Latrobe is a city in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania in the United States and part of the Pittsburgh metropolitan area. The city population was 8,338 as of the 2010 census, it is located near Pennsylvania's scenic Chestnut Ridge. Latrobe was incorporated as a borough in 1854, as a city in 1999; the current Mayor is Rosemarie M. Wolford. Among its claims to fame, Latrobe is the home of Saint Vincent Archabbey, the Latrobe Brewery, Saint Vincent College. Latrobe was the home of golfer Arnold Palmer, it was the childhood home of Fred Rogers, children's television personality, buried there in Unity Cemetery after his death in 2003. While it was believed for years that the first professional American football game was played in Latrobe, the city's claim was refused induction into the Hall of Fame records. Latrobe is home of the first banana split, invented in Latrobe by David Strickler in 1904. Latrobe is home to the training camp of the six time Super Bowl champion Pittsburgh Steelers. In May 2006, Anheuser-Busch purchased the Rolling Rock brands, but not the brewery.
In June 2006, City Brewing Company from La Crosse, Wisconsin entered into negotiations to buy the brewery. In September 2006, City Brewing Company agreed to purchase the brewery, they licensed it to the Boston Beer Company in April 2007 as a satellite brewery to produce Samuel Adams beers. Sam Adams production did not last long; the plant is brewing Iron City Beer under contract. In addition, Duquesne Bottling Company has brewed the revived Duquesne Beer, "The Prince of Pilseners", at the Latrobe plant. In 1852, Oliver Barnes laid out the plans for the community, incorporated in 1854 as the Borough of Latrobe. Barnes named the town for his best friend and college classmate, Benjamin Latrobe, a civil engineer for the B&O Railroad, its location along the route of the Pennsylvania Railroad helped Latrobe develop into a significant industrial hub. Latrobe was served by the Ligonier Valley Railroad from 1877 to 1952. In 1904, the banana split was invented in Latrobe by David Evans Strickler at Strickler's Drug Store.
Two interurban lines served Latrobe: The Westmoreland County Railway Company, which connected Latrobe to Derry and operated from 1904 to 1932, The Latrobe Street Railway Company, which connected Latrobe to Kingston and began operations in 1900. This line was purchased by West Penn Railways, which linked it with its network running through Youngstown, Pleasant Unity, to Greensburg and Uniontown. Service ceased in 1952. Latrobe has two sites on the National Register of Historic Places within its city boundaries: Pennsylvania Railroad Station at Latrobe: This station was built by the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1903. Citizens National Bank of Latrobe: This was known as the Mellon Bank Building; this six-story, 1926 structure was designed by the Greensburg firm of Smith. The former Fort Sloan, a small fortress established by the British settlers in the 1700's, is now a private residence, situated on the corner of Cedar St. and Raymond Ave. From 1895 until 1909, Latrobe was the home of the Latrobe Athletic Association, one of the earliest professional football teams.
The team's quarterback, John Brallier, became the first football player to admit playing for money. In 1895 he accepted $10 and expenses to play for Latrobe in a 12-0 victory over the Jeannette Athletic Club. Brallier was thought to be the first professional football player, until the 1960s, it was that documents surfaced showing that William "Pudge" Heffelfinger, a former three-time All-American from Yale, was employed to play guard for the Allegheny Athletic Association three years earlier. In 1897, Latrobe was the first football team to play a full season with a team composed of professional players. In 1898 Latrobe and two players from their rivals, the Greensburg Athletic Association, formed the first professional football all-star team for a game against the Duquesne Country and Athletic Club, to be played at Pittsburgh's Exposition Park. Duquesne went on to win the game 16-0. On November 18, 1905, Latrobe defeated the Canton Bulldogs, which became a founding member, two-time champion, of the National Football League, 6-0.
Aside from Brallier, the Latrobe Athletic Association included several of the era's top players, such as: Ed Abbaticchio, Charles Barney, Alf Bull, Jack Gass, Walter Okeson, Harry Ryan, Doggie Trenchard, Eddie Wood and manager Dave Berry. Latrobe is located at 40°18′54″N 79°22′52″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.3 square miles, all land. Latrobe shares borders with the townships of Derry to the north, northwest and southeast, Unity to the west and southwest; as of the census of 2010, there were 8,338 people, 3,786 households, 2,458 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,913.6 people per square mile. There were 4,258 housing units at an average density of 1,852.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.78% White, 0.32% African American, 0.08% Native American, 0.44% Asian, 0.07% from other races, 0.31% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.37% of the population. There were 3,786 households out of which 26.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.1% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.0% were non-families.
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Patrick Aloysius O'Boyle was an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as the first resident Archbishop of Washington from 1948 to 1973, was elevated to the cardinalate in 1967. Patrick O'Boyle was born in Scranton, Pennsylvania, to Michael and Mary O'Boyle, who were Irish immigrants, his father was from Glenties, County Donegal, in 1889 came to the United States, where he settled at Bedford, New York. His mother moved to New York City from County Mayo in 1879, married O'Boyle in December 1893. Shortly afterwards they moved to Scranton, where Michael became a steelworker. Patrick was baptized two days after his birth at St. Paul's Church in Scranton. Following his father's death in January 1907, he helped support his mother by becoming a paperboy, he dropped out of school in 1910 to pursue a full-time career with the Bradstreet Company, but entered St. Thomas College in 1911 upon the orders of a local priest. In addition to his studies, he there served as class librarian and editor of the monthly magazine The Aquinas.
O'Boyle graduated from St. Thomas' as valedictorian in 1916, began his studies for the priesthood at St. Joseph's Seminary in Yonkers, New York. During his time at St. Joseph's, he developed a close friendship with James Francis McIntyre Archbishop of Los Angeles and a cardinal as well, who tutored him in Latin and invited him to spend holidays with his family. One of his professors was Rev. Francis P. Duffy, a famed chaplain of World War I. O'Boyle was ordained a priest by Archbishop Patrick Joseph Hayes on May 21, 1921; the next day he celebrated his first Mass at St. Paul's Church in his native Scranton, he returned to New York the following June, when he became a curate at St. Columba's Church in the Chelsea section of Manhattan, he there organized St. Joseph's Society for teenaged boys, beginning with about 300 members, instituted parish dances. From 1926 to 1933, O'Boyle was director of the Catholic Guardian Society, a division of Catholic Charities dedicated to orphans and foster children.
Sheila Wickouski identifies social concerns, labor rights, racial equality as O'Boyle's key issues. He furthered his studies at the New York School of Social Work from 1927 to 1932, he taught child welfare at Fordham Graduate School of Social Service from 1930 to 1934. In 1933 he organized the National Conference of Catholic Charities. O'Boyle worked with the New Deal agency Works Progress Administration to find employment for young people as well, he served as director of the Mission of the Immaculate Virgin known as Mount Loretto, on Staten Island from 1936 to 1943. He was raised to the rank of a Privy Chamberlain of His Holiness in 1941 and a Domestic Prelate of His Holiness on 1944, he was director of the War Relief Services of the National Catholic Welfare Conference, before being named director of the Catholic Charities in New York on August 1, 1947. According to Raymond Kupke, O'Boyle's work at War Relief Services and his ability in dealing with governmental and non-governmental agencies during the war and postwar periods caught the attention of the Apostolic Delegate, Archbishop Amleto Giovanni Cicognani.
On November 27, 1947, he was appointed Archbishop of Washington by Pope Pius XII. O'Boyle received his episcopal consecration on January 14, 1948 from Cardinal Francis Spellman, with Bishops John McNamara and Henry Klonowski serving as co-consecrators, in St. Patrick's Cathedral. According to Wickouski, O'Boyle's view of his role was shaped by his experience as an administrator under Spellman. Known for his opposition to racism, in 1948 he led the way to desegregation of the American school system by racially integrating the Catholic schools of Washington six years before the U. S. Supreme Court ruled segregation unconstitutional, he started with the city of Washington first and expanded to the southern counties of Maryland that were part of the archdiocese, first with the colleges and universities the high schools, the parochial elementary schools. In 1949, O'Boyle delivered the benediction at the inauguration of President Harry S. Truman. In April 1964, in the midst of Congressional debate on the Civil Rights Bill, O'Boyle chaired the Inter-religious Convocation on Civil Rights at Georgetown University.
In giving the invocation, O'Boyle said that "There is in every man a priceless dignity, your heritage. From this dignity flow the rights of man, the duty in justice that all must respect and honor these rights..." In his remarks, he urged Congress to pass the bill and those present to "tell our Representatives our conviction that such a law is a moral obligation."From 1962 to 1965, he attended the Second Vatican Council. He was made Metropolitan Archbishop on October 12, 1965, upon Washington's promotion to that ecclesiastical status. On August 28, 1963, he delivered the invocation, he was created Cardinal Priest of San Nicola in Carcere by Pope Paul VI in the consistory of June 26, 1967. At the same ceremony, Archbishop Karol Wojtyła of Kraków was elevated to the College of Cardinals. O'Boyle resigned as Washington's archbishop on March 1973, after twenty-five years of service. O'Boyle was progressive but theologically conservative, he was an ardent supporter of Paul VI's encyclical Humanae Vitae, placed ecclesiastical censures on priests who dissented from its teachings.
During his younger days, he supported Robert M. La Follette, Sr. and Al Smith. A staunch opponent of racism, O'Boyle wrote: Those who deny a neighbor on the basis of race, the opportunity to buy a
Amleto Giovanni Cicognani
Amleto Giovanni Cicognani was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Vatican Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969, Dean of the College of Cardinals from 1972 until his death. Cicognani was elevated to the cardinalate in 1958, his brother, Gaetano Cicognani, was a cardinal. To date they are the last pair of brothers to serve together in the College of Cardinals. Amleto Cicognani was born in Brisighella, near Faenza, as the younger of the two children of Guglielmo and Anna Cicognani, his widowed mother ran his brother, Gaetano. After studying at the seminary in Faenza, he was ordained a priest on 23 September 1905 by Bishop Gioacchino Cantagalli. Cicognani continued his studies at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum S. Apollinare, in 1910 he was appointed an official of the Sacred Congregation for the Discipline of the Sacraments. First raised to the rank of Monsignor in 1917, he taught at his alma mater of the Athenaeum S. Apollinare from 1921 to 1932, entered the Roman Curia, as substitute adjunct of the Consistorial, on 16 December 1922.
After holding a variety of pastoral and curial positions, Cicognani was appointed Apostolic Delegate to the United States and Titular Archbishop of Laodicea in Phrygia on 17 March 1933. He received his episcopal consecration on the following 23 April from Cardinal Raffaele Rossi, with Archbishops Giuseppe Pizzardo and Carlo Salotti serving as co-consecrators, in the Roman church of Santa Susanna. Cicognani would remain Apostolic Delegate to the United States, serving as liaison between the American hierarchy and the Vatican, for the next 25 years. During World War II, Cicognani expressed reservations about Zionism. In a letter dated 22 June 1943 to American representative Myron C. Taylor, he said: "It is true that at one time Palestine was inhabited by the Hebrew Race, but there is no axiom in history to substantiate the necessity of a people returning to a country they left nineteen centuries before …… If a'Hebrew Home' is desired, it would not be too difficult to find a more fitting territory than Palestine.
With an increase in the Jewish population there, new international problems would arise." He was created Cardinal-Priest of S. Clemente by Pope John XXIII in the consistory of 15 December 1958. Cardinal Cicognani was raised to Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati on 23 May 1962; because his brother, was a cardinal, having been elevated in 1953, an exception had to be made to the Church law that prohibiting brothers from holding the title of cardinal simultaneously. On 14 November 1959, Cicognani became Secretary of the Congregation for Oriental Churches, he was named to the posts of Cardinal Secretary of State, President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See on 12 August 1961. With the appointments of 1962, Cicognani became the foreign minister, prime minister, interior minister of the Vatican, he attended the Second Vatican Council, at which he served as Chairman of the Secretariat for Extraordinary Questions. Cicognani was one of the cardinal electors who participated in the 1963 papal conclave, which selected Pope Paul VI.
On 30 April 1969, Cicognani resigned all of his posts. However, on 24 March 1972, he was elected and confirmed as Dean of the College of Cardinals and thus received the title of the suburbicarian see of Ostia, in addition to his title of Cardinal Bishop of Frascati. Cicognani died in Rome, following a brief illness, at age 90, he is buried in the Basilica di San Clemente. The Italian prelate was considered to be rather conservative in his views, he sought to stem ecumenism in the Catholic Church in America, was once described as not being open to Aggiornamento. Catholic-Hierarchy Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church
Doctor of Divinity
Doctor of Divinity is an advanced or honorary academic degree in divinity. Doctor of Divinity should not be confused with the Doctor of Theology degree, a research doctorate in theology awarded by universities and divinity schools, such as Duke Divinity School and others. However, many universities award a PhD rather than a ThD to graduates of higher-level religious studies programs. Another research doctorate in theology is the Doctor of Sacred Theology, in particular awarded by Catholic pontifical universities and faculties; the Doctor of Ministry is another doctorate-level religious degree, but is a professional doctorate rather than a research doctorate. In the United Kingdom, the degree is a higher doctorate conferred by universities upon a religious scholar of standing and distinction for accomplishments beyond the PhD level; the candidate will submit a collection of work, published in a peer-reviewed context and pay an examination fee. The university assembles a committee of academics both internal and external who review the work submitted and decide on whether the candidate deserves the doctorate based on the submission.
Most universities restrict candidacy to academic staff of several years' standing. In the United States, the degree is conferred honoris causa by a church-related college, seminary, or university to recognize the recipient's ministry-orientated accomplishments. For example, Martin Luther King subsequently received honorary Doctor of Divinity degrees from the Chicago Theological Seminary, Boston University, Wesleyan College, Springfield College. Billy Graham was addressed as "Dr. Graham", though his highest earned degree was a Bachelor of Arts degree in anthropology from Wheaton College. Under federal law, a 1974 judgement accepted expert opinion that an "Honorary Doctor of Divinity is a religious title with no academic standing; such titles may be issued by bona fide churches and religious denominations, such as plaintiff, so long as their issuance is limited to a course of instruction in the principles of the church or religious denomination". However, under the California Education Code, "an institution owned and operated and maintained by a religious organization lawfully operating as a nonprofit religious corporation pursuant to Part 4 of Division 2 of Title 1 of the Corporations Code" that offers "instruction... limited to the principles of that religious organization, or to courses offered pursuant to Section 2789 of Business and Professions Code" may confer "degrees and diplomas only in the beliefs and practices of the church, religious denomination, or religious organization" so long as "the diploma or degree is limited to evidence of completion of that education".
In a 1976 interview with Morley Safer of the TV newsmagazine 60 Minutes, Universal Life Church founder Kirby J. Hensley professed that the church's honorary Doctor of Divinity degree was "...just a little piece of paper. And it ain't worth anything, you know, under God's mighty green Earth—you know what I mean?—as far as value." In 2006, Universal Life Church minister Kevin Andrews advised potential degree recipients not to misrepresent the title as an educational achievement to employers, recommending instead that it would be appropriate to list such credentials "under the heading of Titles, Awards, or Other Achievements" on curricula vitae. As of 2009, 20 U. S. states and Puerto Rico had some form of exemption provision under which religious institutions can grant religious degrees without accreditation or government oversight. In the Catholic Church, Doctor of Divinity is an honorary degree denoting ordination as bishop. Christopher St. Germain's 1528 book The Doctor and Student describes a dialogue between a Doctor of Divinity and a law student in England containing the grounds of those laws together with questions and cases concerning the equity thereof.
Bachelor of Divinity Doctor of the Church Master of Divinity Lambeth degree The Doctor and Student pdf files
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
In the Christian churches, holy orders are ordained ministries such as bishop, priest, or deacon, the sacrament or rite by which candidates are ordained to those orders. Churches recognizing these orders include the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Assyrian, Old Catholic, Independent Catholic and some Lutheran churches. Except for Lutherans and some Anglicans, these churches regard ordination as a sacrament; the Anglo-Catholic tradition within Anglicanism identifies more with the Roman Catholic position about the sacramental nature of ordination. Denominations have varied conceptions of holy orders. In the Anglican churches and some Lutheran churches the traditional orders of bishop and deacon are bestowed using ordination rites; the extent to which ordination is considered sacramental in these traditions has, been a matter of some internal dispute. Baptists are among the denominations that do not consider ministry as being sacramental in nature and would not think of it in terms of "holy orders" as such.
The word "order" designated an established civil body or corporation with a hierarchy, ordinatio meant legal incorporation into an ordo. The word "holy" refers to the Church. In context, therefore, a holy order is set apart for ministry in the Church. Other positions, such as pope, cardinal, archbishop, archpriest, hieromonk and archdeacon, are not sacramental orders but specialized ministries; the Eastern Orthodox Church considers ordination to be a Sacred Mystery. Although all other mysteries may be performed by a presbyter, ordination may only be conferred by a bishop, ordination of a bishop may only be performed by several bishops together. Cheirotonia always takes place during the Divine Liturgy, it was the mission of the Apostles to go forth into all the world and preach the Gospel, baptizing those who believed in the name of the Holy Trinity. In the Early Church those who presided over congregations were referred to variously as episcopos or presbyteros; these successors of the Apostles were ordained to their office by the laying on of hands, according to Orthodox theology formed a living, organic link with the Apostles, through them with Jesus Christ himself.
This link is believed to continue in unbroken succession to this day. Over time, the ministry of bishops and presbyters or priests came to be distinguished. In Orthodox terminology, priesthood or sacerdotal refers to the ministry of priests; the Eastern Orthodox Church has ordination to minor orders, performed outside of the Divine Liturgy by a bishop, although certain archimandrites of stavropegial monasteries may bestow cheirothesia on members of their communities. A bishop is the collector of the money of the diocese and the living Vessel of Grace through whom the energeia of the Holy Spirit flows into the rest of the church. A bishop is consecrated through the laying on of hands by several bishops; the consecration of a bishop takes place near the beginning of the Liturgy, since a bishop can, in addition to performing the Mystery of the Eucharist ordain priests and deacons. Before the commencement of the Holy Liturgy, the bishop-elect professes, in the middle of the church before the seated bishops who will consecrate him, in detail the doctrines of the Orthodox Christian Faith and pledges to observe the canons of the Apostles and Councils, the Typikon and customs of the Orthodox Church and to obey ecclesiastical authority.
After the Little Entrance, the arch-priest and arch-deacon conduct the bishop-elect before the Royal Gates where he is met by the bishops and kneels before the altar on both knees. The Gospel Book is laid over his head and the consecrating bishops lay their hands upon the Gospel Book, while the prayers of ordination are read by the eldest bishop. After this, the newly consecrated bishop ascends the synthranon for the first time. Customarily, the newly consecrated bishop ordains a priest and a deacon at the Liturgy during which he is consecrated. A priest may serve only at the pleasure of his bishop. A bishop bestows faculties giving a priest an antimins; the ordination of a priest occurs before the Anaphora in order that he may on the same day take part in the celebration of the Eucharist: During the Great Entrance, the candidate for ordination carries the Aër over his head as a symbol of giving up his diaconate, comes last in the procession and stands at the end of the pair of lines of the priests.
After the Aër is taken from the candidate to cover the chalice and diskos, a chair is brought for the bishop to sit on by the northeast corner of the Holy Table. Two deacons go to priest-elect who, at that point, had been standing alone in the middle of the church, bow him down to the west and to the east, asking their consent by saying “Command ye!” and lead him through the holy doors of the altar where the archdeacon asks the bishop’s co