George Clinton (musician)
George Edward Clinton is an American singer, songwriter and record producer. His Parliament-Funkadelic collective developed an influential and eclectic form of Funk music during the 1970s that drew on science-fiction, outlandish fashion, psychedelic culture, surreal humor, he launched a solo career with the 1982 album Computer Games, would go on to influence 1990s hip-hop and G-funk. He is regarded, along with James Brown and Sly Stone, as one of the foremost innovators of funk music, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1997, alongside 15 other members of Parliament-Funkadelic. In 2019, he and Parliament-Funkadelic will be given Grammy Lifetime Achievement Awards. Clinton was born in Kannapolis, North Carolina, grew up in Plainfield, New Jersey, resides in Tallahassee, Florida. During his teen years Clinton formed a doo-wop group inspired by Frankie Lymon & the Teenagers called The Parliaments, while straightening hair at a barber salon in Plainfield; the West End of Plainfield, New Jersey was once home to the Silk Palace, a barbershop at 216 Plainfield Avenue owned in part by Clinton, staffed by various members of Parliament-Funkadelic and known as the "hangout for all the local singers and musicians" in Plainfield's 1950s and 1960s doo-wop, soul and proto-funk music scene.
For a period in the 1960s Clinton was a staff songwriter for Motown. Despite initial commercial failure and one major hit single, as well as arranging and producing scores of singles on many of the independent Detroit soul music labels, The Parliaments found success under the names Parliament and Funkadelic in the 1970s; these two bands combined the elements of musicians such as Jimi Hendrix and the Family Stone, Frank Zappa, James Brown while exploring various sounds and lyricism. Clinton and Parliament-Funkadelic dominated diverse music during the 1970s with over 40 R&B hit singles and three platinum albums. From 1971 to late 1973, Clinton and several other members of the band settled in Toronto. During the years in Toronto, they honed their live show and recorded the album America Eats Its Young, their first to feature Bootsy Collins. Beginning in the early 1980s, Clinton recorded several nominal "solo" albums, although all of these records featured contributions from P-Funk's core musicians, to overcome legal difficulties stemming from complex copyright and trademark issues surrounding the name "Parliament" and Polygram's purchase of that group's former label Casablanca Records.
This period of Clinton's career was marred by multiple legal problems resulting in financial difficulties due to royalty and copyright issues, notably with Bridgeport Music, who Clinton claims fraudulently obtained the copyrights to many of his recordings. In 1982, Clinton signed to Capitol Records under two names: his own as a solo artist, as the P-Funk All-Stars, releasing Computer Games under his own name that same year; the single "Loopzilla" hit the Top 20 on the R&B charts, followed by "Atomic Dog", which reached #1 R&B and #101 on the pop chart. In the next four years, Clinton released three more studio albums as well as a live album, Mothership Connection and charting three singles in the R&B Top 30, "Nubian Nut", "Last Dance", "Do Fries Go with That Shake?". He is a notable music producer who works on all the albums he performs on, has produced albums for Bootsy Collins and Red Hot Chili Peppers, among others. In 1985, he was recruited by the Chili Peppers to produce their album Freaky Styley, because the band members were huge fans of George Clinton's and of funk in general.
Clinton, wrote the vocals and lyrics to the title track, intended by the band to be left as an instrumental piece. The album was not a commercial success at the time, but has since sold 500,000 copies after the Red Hot Chili Peppers became popular years later. During the mid to late 1980's, many hip-hop and rap artists cited Clinton's earlier music as an influence. Along with James Brown, Clinton's songs with Parliament-Funkadelic were sampled by rap producers. "Sure, sample my stuff…" he remarked in 1996. "Ain't a better time. You know. You don't buy as much pussy or drugs with it – you just buy some."In 1989, Clinton released The Cinderella Theory on Paisley Park, Prince's record label. This was followed by Hey Man, Smell My Finger in 1993. Clinton signed with Sony 550 and released T. A. P. O. A. F. O. M. in 1996, having reunited with several former members of Funkadelic. 1994 saw Clinton contribute to several tracks on Primal Scream's studio album Give Out But Don't Give Up. In 1995, Clinton sang "Mind Games" on the John Lennon tribute Working Class Hero.
In the 1990s, Clinton appeared in films such as Graffiti Bridge, House Party, PCU, Good Burger, The Breaks. In 1997, he appeared. Clinton appeared as the voice of The Funktipus, the DJ of the Funk radio station Bounce FM in the 2004 video game, Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, in which his song "Loopzilla" appeared. Rapper Dr. Dre sampled most of Clinton's beats to create his G-Funk music era. In 1999, Clinton collaborated with Lil' Kim, Fred Durst, Mix Master Mike for Methods of Mayhem's single "Get Naked". Displaying his influence on rap and hip hop, Clinton worked with Tupac Shakur on the song "
A drummer is a percussionist who creates music using drums. Most contemporary western bands that play rock, jazz, or R&B music include a drummer for purposes including timekeeping and embellishing the musical timbre; the drummer's equipment includes a drum kit which includes various drums, cymbals and an assortment of accessory hardware such as pedals, standing support mechanisms, drum sticks. In other genres in the traditional music of many countries, drummers use individual drums of various sizes and designs rather than drum kits; some use only their hands to strike the drums. In larger ensembles, the drummer may be part of a rhythm section with other percussionists playing, for example, marimba or xylophone; these musicians provide the timing and rhythmic foundation which allow the players of melodic instruments, including voices, to coordinate their musical performance. Some famous drummers include: John Bonham, Ginger Baker, Keith Moon, Neil Peart, Buddy Rich, Gene Krupa, Tim "Herb" Alexander, Rashied Ali, Carl Allen, Steve White, Craig Blundell, Travis Barker, Tony Royster Jr. Rick Allen.
As well as the primary rhythmic function, in some musical styles, such as world, jazz and electronica, the drummer is called upon to provide solo and lead performances, at times when the main feature of the music is the rhythmic development. There are many tools that a drummer can use for either soloing; these include cymbals, toms, auxiliary percussion and many others. There are single and triple bass pedals for the bass drum. Before motorized transport became widespread, drummers played a key role in military conflicts. Military drummers provided drum cadences that set a steady marching pace and elevated troop morale on the battlefield. In some armies drums assisted in combat by keeping cadence for firing and loading drills with muzzle loading guns. Military drummers were employed on the parade field, when troops passed in review, in various ceremonies including ominous drum rolls accompanying disciplinary punishments. Children served as drummer boys well into the nineteenth century, though less than is popularly assumed.
In modern times, drummers are not employed in battle. Buglers and drummers mass under a sergeant-drummer and during marches alternately perform with the regiment or battalion ensembles. Military-based musical percussion traditions were not limited to the western world; when Emir Osman I was appointed commander of the Turkish army on the Byzantine border in the late 13th century, he was symbolically installed via a handover of musical instruments by the Seldjuk sultan. In the Ottoman Empire, the size of a military band reflected the rank of its commander in chief: the largest band was reserved for the Sultan, it included various percussion instruments adopted in European military music. The pitched bass drum is still known in some languages as the Turkish Drum. Military drumming is the origin of Traditional grip as opposed to Matched grip of drumsticks; the drumline is a type of marching ensemble descended from military drummers, can be arranged as a performance of a drum, a group of drummers, or as a part of a larger marching band.
Their uniforms will have a military style and a fancy hat. In recent times, it is more common to see drummers in parades wearing costumes with an African, Latin, Native American, or tribal look and sound. Various indigenous cultures use the drum to create a sense of unity with others during recreational events; the drum helps in prayers and meditations. List of drummers Drum beat Drum machine Drum tracks Kathleen. "Drum". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 8. Cambridge University Press. P. 598
Kendrick Lamar Duckworth is an American rapper and record producer. He is regarded as one of the most successful hip hop artists of his generation. Raised in Compton, Lamar embarked on his musical career as a teenager under the stage name K-Dot, releasing a mixtape that garnered local attention and led to his signing with indie record label Top Dawg Entertainment, he began to gain recognition in 2010, after Overly Dedicated. The following year, he independently released his first studio album, Section.80, which included his debut single, "HiiiPoWeR". By that time, he had amassed a large online following and collaborated with several prominent hip hop artists, including The Game, Busta Rhymes, Snoop Dogg. Lamar's major label debut album, Good Kid, M. A. A. D City, was released in 2012 by TDE, Interscope Records to critical acclaim, it debuted at #2 on the US Billboard 200 and was certified platinum by the RIAA. The record contained the top 40 singles "Swimming Pools", "Bitch, Don't Kill My Vibe", "Poetic Justice".
His critically acclaimed third album To Pimp a Butterfly incorporated elements of funk, soul and spoken word. It debuted atop the charts in the US and the UK, won the Grammy Award for Best Rap Album at the 58th ceremony. In 2016, Lamar released Untitled Unmastered, a collection of unreleased demos that originated during the recording sessions for Butterfly, he released his fourth album Damn in 2017 to further acclaim. Aside from his solo career, Lamar is known as a member of the West Coast hip hop supergroup Black Hippy, alongside his TDE label-mates and fellow South Los Angeles–based rappers Ab-Soul, Jay Rock, Schoolboy Q. Lamar has received many accolades including thirteen Grammy Awards. In early 2013, MTV named him the "Hottest MC in the Game", on their annual list. Time named him one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2016. In 2018, Damn became the first non-classical and non-jazz album to be awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Music. Kendrick Lamar Duckworth was born in Compton, California on June 17, 1987, the son of a couple from Chicago, Illinois.
His father, Kenny Duckworth, was a member of street gang Gangster Disciples. His first name was given to him by his mother in honor of American singer-songwriter Eddie Kendricks of The Temptations. In 1995, at the age of eight in his hometown of Compton, Lamar witnessed his idols, Tupac Shakur and Dr. Dre, film the music video for their hit single "California Love", which proved to be a significant moment in his life, he grew up in section 8 housing. As a child, Lamar attended McNair Elementary and Vanguard Learning Center in the Compton Unified School District; as a teenager, Lamar went on to attend Centennial High School in Compton, where he was a straight-A student. In 2004, at the age of 16, Lamar released his first full-length project, a mixtape titled Youngest Head Nigga in Charge, under the pseudonym K-Dot; the mixtape garnered local recognition for Lamar. The mixtape led to Lamar securing a recording contract with Top Dawg Entertainment, a newly founded indie record label, based in Carson, California.
He began recording material with the label and subsequently released a 26-track mixtape two years titled Training Day. Throughout 2006 and 2007, Lamar would appear alongside other up-and-coming West Coast rappers, such as Jay Rock and Ya Boy, as opening acts for veteran West Coast rapper The Game. Under the moniker K-Dot, Lamar was featured on The Game's songs "The Cypha" and "Cali Niggaz". In 2008, Lamar was prominently featured throughout the music video for Jay Rock's commercial debut single, "All My Life", which features American hip hop superstar Lil Wayne and was backed by Warner Bros. Records. Lamar garnered further recognition after a video of a live performance of a Charles Hamilton show surfaced, in which Hamilton battled fellow rappers who were in the audience. Lamar did not hesitate and began rapping a verse over the instrumental to Miilkbone's "Keep It Real", which would appear on a track titled "West Coast Wu-Tang". After receiving a co-sign from Lil Wayne, Lamar released his third mixtape in 2009, titled C4, themed around Wayne's Tha Carter III LP.
Soon after, Lamar decided to go by his birth name. He subsequently released The Kendrick Lamar EP in late 2009; that same year, Lamar along with his TDE label-mates: Jay Rock, Ab-Soul and ScHoolboy Q formed Black Hippy, a hip hop supergroup. Throughout 2010, Lamar toured with Jay Rock on The Independent Grind tour. On September 14, 2010, he released the visuals for "P&P 1.5", a song taken from Overly Dedicated, featuring his Black Hippy cohort Ab-Soul. On the same date, Lamar released Overly Dedicated to digital retailers under Top Dawg Entertainment, on September 23, released it for free online; the project fared well enough to enter the United States Billboard Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums chart, where it peaked at number 72. The mixtape includes a song titled "Ignorance Is Bliss", in which Lamar highlights gangsta rap and street crime, but ends each verse with "ignorance is bliss", giving the message "we know not what we do; this led to Lamar working with Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg on Dre's often-delayed Detox album, as well as speculation of Lamar signing to Dr. Dre's record label, Aftermath Entertainment.
In December 2010, Complex magazine spotlighted Lamar in an edition o
Parliament is a funk band formed in the late 1960s by George Clinton as part of his Parliament-Funkadelic collective. Less rock-oriented than its sister act Funkadelic, Parliament drew on science-fiction and outlandish performances in their work; the band scored a number of Top 10 hits, including the million-selling 1975 single "Give Up the Funk," and Top 40 albums such as Mothership Connection. Parliament was the Parliaments, a doo-wop vocal group based at a Plainfield, New Jersey barbershop; the group was formed in the late 1950s and included George Clinton, Ray Davis, Fuzzy Haskins, Calvin Simon, Grady Thomas. Clinton was manager; the group scored a hit single in 1967 with " Testify" on Revilot Records. To capitalize on this chart success, Clinton formed a touring band, featuring teenage barbershop employee Billy Nelson on bass and his friend Eddie Hazel on guitar, with the lineup rounded out by Tawl Ross on guitar, Tiki Fulwood on drums, Mickey Atkins on organ. During a contractual dispute with Revilot, Clinton temporarily lost the rights to the name "The Parliaments", signed the ensemble to Westbound Records as Funkadelic, which Clinton positioned as a funk-rock band featuring the five touring musicians with the five Parliaments singers as uncredited guests.
With Funkadelic as a recording and touring entity in its own right, in 1970 Clinton relaunched the singing group, now known as Parliament, at first featuring the same ten members. Clinton was now the leader of two different acts and Funkadelic, which featured the same members but were marketed as creating two different types of funk; the Parliament album entitled Osmium was released on Invictus Records in 1970, was reissued on CD with non-album tracks as both Rhenium and First Thangs. Osmium featured a psychedelic soul sound, more similar to the Funkadelic albums of the period than to the Parliament albums; the song "The Breakdown" was released separately as a single, reached #30 on the R&B charts in 1971. Due to continuing contractual problems and the fact that Funkadelic releases were more successful at the time, Clinton temporarily abandoned the name Parliament. Following Osmium, the lineup of Parliament-Funkadelic began going through many changes and was expanded with the addition of important members such as keyboardist Bernie Worrell in 1970, singer/guitarist Garry Shider in 1971, bassist Bootsy Collins in 1972.
Dozens of singers and musicians would contribute to future Parliament-Funkadelic releases. Clinton signed the act to Casablanca Records. Parliament, now augmented by the Horny Horns was positioned as a smoother R&B-based funk ensemble with intricate horn and vocal arrangements, as a counterpoint to the guitar-based funk-rock of Funkadelic. By this point and Funkadelic were touring as a combined entity known as Parliament-Funkadelic or P-Funk; the album Up for the Down Stroke was released in 1974, with Chocolate City following in 1975. Both performed on the Billboard R&B charts and were moderately successful on the Pop charts. Parliament began its period of greatest mainstream success with the concept album Mothership Connection, the lyrics of which launched much of the P-Funk mythology; the subsequent albums The Clones of Dr. Funkenstein, Funkentelechy vs. the Placebo Syndrome, Motor Booty Affair all reached high on both the R&B and Pop charts, while Funkadelic was experiencing significant mainstream success.
Parliament scored the #1 R&B singles "Flash Light" in 1977 and "Aqua Boogie" in 1978. The expanding ensemble of musicians and singers in the Parliament-Funkadelic enterprise, as well as Clinton's problematic management practices, began to take their toll by the late 1970s. Original Parliaments members Fuzzy Haskins, Calvin Simon, Grady Thomas, with Clinton since the barbershop days in the late 1950s, departed acrimoniously in 1977, after disputes over Clinton's management. Other important group members like singer/guitarist Glenn Goins and drummer Jerome Brailey left Parliament-Funkadelic in 1978 after disputes over Clinton's management. Two further Parliament albums, Gloryhallastoopid and Trombipulation were less successful than the albums from the group's prime 1975-1978 period. In the early 1980s, with legal difficulties arising from the multiple names used by multiple groups, as well as a shakeup at Casablanca Records, George Clinton dissolved Parliament and Funkadelic as recording and touring entities.
However, many of the musicians in versions of the two groups remained employed by Clinton. Clinton continued to release new albums sometimes under his own name and sometimes under the name George Clinton & the P-Funk All-Stars; the P-Funk All-Stars continued to record and tour into the 1990s and 2000s, perform classic Parliament songs. Parliament reformed in January 2018 and released the song "I’m Gon Make U Sick O’Me", which features the rapper Scarface; this was the first new Parliament release in 38 years. Clinton announced the title of a new Parliament album, Medicaid Fraud Dogg, released on May 22, 2018. Most of the 23 tracks on the album were written by Clinton in collaboration with his son, Tracey Lewis. Guest musicians on the album include former long-time James Brown collaborators Fred Wesley and Alfred "Pee Wee" Ellis. Liner notes to Music For Your Mother by Rob Bowman, 1992; the Motherpage. History of Parliamen
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a vocalist. Singers perform music that can be sung without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera, Indian music and religious music styles such as gospel, traditional music styles, world music, blues and popular music styles such as pop, electronic dance music and filmi. Singing arranged or improvised, it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort or ritual, as part of music education or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication and regular practice.
If practice is done on a regular basis the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as classical or rock, although there are singers with crossover success, they take voice training provided by voice teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. In its physical aspect, singing has a well-defined technique that depends on the use of the lungs, which act as an air supply or bellows. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort. Exhalation may be aided by lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals and sternocleidomastoid muscles; the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming; the sound of each individual's singing voice is unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords but due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body.
Humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound resonates within different parts of the body and an individual's size and bone structure can affect the sound produced by an individual. Singers can learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract; this is known as vocal resonation. Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds; these different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant, it has been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa.
The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds. Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, possessing the same quality. Registers originate in laryngeal function, they occur. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds; the occurrence of registers has been attributed to effects of the acoustic interaction between the vocal fold oscillation and the vocal tract. The term "register" can be somewhat confusing; the term register can be used to refer to any of the following: A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper, middle, or lower registers. A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. A phonatory process A certain vocal timbre or vocal "color" A region of the voice, defined or delimited by vocal breaks.
In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Within speech pathology, the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, a certain type of sound. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, the whistle register; this view is adopted by many vocal pedagogues. Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is en
Funk Plus the One
Funk Plus The One is the second album by Jerome Brailey and his Funk band Mutiny. The album was released by Columbia Records in 1980. In 1994 the album was reissued by P-Vine records in Japan and contains one extra track entitled "I'm Ready"; the album features a guest appearance by P-Funk bassist/guitarist Cordell Mosson. In 2015 it was reissued in the U. S. by Funky Town Grooves as a two-CD set with their debut album Mutiny On The Mamaship without "I'm Ready," but with three other bonus tracks. All tracks composed by Jerome Brailey.
A percussion instrument is a musical instrument, sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater. The percussion family is believed to include the oldest musical instruments, following the human voice; the percussion section of an orchestra most contains instruments such as timpani, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals and tambourine. However, the section can contain non-percussive instruments, such as whistles and sirens, or a blown conch shell. Percussive techniques can be applied to the human body, as in body percussion. On the other hand, keyboard instruments, such as the celesta, are not part of the percussion section, but keyboard percussion instruments such as the glockenspiel and xylophone are included. Percussion instruments are most divided into two classes: Pitched percussion instruments, which produce notes with an identifiable pitch, unpitched percussion instruments, which produce notes or sounds without an identifiable pitch. Percussion instruments may play not only rhythm, but melody and harmony.
Percussion is referred to as "the backbone" or "the heartbeat" of a musical ensemble working in close collaboration with bass instruments, when present. In jazz and other popular music ensembles, the pianist, bassist and sometimes the guitarist are referred to as the rhythm section. Most classical pieces written for full orchestra since the time of Haydn and Mozart are orchestrated to place emphasis on the strings and brass; however at least one pair of timpani is included, though they play continuously. Rather, they serve to provide additional accents. In the 18th and 19th centuries, other percussion instruments have been used, again sparingly; the use of percussion instruments became more frequent in the 20th century classical music. In every style of music, percussion plays a pivotal role. In military marching bands and pipes and drums, it is the beat of the bass drum that keeps the soldiers in step and at a regular speed, it is the snare that provides that crisp, decisive air to the tune of a regiment.
In classic jazz, one immediately thinks of the distinctive rhythm of the hi-hats or the ride cymbal when the word "swing" is spoken. In more recent popular music culture, it is impossible to name three or four rock, hip-hop, funk or soul charts or songs that do not have some sort of percussive beat keeping the tune in time; because of the diversity of percussive instruments, it is not uncommon to find large musical ensembles composed of percussion. Rhythm and harmony are all represented in these ensembles. Music for pitched percussion instruments can be notated on a staff with the same treble and bass clefs used by many non-percussive instruments. Music for percussive instruments without a definite pitch can be notated with a specialist rhythm or percussion-clef. Percussion instruments are classified by various criteria sometimes depending on their construction, ethnic origin, function within musical theory and orchestration, or their relative prevalence in common knowledge; the word "percussion" derives from Latin the terms: "percussio", "percussus".
As a noun in contemporary English, Wiktionary describes it as "the collision of two bodies to produce a sound." The term has application in medicine and weaponry, as in percussion cap. However, all known uses of percussion appear to share a similar lineage beginning with the original Latin: "percussus". In a musical context the percussion instruments may have been coined to describe a family of musical instruments including drums, metal plates, or blocks that musicians beat or struck to produce sound. Hornbostel–Sachs has no high-level section for percussion. Most percussion instruments are classified as membranophones; however the term percussion is instead used at lower-levels of the Hornbostel–Sachs hierarchy, including to identify instruments struck with either a non-sonorous object or against a non-sonorous object. This is opposed to concussion, which refers to instruments with two or more complementary sonorous parts that strike against each other and other meanings. For example: 111.1 Concussion idiophones or clappers, played in pairs and beaten against each other, such as zills and clapsticks.
111.2 Percussion idiophones, includes many percussion instruments played with the hand or by a percussion mallet, such as the hang and the xylophone, but not drums and only some cymbals. 21 Struck drums, includes most types of drum, such as the timpani, snare drum, tom-tom. (Included in most drum sets or 412.12 Percussion reeds, a class of wind instrument unrelated to percussion in the more common sense There are many instruments that have some claim to being percussion, but are classified otherwise: Keyboard instruments such as the celesta and piano. Stringed instruments played with beaters such as the hammered dulcimer. Unpitched whistles and similar instruments, such as the pea whistle and Acme siren. Percussion instruments are sometimes classified as "pitched" or "unpitched". While valid, this classification is seen as inadequate. Rather, it may be more informative to describe percussion instruments in regards to one or more of the following four paradigms: Many texts, including Teaching Percussion by Gary Cook of the University of Arizona, begin by studying the physica