Kiri Te Kanawa
Dame Kiri Janette Te Kanawa is a New Zealand soprano. She has a full lyric soprano voice, described as "mellow yet vibrant, warm and unforced". Te Kanawa has received accolades in many countries, singing a wide array of works in many languages dating from the 17th to the 20th centuries, she is associated with the works of Mozart, Verdi and Puccini, has found considerable success in portraying princesses and other similar characters on stage. Though she sang opera in her career, Te Kanawa performed in concert and recital, gave masterclasses, supported young opera singers in launching their careers, her final performance was in Ballarat, Australia, in October 2016, but she did not reveal her retirement until September 2017. Te Kanawa was born Claire Mary Teresa Rawstron in New Zealand, she has Māori and European ancestry, but little is known about her birth parents—she was adopted as an infant by Thomas Te Kanawa and his wife, Nell. She was educated at St Mary's College and formally trained in operatic singing by Sister Mary Leo.
Te Kanawa developed into a soprano. Her recording of the "Nuns' Chorus" from the Strauss operetta Casanova was the first gold record produced in New Zealand. Te Kanawa met Desmond Park on a blind date in London in August 1967, they married six weeks at St Patrick's Cathedral, Auckland, they adopted two children and Thomas. The couple divorced in 1997. Te Kanawa had never made any attempt to contact her biological parents, but around this time, her half-brother Jim Rawstron contacted her, she was not willing to meet him, but agreed. The episode ended bitterly, she has since reaffirmed her decision to have nothing to do with her birth family. In her teens and early 20s, Te Kanawa was a pop star and entertainer at clubs in New Zealand, appeared in newspapers and magazines. In 1963, she was runner-up to Malvina Major in the Mobil Song Quest with her performance of "Vissi d'arte" from Tosca, in 1965 she won the same competition; as winner, she received a grant to study in London. She sang in the 1966 musical comedy film Don't Let It Get You.
In 1966, she won the Melbourne Sun-Aria contest, which Major had won the previous year. Both singers had been taught by Sister Mary Leo. In 1966, without an audition, she enrolled at the London Opera Centre to study under Vera Rózsa and James Robertson, who reputedly said Te Kanawa lacked a singing technique when she arrived at the school but that she did have a gift for captivating audiences, she first appeared on stage as the Second Lady in Mozart's The Magic Flute, as well as in performances of Purcell's Dido and Aeneas in December 1968 at the Sadler's Wells Theatre. She sang the title role in Donizetti's Anna Bolena. In 1969, she sang Elena in Rossini's La donna del lago at the Camden Festival, was offered the role of the Countess in The Marriage of Figaro after an audition of which the conductor, Colin Davis, said, "I couldn't believe my ears. I've taken thousands of auditions, but it was such a fantastically beautiful voice." Praise for her Idamante in Mozart's Idomeneo led to an offer of a three-year contract as junior principal at the Royal Opera House Covent Garden where she made her debut as Xenia in Boris Godunov and a Flower Maiden in Parsifal in 1970.
Under director John Copley, Te Kanawa was groomed for the role of the Countess for a December 1971 opening. Meanwhile, word of her success had reached John Crosby at the Santa Fe Opera, a summer opera festival in New Mexico about to begin its fifteenth season, he cast her in the role of the Countess in The Marriage of Figaro, which opened on 30 July 1971. The performance featured Frederica von Stade in her debut as Cherubino. "It was two of the newcomers who left the audience dazzled: Frederica von Stade as Cherubino and Te Kanawa as the Countess. Everyone knew at once. History has confirmed that first impression."On 1 December 1971 at Covent Garden, Te Kanawa repeated her Santa Fe performance and created an international sensation as the Countess: "with'Porgi amor' Kiri knocked the place flat." This was followed by performances as the Countess at the Opéra National de Lyon and San Francisco Opera in the autumn of 1972. She first sang as Desdemona in Glasgow in 1972, while her Metropolitan Opera début in 1974 as Desdemona in Otello took place at short notice: she replaced an ill Teresa Stratas at the last minute.
Te Kanawa sang at the Glyndebourne Festival in 1973, with further débuts in Paris and, Milan and Vienna. In 1982, she gave her only stage performances as Tosca in Paris. In 1989, she added Elisabeth de Valois in Don Carlos to her repertory at Chicago, and, in 1990, the Countess in Capriccio, sung first at San Francisco and with equal success at Covent Garden and the Metropolitan in 1998. In subsequent years, Te Kanawa performed at the Lyric Opera of Chicago, Paris Opera, Sydney Opera House, the Vienna State Opera, La Scala, San Francisco Opera and Cologne, adding to her repertoire the Mozart roles of Donna Elvira and Fiordiligi to Italian roles such as Mimi in Puccini's La bohème, she played Donna Elvira in Joseph Losey's 1979 film adaptation of Don Giovanni. She was seen and heard around the world in 1981 by an estimated 600 million people when she sang Handel's "Let the bright Seraphim" at the wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales, Lady Diana Spencer. In 1984, Leonard Bernstein decided to re-record the musical West Side Story, conducting his own music for the first time.
Known as the "operat
Grant David Elliott is a former New Zealand international cricketer, who played all formats of the game. A batting all-rounder, Elliott contributed a man of the match performance to provide entrance to New Zealand's first World Cup final, by beating South Africa in 2015. Domestically, he played for the Wellington Firebirds. In March 2017, he announced his retirement from international cricket and in August 2018, he retired from all forms of cricket; the son of a South African plastic surgeon, Grant Elliott attended St Stithians College, whose notable cricketing alumni include Michael Lumb, Roy Pienaar, David Terbrugge, Dave Rundle and Kagiso Rabada. He debuted with 67 in 1996–97 at Gauteng, where on the advice of his captain, former New Zealand test skipper Ken Rutherford, who saw the quota system blocking his path to higher honours, Elliott left his native Johannesburg for New Zealand in 2001, he played one match for South Africa'A' against India'A' before he qualified to play for New Zealand in 2007.
Called up to the national team in early 2008 during England's tour, he made his Test debut against England in the third test in Napier replacing Jacob Oram. Elliott has gone on to make his ODI debut for New Zealand against England taking 3 wickets. In his second game he scored his maiden ODI 50, his maiden ODI century was in the 3rd game of the Chappell-Hadlee series scoring 115 against Australia at the SCG on Sunday 8 February 2009. He did well in the Champions trophy in South Africa in 2009 as he took a four wicket haul against England at the Wanderers which helped New Zealand to qualify for the semifinals and in the semifinals he played an innings of 75 not out to take the Black caps to victory against Pakistan. Elliott scored his second ODI century when Sri Lanka toured New Zealand prior to the 2015 Cricket World Cup. Elliott and Luke Ronchi both broke several batting records as the pair lifted New Zealand from 93/5 to a commanding 360 off their 50 overs, their stand of 267* is the highest 6th wicket partnership in ODIs.
In the inaugural Pakistan Super League in 2016 he along with Zulfiqar Babar set the highest 10th wicket partnership in any forms of T20 His finest moment however came in the 2015 World Cup Semi final against South Africa where he scored an unbeaten 84 and was adjudged the Man of the Match. He hit the winning six off the second to last ball of the innings from Dale Steyn and created history by putting New Zealand into their first Cricket World Cup Final. In the final against Australia, Elliot top-scored for New Zealand, scoring 83 runs. After the World Cup, Elliott was named in the Twenty20 side in 2016 after suffering an arm injury playing domestically for Wellington. In April 2016, Elliott announced his retirement from ODI cricket. In August 2017, he was named in a World XI side to play three Twenty20 International matches against Pakistan in the 2017 Independence Cup in Lahore. Early on, Ken Rutherford noted his strong batting technique while noting his occasional lack of self-belief. Former coach of the Wellington Firebirds, Anthony Stuart, commented, "a tough cookie", praised his commitment and high work ethic.
Glenn Turner, former convener of the national selection panel, considered Elliott a "thoughtful character" whose offside play was exceptional, such as his hallmark shot, the lofted drive over extra cover. He played for Weybridge Cricket Club in the Surrey Championship in 2008. Elliott is the maker of the Buzz Cricket Bat, it is used by himself, Dewayne Bowden, Mark Houghton, Leighton Morgan, Chris Nevin and Luke Woodcock. Luke Woodcock scored 220 with it in a first-class game. Since he has been injured he has worked with Sky Sport in the 2010 HRV Cup. Elliott works part-time as a business development manager. Grant Elliott on Twitter Grant Elliott at ESPNcricinfo Grant Elliott at New Zealand Cricket Players Association
MTV is an American pay television channel owned by Viacom Media Networks and headquartered in New York City. The channel was launched on August 1, 1981, aired music videos as guided by television personalities known as "video jockeys". At first, MTV's main target demographic was young adults, but today it is teenagers high school and college students. Since its inception, MTV has toned down its music video programming and its programming now consists of original reality and drama programming and some off-network syndicated programs and films, with limited music video programming in off-peak time periods. MTV had struggled with the secular decline of music-related subscription-based media, its ratings had been said to be failing systematically, as younger viewers shift towards other media platforms, with yearly ratings drops as high as 29%. In April 2016, then-appointed MTV president Sean Atkins announced plans to restore music programming to the channel. Under current MTV president Chris McCarthy, reality programming has once again become prominent.
MTV has spawned numerous sister channels in the U. S. and affiliated channels internationally, some of which have gone independent, with 90.6 million American households in the United States receiving the channel as of January 2016. Several earlier concepts for music video-based television programming had been around since the early 1960s; the Beatles had used music videos to promote their records starting in the mid-1960s. The creative use of music videos within their 1964 film A Hard Day's Night the performance of the song "Can't Buy Me Love", led MTV on June 26, 1999, to honor the film's director Richard Lester with an award for "basically inventing the music video". In his book The Mason Williams FCC Rapport, author Mason Williams states that he pitched an idea to CBS for a television program that featured "video-radio", where disc jockeys would play avant-garde art pieces set to music. CBS rejected the idea, but Williams premiered his own musical composition "Classical Gas" on the Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, where he was head writer.
In 1970, Philadelphia-based disc jockey Bob Whitney created The Now Explosion, a television series filmed in Atlanta and broadcast in syndication to other local television stations throughout the United States. The series featured promotional clips from various popular artists, but was canceled by its distributor in 1971. Several music programs originating outside of the US, including Australia's Countdown and the United Kingdom's Top of the Pops, which had aired music videos in lieu of performances from artists who were not available to perform live, began to feature them by the mid-1970s. In 1974, Gary Van Haas, vice president of Televak Corporation, introduced a concept to distribute a music video channel to record stores across the United States, promoted the channel, named Music Video TV, to distributors and retailers in a May 1974 issue of Billboard; the channel, which featured video disc jockeys, signed a deal with US Cable in 1978 to expand its audience from retail to cable television.
The service was no longer active by the time MTV launched in 1981. In 1977, Warner Cable a division of Warner Communications and the precursor of Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment launched the first two-way interactive cable television system named QUBE in Columbus, Ohio; the QUBE system offered many specialized channels. One of these specialized channels was Sight on Sound, a music channel that featured concert footage and music-oriented television programs. With the interactive QUBE service, viewers could vote for their favorite artists; the original programming format of MTV was created by media executive Robert W. Pittman, who became president and chief executive officer of MTV Networks. Pittman had test-driven the music format by producing and hosting a 15-minute show, Album Tracks, on New York City television station WNBC-TV in the late 1970s. Pittman's boss Warner-Amex executive vice president John Lack had shepherded PopClips, a television series created by former Monkee-turned solo artist Michael Nesmith, whose attention had turned to the music video format in the late 1970s.
The inspiration for PopClips came from a similar program on New Zealand's TVNZ network named Radio with Pictures, which premiered in 1976. The concept itself had been in the works since 1966, when major record companies began supplying the New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation with promotional music clips to play on the air at no charge. Few artists made the long trip to New Zealand to appear live. On Saturday, August 1, 1981, at 12:01 AM Eastern Time, MTV was launched with the words "Ladies and gentlemen and roll," spoken by John Lack and played over footage of the first Space Shuttle launch countdown of Columbia and of the launch of Apollo 11; those words were followed by the original MTV theme song, a crunching rock tune composed by Jonathan Elias and John Petersen, playing over the American flag changed to show MTV's logo changing into various textures and designs. MTV producers Alan Goodman and Fred Seibert used this public domain footage as a concept. A shortened version of the shuttle launch ID ran at the top of every hour in various forms, from MTV's first day until it was pulled in early 1986 in the wake of the Challenger disaster.
Radio Hauraki is a New Zealand rock music station that started in 1966. It was the first private commercial radio station of the modern broadcasting era in New Zealand and operated illegally until 1970 to break the monopoly held by the state-owned New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation. From its founding until 2012 Hauraki played a mix of mainstream rock music. In 2013, it changed its music content, playing modern rock and alternative music from the last 25–30 years. In its modern legal form, Radio Hauraki's head office and main studios are now located at 2 Graham Street in the Auckland CBD, as one of eight stations of NZME Radio. Private commercial radio stations had operated from the earliest days of broadcasting, but the government began to close them down, the process accelerating after World War II. To break the state monopoly, Radio Hauraki was formed as a pirate station in the Hauraki Gulf, in a famous and historic story that saw the loss of one life; the concept of Radio Hauraki originated with a group of journalists who felt dissatisfied with New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation radio stations, with the politics involved with broadcasting in New Zealand.
Private stations were able to apply for licences to operate, but the New Zealand Broadcasting Service stonewalled all applications. A small group involving David Gapes, Derek Lowe, Chris Parkinson and Denis O'Callaghan decided, with legal assistance, to start a private venture operating in international waters, outside of the confines of the monopolistic government departments of the New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation, which ran all land-based radio stations, of the New Zealand Post Office, which managed the radio spectrum. Gapes, Parkinson and O'Callaghan broke the radio monopoly, thus allowing private radio to become widespread in New Zealand; the four men bought a boat and tried to make it seaworthy, however the Marine Department continuously rejected their application for a warrant of fitness for the ship. So in 1966 the crew set sail anyway without the WOF; however the ship got caught on a drawbridge in the Auckland Viaduct and the crew were arrested. When they went to court the judge ruled in favour of them and in late 1966, the Tiri, the boat chosen to carry the transmitter, anchored in the Hauraki Gulf outside the 3-mile territorial-water limit.
The station broadcast on the frequency of 1480 kHz - well outside the range of frequencies used by the New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation. After testing the transmitter with a broadcast from pirate announcer Bob Leahy, having to replace the mast after winds of more than 30 knots knocked it down, Radio Hauraki started broadcasting on 4 December 1966. During the next 2 years, the crew on the Tiri would endure adverse weather conditions and continued efforts to shut down the station. On 28 January 1968 disaster struck as the Tiri attempted to negotiate its way into Whangaparapara Harbour on Great Barrier Island in foul weather; the ship ran aground on rocks, with Radio Hauraki disc jockey Derek King keeping listeners up-to-date with running commentary. The final broadcast from the Tiri was "Hauraki News: Hauraki crew is abandoning ship; this is Paul Lineham aboard the'Tiri'. Good Night." Followed by a station jingle. The "Tiri" was towed back to Auckland and the broadcasting equipment was salvaged.
However, the Tiri herself was beyond repair and was replaced four days by the Kapuni, christened Tiri II by her new crew. A month after the loss of the Tiri, Radio Hauraki was back in international waters and broadcasting again. In April of the same year Tiri II found herself beached again at Whangaparapara Harbour, a victim of the same storm that resulted in the Wahine disaster. After repairs she was back at sea in five days. Between this time and June 1968, Tiri II would end up beached at Uretiti Beach and caught several times broadcasting from New Zealand waters by radio inspectors. Just before Christmas 1968, Radio Hauraki became New Zealand's first 24-hour broadcasting radio station. Radio Hauraki was not live radio; the studios were land-based and most programs were recorded on reel-to-reel tapes in 1/2 hour segments one week prior to their broadcast. This meant that while contests, current top tunes, etc. could be accommodated and weather were more of a challenge. Tiri was registered as a barge.
After running aground at Whangaparapara on 28 January 1968, it was laid up at Limestone Island near Whangarei. The search and rescue boat Marauder was owned by Bill Tryphena. Kapuni owned by AG Frankham Ltd, became known as Tiri II only during Hauraki service from 1968 to 1970, it was laid up on Rotoroa Island in the Hauraki Gulf. In mid-1970, the state monopoly on radio frequencies was broken, with the New Zealand Broadcasting Authority allowing Radio Hauraki to broadcast on land, legally; the Radio Hauraki crew had spent 1,111 days at sea. The final broadcast from the seabound Hauraki Pirates was a documentary on the station's history until that point, finishing at 10:00 pm when Tiri II turned and headed for Auckland playing "Born Free" continually. During their final voyage back to shore, announcer Rick Grant was lost overboard. Radio Hauraki began FM transmission in 1990 on 99.0FM, the 1476 kHz frequency was subsequently acquired by a local community group to broadcast the BBC World Service.
During the late nineties Radio Hauraki was networked into other regions around the North Island of New Zealand and in 2003 Radio Hauraki was networked into the South Island in Christchurch and Invercargill. Veteran pirate announcer Bob Leahy remained a newsreader for The Radio Network right up until 2009, which saw him remain on-air on Radio Hauraki some 40 years after he helped begin the station. After seve
Gore, New Zealand
Gore is a town and district in the Southland region of the South Island of New Zealand. The town of Gore is 64 kilometres northeast of Invercargill and 70 km west of Balclutha – Dunedin and Invercargill are the nearest cities; the Gore District has a resident population of 12,500. The urban area estimated resident population at the June 2018 was 9,910, the second largest in Southland. Gore is a service town for the surrounding farm communities, it is divided by the Mataura River into Gore and East Gore, the majority of the town being situated on the western banks of the river. The Main South Line railway from Dunedin to Invercargill runs through the town, though passenger services ceased in 2003. Gore was once a busy railway junction; the original Kingston Flyer ran between Gore, on the main Dunedin-Invercargill line, Kingston, from where lake steamers provided a connection with Queenstown. It was withdrawn in 1937; the 1970s revival of the Flyer did not include Gore. In Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, it has an oceanic climate.
The FM Hokonui radio station broadcasts from Gore to listeners in South Otago. Locally owned radio station Cave FM broadcasts in online. Before the arrival of Europeans the current site of Gore was a part of or near the routes used by Maori travellers. Tuturau, near modern Mataura, was the nearest Maori settlement. In 1836 southern Maori repelled a raid from the north, which provided sufficient security for Europeans to purchase land and settle in the area. By the mid-1850s large tracts nearby had been converted into sheep runs; as crossing the Mataura River involved a long fording, the locality became known as "the Long Ford", or Longford. In 1862 a few town sections were surveyed on the west bank of the river and Longford was named Gore as a compliment to Sir Thomas Gore Browne, an early Governor of New Zealand. One of the first buildings was Long Ford House an accommodation house opened by local sawmill owner Daniel MortonA village named Gordon after Governor Sir Arthur Gordon became established on the opposite bank of the Mataura.
By 1864 a road from Balclutha through Gore to Invercargill had been opened for wheeled traffic which allowed the establishment of a regular coach service between Invercargill and Dunedin. By 1877 there were enough business opportunities in the area for the Bank of New Zealand to establish a branch in Gore. Within another three years both the Bank of Australasia and the Colonial Bank had opened branches. In 1899 the Bank of New South Wales followed suit. After its construction began in the early 1870s, a railway line between Invercargill and Gore was opened on 30 August 1875. By 22 January 1879 the railway had been extended to Balclutha where it linked with an existing line to Dunedin. A private Waimea Plains railway from Gore to Lumsden was opened on 31 July 1880; this was subsequently purchased by the Government in 1886. It connected Gore with the Invercargill-Kingston branch line. By 1908 another branch had been completed via McNab to Waikaka; the extension of the railways established Gore as an important hub and had a significant effect on its development.
By 1879, the "Ensign" newspaper was being published in the town, followed in 1887 by the rival "Standard". In 1885 Gore was constituted a borough and in 1890 Gordon, by now known as East Gore, amalgamated with Gore. Gore acquired a nickname of "Chicago of the South". By 1905 the population had increased to 2,354, compared with 1,618 in 1891; the establishment of the Gore Electric Light & Power Syndicate led in 1894 to Gore becoming the third town in New Zealand to install a generator and provide a public electricity supply. From the end of the Second World War until 1976 Gore enjoyed prosperity driven by record prices for agricultural produce which saw the town’s population rise from 5,000 in 1945 to 9,000 in 1976. By the late 1960s it was reputed to have the highest per-capita retail turnover of any New Zealand town; the farm sector went into decline after 1976. Related businesses closed, including the town’s iconic cereal mill, which had processed oats and other grains since 1877. Since 2000 prosperity has returned as large numbers of farms in the surrounding area were converted to dairy farms to take advantage of high prices for dairy produce.
This growth has led to low unemployment in the town. Gore and surrounding districts have intermediate & high schools; the two secondary schools in Gore are: Gore High School St Peter's College The only intermediate school in Gore is Longford Intermediate SchoolThere are four primary schools in Gore: East Gore School Gore Main School St Marys School West Gore SchoolThere are another 6 primary schools in the Gore District: Knapdale School Mataura School Otama School Pukerau School Waikaka School Willowbank School Gore is well known for its connection with Country and Western music, with the annual New Zealand country music awards having been held in the town for 36 years. It has a sister city relationship with Tamworth, New South Wales, the "Country Music Capital of Australia". Gore has gained a reputation as a centre for the visual arts in the southern South Island. A major bequest to the town's Eastern Southland Art Gallery by Dr. John Money has left the institution with one of the country's best collections of ethnological art.
This is partnered by an impressive collection of modern New Zealand work, including several notable pieces by Ralph Hotere. O Te Ika Rama Marae is located in Gore, it is a marae (mee
Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. Auckland is the largest urban area in the country, with an urban population of around 1,628,900, it is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,695,900. A diverse and multicultural city, Auckland is home to the largest Polynesian population in the world; the Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki or Tāmaki-makau-rau, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions. The Auckland urban area ranges to Waiwera in the north, Kumeu in the north-west, Runciman in the south. Auckland lies between the Hauraki Gulf of the Pacific Ocean to the east, the low Hunua Ranges to the south-east, the Manukau Harbour to the south-west, the Waitakere Ranges and smaller ranges to the west and north-west; the surrounding hills are covered in rainforest and the landscape is dotted with dozens of dormant volcanic cones.
The central part of the urban area occupies a narrow isthmus between the Manukau Harbour on the Tasman Sea and the Waitematā Harbour on the Pacific Ocean. Auckland is one of the few cities in the world to have a harbour on each of two separate major bodies of water; the isthmus on which Auckland resides was first settled around 1350 and was valued for its rich and fertile land. The Māori population in the area is estimated to have peaked at 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. After a British colony was established in 1840, William Hobson Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, chose the area as his new capital, he named the area for Earl of Auckland, British First Lord of the Admiralty. It was replaced as the capital in 1865 by Wellington, but immigration to Auckland stayed strong, it has remained the country's most populous city. Today, Auckland's central business district is the major financial centre of New Zealand. Auckland is classified as a Beta + World City because of its importance in commerce, the arts, education.
The University of Auckland, established in 1883, is the largest university in New Zealand. Landmarks such as the Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki, the Harbour Bridge, the Sky Tower, many museums, parks and theatres are among the city's significant tourist attractions. Auckland Airport handles around one million international passengers a month. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, Auckland is ranked third on the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey, making it one of the most liveable cities; the isthmus was settled by Māori circa 1350, was valued for its rich and fertile land. Many pā were created on the volcanic peaks; the Māori population in the area is estimated to have been about 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. The introduction of firearms at the end of the eighteenth century, which began in Northland, upset the balance of power and led to devastating intertribal warfare beginning in 1807, causing iwi who lacked the new weapons to seek refuge in areas less exposed to coastal raids.
As a result, the region had low numbers of Māori when European settlement of New Zealand began. On 27 January 1832, Joseph Brooks Weller, eldest of the Weller brothers of Otago and Sydney, bought land including the site of the modern city of Auckland, the North Shore, part of Rodney District for "one large cask of powder" from "Cohi Rangatira". After the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in February 1840, the new Governor of New Zealand, William Hobson, chose the area as his new capital and named it for George Eden, Earl of Auckland Viceroy of India; the land that Auckland was established on was given to the Governor by a local iwi, Ngāti Whātua, as a sign of goodwill and in the hope that the building of a city would attract commercial and political opportunities for iwi. Auckland was declared New Zealand's capital in 1841, the transfer of the administration from Russell in the Bay of Islands was completed in 1842; however in 1840 Port Nicholson was seen as a better choice for an administrative capital because of its proximity to the South Island, Wellington became the capital in 1865.
After losing its status as capital, Auckland remained the principal city of the Auckland Province until the provincial system was abolished in 1876. In response to the ongoing rebellion by Hone Heke in the mid-1840s, the government encouraged retired but fit British soldiers and their families to migrate to Auckland to form a defence line around the port settlement as garrison soldiers. By the time the first Fencibles arrived in 1848, the rebels in the north had been defeated. Outlying defensive towns were constructed to the south, stretching in a line from the port village of Onehunga in the west to Howick in the east; each of the four settlements had about 800 settlers. In the early 1860s, Auckland became a base against the Māori King Movement, the 12,000 Imperial soldiers stationed there led to a strong boost to local commerce. This, continued road building towards the south into the Waikato, enabled Pākehā influence to spread from Auckland; the city's population grew rapidly, from 1,500 in 1841 to 3,635 in 1845 to 12,423 by 1864.
The growth occurred to other mercantile-dominated cities around the port and with problems of overcrowding and pollution. Auckland's population of ex-soldiers was far greater than that of other settlements: about 50 percent of the popula
Television, sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising and news. Television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, television sets became commonplace in homes and institutions. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in most other developed countries; the availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax, VHS tape, local disks, DVDs, flash drives, high-definition Blu-ray Discs, cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material—such as movies—at home on their own time schedule.
For many reasons the convenience of remote retrieval, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions increased in popularity. Another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution, higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 1080p, 720p. Since 2010, with the invention of smart television, Internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the Internet through streaming video services such as Netflix, Amazon Video, iPlayer and Hulu. In 2013, 79 % of the world's households owned; the replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tube screen displays with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as LCDs, OLED displays, plasma displays was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel LEDs.
Major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are expected to be replaced by OLEDs. Major manufacturers have announced that they will produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s. Television signals were distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and, since the 2000s via the Internet; until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s. A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is called a video monitor rather than a television.
The word television comes from Ancient Greek τῆλε, meaning'far', Latin visio, meaning'sight'. The first documented usage of the term dates back to 1900, when the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi used it in a paper that he presented in French at the 1st International Congress of Electricity, which ran from 18 to 25 August 1900 during the International World Fair in Paris; the Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907, when it was still "...a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires". It was "...formed in English or borrowed from French télévision." In the 19th century and early 20th century, other "...proposals for the name of a then-hypothetical technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote and televista." The abbreviation "TV" is from 1948. The use of the term to mean "a television set" dates from 1941; the use of the term to mean "television as a medium" dates from 1927. The slang term "telly" is more common in the UK; the slang term "the tube" or the "boob tube" derives from the bulky cathode ray tube used on most TVs until the advent of flat-screen TVs.
Another slang term for the TV is "idiot box". In the 1940s and throughout the 1950s, during the early rapid growth of television programming and television-set ownership in the United States, another slang term became used in that period and continues to be used today to distinguish productions created for broadcast on television from films developed for presentation in movie theaters; the "small screen", as both a compound adjective and noun, became specific references to television, while the "big screen" was used to identify productions made for theatrical release. Facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century. Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846. Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851. Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in 1873; as a 23-year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in 1884.
This was a spinning disk with a spiral pattern of holes in it, so each hole scanned a line of the image. Although he never built a working model