Magnolia, West Virginia
Magnolia is an unincorporated community northeast of Paw Paw in Morgan County in the U. S. state of West Virginia on the Potomac River. Magnolia is located along the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad mainline and east of where the Western Maryland Railway crosses the Potomac, bypassing a series of bends in the river; as a depot and water station on the B&O, Magnolia has been known by a number of names including Magnolia Dale, Magnolia Vale, sometimes as Water Station Number 12 on the railroad. The name Magnolia, as passed down from oral tradition, was a combination of Timothy Norton's two daughters Maggie and Nora; the addition of the names was modified to Magnolia. Timothy Norton worked for the railroad, it is believed that the hamlet came into being because of the Ohio Railroad. The railroad opened a line from Washington, D. C. to Cumberland, Maryland following the Potomac River in 1842. There were many servicing facilities along the right-of-way for steam engines. One of these facilities was Water Station Number 12 which became Magnolia.
During 1910 to 1914 Magnolia was one of two staging points for construction of the Magnolia Cutoff. The cutoff provided a surplus of jobs in the area; the town of Magnolia lent its name to this new shorter route through the mountains. As may be seen in the pictures, the railroad scaled above the town of Magnolia cutting it off from the railroad; the low line route of the B&O was still used for passenger traffic and did so many years after the construction. Construction of the Magnolia Cutoff was based at Magnolia. Magnolia boasted a large power plant with two 6,100 horsepower boilers and two direct current generators that were capable of producing 200 kilowatts; this power was used for the two sawmills, a forging blacksmith shop. A construction camp was assembled in town; the new railroad bridge towers over Magnolia at a 50 ft elevation. The bridge has six 100 ft, three 80 ft, two 75 ft deck plate girder spans. At a length of about 1,000 feet long with 10 reinforced concrete piers, this is the smaller of the two bridges built for the Magnolia Cutoff.
After the construction was complete, jobs in the area were scarce. The Flood of 1936 would devastate the area and the demise of passenger service brought the demise of Magnolia as a town. Buildings were left vacant and the railroad would desert its Water Station Number 12. In these photos, we can see a period. Today there are little traces; the low line along the Potomac is only a path. Only a few private homes remain in this small village, the clearings under the bridge used as campsites are owned. Trespassing within them is not advised; the community had its own school, Magnolia School, until it was closed in 1952, in favor of sending students from the Magnolia area to attend the schools in Paw Paw. Magnolia had its own post office in operation from 1867 to 1868 as Magnolia Vale, again in 1871 to 1943 as Magnolia, when it too was closed and the residents of Magnolia were assigned Paw Paw addresses. Amelita Ward, was born in Magnolia. Magnolia can be accessed by way of Magnolia Road. On the B&O, it is located between Paw Paw to the southwest and Jerome to the northwest
Train order operation
Train order operation, or more timetable and train order operation, is a obsolete system by which the railroads of North America conveyed operating instructions before the days of centralized traffic control, direct traffic control, the use of track warrants conveyed by radio. The system used a set of rules when direct communication between train dispatchers and trains was limited or non-existent. Trains would follow a predetermined operating plan, known as the timetable, unless superseded by train orders conveyed to the train from the dispatcher, through local intermediaries. Train order operation was a system that required minimum human overhead in an era before widespread use of technology-based automation, it was the most practical way for railroads with limited capital resources, or lines with limited traffic, to operate. To this day, a large number of short lines, heritage railways, railroad museums continue to use Train Order operation. On major railroads, train order operation has been completely replaced by more modern operating methods.
The Long Island Rail Road in New York is the last major railroad in North America to use a "traditional" Train Order operating practice on parts of its Greenport and Montauk Branches, as well as Train Order forms for non-standard operation on the remainder of its system. While the last traditional long hand train order form was issued on September 3, 2012, timetable and train order operating practices remain in effect; the second to last train order holdout, the Chicago South Shore and South Bend Railroad, had retired its system in 2011. The process of modernization in the 19th century involved a transition from a spatially oriented world to a time oriented world. Exact time was essential, everyone had to know what the time was, resulting in clocks towers for railway stations, clocks in public places, pocket watches for railway workers and for travelers. Trains left on time. By contrast, in the premodern era, passenger ships left. In the premodern era, local time was set at noon; every place east to west had a different time and that changed with the introduction of standard time zones.
Printed time tables were a convenience for the travelers, but more elaborate time tables, called train orders, were more essential for the train crews, the maintenance workers, the station personnel, for the repair and maintenance crews, who knew when to expect a train would come along. Most trackage was single track, with sidings and signals to allow lower priority trains to be sidetracked. Schedules told everyone what to do, where to be, when. If bad weather disrupted the system, telegraphers relayed immediate corrections and updates throughout the system. Just as railways as business organizations created the standards and models for modern big business, so too the railway timetable was adapted to myriad uses, such as schedules for buses ferries, airplanes, for radio and television programs, for school schedules, for factory time clocks; the modern world was ruled by the timetable. Timetable and train order operation was used on North American railroads that had a single main track with periodic passing sidings.
Timetable and train orders were used to determine which train had the right of way at any point along the line. A train which had the right of way over another train was said to be the superior train. Trains could be superior by class or by direction. While a train dispatcher could establish "right" via train orders, the operating timetable established scheduled trains, their class and the superior direction; the "class" designation of a train equates to its priority with passenger trains having the highest, freight trains having less and Extra trains having the least. In case of trains of the same class meeting the superior direction would apply. On single track rail lines, the timetable specifies the points at which two trains would meet and pass, it would be the responsibility of the inferior train to clear the main track a safe time before the superior train is scheduled to pass. The timetable thus provides the basic framework for train movement on a particular portion of the railroad. However, variations in traffic levels from day to day, unforeseen delays, the need to perform maintenance, other contingencies required that railroads find a way to deviate from their established schedules.
Deviations from the timetable operation would be enacted through train orders sent from the train dispatcher to block operators. These orders would override the established timetable priorities and provide trains with explicit instructions on how to run. Train orders consisted of two types and authority. Protective train orders would be used to ensure that no trains would be at risk of colliding with another along the line. Once the protective orders had been delivered to block operators, an authority could be issued to a train to move over the line where protection had been established; the timetable established both protection and authority for scheduled trains so train orders were only used for extra trains, which were not in the timetable, scheduled trains moving contrary to their normal authorities. Timetable and train order operation supplanted earlier forms of timetable only and line-of-sight running; the ability for a single dispatcher to issue train orders was enabled by the invention of the electric telegraph in the 1840s.
The earliest recorded usage of the telegraph to convey train orders in the United States came in 1851 on the Erie Railroad and by the time of the American Civil War, nearly every railroad had adopted th
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park
The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park is located in the District of Columbia and the states of Maryland and West Virginia. The park was established in 1961 as a National Monument by President Dwight D. Eisenhower to preserve the neglected remains of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and many of its original structures; the canal and towpath trail extends along the Potomac River from Georgetown, Washington, D. C. to Cumberland, Maryland, a distance of 184.5 miles. In 2013, the path was designated as the first section of U. S. Bicycle Route 50. Construction on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal began in 1828 and ended in 1850 when the canal reached Cumberland, far short of its intended destination of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. There was talk of extending the 184.5-mile canal: for example, an 1874 proposal to dig an 8.4-mile tunnel through the Allegheny Mountains, there was a tunnel built to connect with the Pennsylvania canal. Though the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad beat the canal to Cumberland by eight years, the canal was not obsolete.
Only in the mid-1870s did larger locomotives and the adoption of air brakes allow the railroad to set rates lower than the canal, sealing its fate. The C&O Canal operated from 1831 to 1924 and served to transport coal from the Allegheny Mountains to Washington D. C; the canal was closed in 1924, in part due to several severe floods that devastated the canal's financial condition. In 1938, the abandoned canal was obtained from the B&O Railroad by the United States in exchange for a loan from the federal Reconstruction Finance Corporation; the government planned to restore it as a recreation area. Additionally, it was viewed as a project for employment for the jobless during the Great Depression. By 1940, the first 22 miles of the canal were repaired and rewatered, from Georgetown to Violettes lock and returned to operating condition by African-American enrollees with the Civilian Conservation Corps; the first Canal Clipper boat, giving mule driven rides, began in 1941. It was replaced by the John Quincy Adams in the 1960s.
The project was halted when the United States entered World War II and resources were needed elsewhere. In 1941, Harry Athey suggested to President Franklin Roosevelt that the canal could be converted into an underground highway or a bomb shelter with its roof for landing airplanes; the whole idea was deemed impractical due to the river's periodic flooding. In 1942, freshets destroyed the rewatered sections of the canal. National Park Service official Arthur E. Demaray pressed that the canal from Dam #1 be restored, to supply water to the Dalecarlia Reservoir in case sabotage or bombing destroyed the normal conduits of water. Since this transformed the canal into a concern of national security, in 1942, the War Production Board approved the work. By 1943, Congress had funded the work, repairs were done, the Park Service resumed boat trips in October 1943; the Congress expressed interest in developing the towpath as a parkway. Because of the flooding from the 1920s to the 1940s, the Army Corps of Engineers proposed building 14 dams, that would have permanently inundated 74 miles of towpath, as well as the Monocacy and Antietam aqueducts.
Around 1945, the Corps wanted to remove Dam #8, which would destroy any hope of rewatering the canal above Dam #5, as well as put a levee around in the Cumberland area. Much of this was done, with the NPS cooperating with the Corps, since maintaining an operating canal all the way to Cumberland was too expensive, as well as wanting to preserve the western parts of the canal; the idea of turning the canal over to automobiles was opposed by some, including United States Supreme Court Associate Justice William O. Douglas. In March 1954, Douglas led an eight-day hike of the towpath from Cumberland to D. C. Although 58 people participated in one part of the hike or another, only nine men, including Douglas, hiked the full 184.5 miles. Following this hike, Justice Douglas formed a committee to be known as the C&O Canal Association in 1957, which would draft plans to preserve and protect the Canal. Serving as the chairman of this group, his commitment to the park proved successful. In 1958, a bicycle trail was built on the 12 miles of the towpath, from Georgetown's Mule Bridge at 34th Street in Washington, DC to Widewater, MD.
The trail was built by laying crushed blue stone over the muddy towpath. It opened on November 22, 1958. In 1961, President Dwight Eisenhower made the canal a National Monument under the Antiquities Act, but that hardened the opposition to making the canal a national park. There was some support for making the Potomac River a national river instead. Within ten years, the political climate had changed, realizing that the national river plan was unsupportable, the idea of turning the canal into a historic park had little opposition; the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Act established the canal as a National Historical Park and President Richard Nixon signed it into law on January 8, 1971. The winter and summer of 1996 saw two separate floods. Following a blizzard in January, heavy rains washed away the snow and caused extreme flooding and run-off; this major winter flood swept across 80 to 90 percent of the canal and towpath, causing high waters, along with the adjacent Potomac River.
Erosion due to the floods lead to heavy damages to the towpath and much of the infrastructure of the canal and park. Following the winter flood, there was an overwhelming need for volunteers in response to the damages caused. In September, Hurricane Fran caused more damage to the canal in multiple parts, requiring workers and volunteers to restore and reconstruct the towpath and re-water the canal, sever
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
Orleans Cross Roads, West Virginia
Orleans Cross Roads is an unincorporated community hamlet that lies on the western flanks of Sideling Hill on the Potomac River in Morgan County, West Virginia. To its south, Rockwell Run, a mountain stream fed by springs, empties into the Potomac. Orleans Cross Roads lies along the old Baltimore and Ohio Railroad directly across the river from Little Orleans, it is accessible by way of Orleans Road from Cacapon Road via Detour Road. Once the site of a functioning station on the B&O, Orleans Cross Roads had its own operating post office; the community and post office were known as Orleans Cross Roads or Orleans Crossroads while its station was known as Orleans Road Station. It is still inhabited today and is the site of the historic Orleans Cross Roads Methodist Episcopal Church, built in the 1850s
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Paw Paw, West Virginia
Paw Paw is a town in Morgan County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 508 at the 2010 census; the town is known for the nearby Paw Paw Tunnel. Paw Paw was incorporated by the Circuit Court of Morgan County on April 8, 1891 and named for the pawpaw, a wild fruit which grows in abundance throughout this region. Paw Paw is the westernmost incorporated community in the Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. Paw Paw is located at 39°31′52″N 78°27′25″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.53 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 508 people, 223 households, 131 families residing in the town; the population density was 958.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 262 housing units at an average density of 494.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 92.9% White, 2.4% African American, 2.0% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.6% of the population.
There were 223 households of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.3% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.3% were non-families. 37.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age in the town was 38.6 years. 23.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 49.0% male and 51.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 524 people, 224 households, 144 families residing in the town; the population density was 999.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 249 housing units at an average density of 474.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 89.50% White, 7.63% African American, 2.29% from other races, 0.57% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.44% of the population.
There were 224 households out of which 27.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.8% were married couples living together, 14.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.3% were non-families. 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.87. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.5% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 25.2% from 25 to 44, 23.3% from 45 to 64, 18.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $25,625, the median income for a family was $30,250. Males had a median income of $27,500 versus $23,125 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,377. About 14.9% of families and 18.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.7% of those under age 18 and 14.0% of those age 65 or over.
On George Washington's many trips west, he took the Winchester-Cumberland Road which parallels today's CR 29/51 through Paw Paw. The Potomac River, which embraces the old town in one of its bends, was navigated as early as 1750. Travelers heading west crossed the gap in the mountains here, some settling to farm land along the river; the town is the namesake of an important part of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. The tunnel and the nearby canal is now part of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park. Paul "Oz" Bach and bass player for the popular musical group Spanky and Our Gang, was born in Paw Paw on June 24, 1939; the Texas swing band Asleep at the Wheel got its start according to founder Ray Benson. Paw Paw on the Washington Heritage Trail Official Site