayo, Lawrence Shaw. John Langdon of New Hampshire. Port Washington, New York: Kennikat Press, 1937. Governor John Langdon House, Historic New England Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Langdon, John". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press